Roy Kelton Orbison was an American singer and musician known for his powerful voice, wide vocal range, impassioned singing style, complex song structures, dark, emotional ballads. The combination led many critics to describe his music as operatic, nicknaming him "the Caruso of Rock" and "the Big O". While most male rock-and-roll performers in the 1950s and 1960s projected a defiant masculinity, many of Orbison's songs instead conveyed vulnerability. During performances, he was known for standing still and solitary and for wearing black clothes to match his dyed jet-black hair and dark sunglasses. Born in Texas, Orbison began singing in a country-and-western band in high school, he was signed by Sam Phillips, of Sun Records, in 1956, but his greatest success came with Monument Records. From 1960 to 1966, 22 of his singles reached the Billboard Top 40, he wrote or co-wrote all that rose to the Top 10, including "Only the Lonely", "Running Scared", "Crying", "In Dreams", "Oh, Pretty Woman". Soon afterward, he was struck by a number of personal tragedies.
In the 1980s, Orbison experienced a resurgence in popularity following the success of several cover versions of his songs. In 1988, he co-founded the Traveling Wilburys, a rock supergroup, with George Harrison, Bob Dylan, Tom Petty, Jeff Lynne. Orbison died of a heart attack in December 1988 at the age of 52. One month Orbison's song "You Got It", co-written with Lynne and Petty, was released as a solo single and became his first hit to break the U. S. Top 10 in 25 years. Orbison's honors include inductions into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1987, the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame in the same year, the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1989. Rolling Stone placed him at number 37 on their list of the "Greatest Artists of All Time" and number 13 on their list of the "100 Greatest Singers of All Time'. In 2002, Billboard magazine listed Orbison at number 74 in the Top 600 recording artists. Roy Kelton Orbison was born in Vernon, the middle son of Orbie Lee Orbison, an oil well driller and car mechanic, Nadine Vesta Shults, a nurse.
After the Great Depression, the family moved to Fort Worth in 1942 searching for work, according to Marcel Riesco's research on the "Authorized Roy Orbison" both parents found jobs at the aircraft factories, expanded as a result of the United States entering World War II. Orbison’s direct paternal ancestor was Thomas Orbison from Lurgan, County Armagh, Northern Ireland who settled in Pennsylvania Colony in the mid 18th century. Young Roy Orbison attended Denver Avenue Elementary School until a polio scare prompted the family to return to Vernon. In 1946, they moved to Wink, Texas. Orbison described life in Wink as "football, oil fields, oil and sand" and expressed relief that he was able to leave the desolate town. All the Orbison children were afflicted with poor eyesight, he was not confident about his appearance and began dyeing his nearly-white hair black when he was still young. He was quiet, self-effacing, remarkably polite and obliging—a product, biographer Alan Clayson wrote, of his Southern upbringing.
He was available to sing and became the focus of attention when he did. He considered his voice memorable. On Roy's sixth birthday, his father gave him a guitar, he recalled that by the age of seven, "I was finished, you know, for anything else". His major musical influence as a youth was country music, he was moved by Lefty Frizzell's singing, with its slurred syllables.. He enjoyed Hank Williams and Jimmie Rodgers. One of the first musicians he heard in person was Ernest Tubb, playing on the back of a flatbed truck in Fort Worth. In West Texas, he was exposed to many forms of music: "sepia", Tex-Mex, the orchestral arrangements of Mantovani, cajun; the cajun favorite "Jole Blon" was one of the first songs. At the age of eight, he began singing on a local radio show. By the late 1940s, he was the show's host. In high school and some friends formed a band, the Wink Westerners, they played country standards and Glenn Miller songs at local honky-tonks and had a weekly radio show on KERB in Kermit. When they were offered $400 to play at a dance, Orbison realized that he could make a living in music.
After graduating from Wink High School, he enrolled at North Texas State College in Denton, planning to study geology so that he could secure work in the oil fields if music did not pay. Orbison heard that his North Texas State schoolmate Pat Boone had signed a record deal, which further strengthened his resolve to become a professional musician. While at North Texas State College, Roy heard a song called "Ooby Dooby", composed by Dick Penner and Wade Moore in mere minutes atop a fraternity house at the college, after his first year of college, he returned to Wink with "Ooby Dooby" in hand and continued performing with the Wink Westerners. Orbison moved to Odessa and enrolled in Odessa Junior College; as two members of the band quit, one to attend school elsewhere and one to join the Navy, two new members were added to the group, who won a talent contest and obtained their own television show on KMID-TV in Midland, Texas. The Wink Westerners kept performing on local TV, played dances on the weekends, attended college during the day.
While living in
Gone Troppo is the 10th studio album by George Harrison and released in 1982. It would be Harrison's last studio album for five years, during which he took an extended hiatus from his recording career, with only the occasional soundtrack recording surfacing. By the early 1980s, Harrison had been finding the current musical climate alienating, his 1981 album Somewhere in England had sold well, aided by the John Lennon tribute hit, "All Those Years Ago", but in the United States it was Harrison's first album since the Beatles' break-up that failed to receive gold certification from the RIAA. With one album left on his current recording contract, Harrison recorded Gone Troppo in 1982, but refused to promote it or make videos for the two singles; the title is an Australian slang expression meaning "gone mad or crazy due to tropical heat". Gone Troppo was issued on Dark Horse Records in November 1982; the album's artwork was credited to "Legs" Larry Smith of the Bonzo Dog Doo Dah Band. Warner Bros.
Records, which distributed Harrison's Dark Horse label, were at a loss as to how to market the album, matched the artist's indifference by failing to promote the release. The album peaked at number 108 in the United States and failed to chart at all in the United Kingdom. "Wake Up My Love" and "That's the Way It Goes" were included on Harrison's Best of Dark Horse 1976–1989 album, the title track appeared on the compact disc version of that 1989 compilation. No tracks from Gone Troppo were included on the 2009 career-spanning collection Let It Roll. "That's the Way It Goes" was covered by Joe Brown and other musicians at the Concert for George in November 2002. In 2004, Gone Troppo was remastered and reissued, both separately from and as part of the deluxe box set The Dark Horse Years 1976–1992; the reissue added a demo version of "Mystical One" as its sole bonus track. Among contemporary reviews, Billboard said of Gone Troppo: "Harrison's sunny lyricism shines brightest when least encumbered by self-consciousness, here that equation yields a breezy, deceptively eclectic charmer."People magazine's reviewer wrote: "Because of his forays into the mystical, Harrison's penchant for whimsy gets overlooked.
But here the zany side gets no short shrift." The reviewer admired "lovelies" such as "Wake Up My Love" and "Dream Away", described Gone Troppo as a "vinyl postcard" offering "flashes of brilliance". Less impressed, Steve Pond of Rolling Stone said that, of late, Harrison had "made a much better movie financier than musician", he found the album "So offhand and breezy as to be utterly insubstantial", with "Wake Up My Love" the only song of note. Writing for Musician, Roy Trakin considered that, in the wake of Lennon's assassination two years before, Harrison's "tortured honesty … dooms this record's attempt to heal those psychic wounds with calm, offhanded music". Trakin admired some of the guitar playing on the album but concluded: "It's too bad the public won't forget George Harrison was a Beatle, his musical output will undoubtedly suffer by comparison until we do."Reviewing more for AllMusic, critic William Ruhlmann writes of Gone Troppo: "Clearly, Harrison could no longer treat his musical career as a part-time stepchild to his interests in car racing and movie producing if he wanted to maintain it.
As it turned out, he didn't. Writing in the 2004 edition of The Rolling Stone Album Guide, Mac Randall opined: "The dynamic, synth-driven'Wake Up My Love' opens Gone Troppo and the spooky'Circles' closes it, but there ain't much in between."John Harris of Mojo likens Gone Troppo to Harrison's final album for EMI/Capitol, Extra Texture, dismisses it as "Another contract-finisher, this time with Warner Brothers, recorded super-quick, issued with any promotion." Music Box editor John Metzger holds it in low regard, writing: "Gone Troppo was undoubtedly the worst of George Harrison's solo albums … A few tunes, such as That's the Way It Goes and Unknown Delight, might have worked better if given different arrangements, but as a whole, Gone Troppo was a forgettable and sometimes embarrassing affair that appealed only to complete-ists and fanatics."More impressed, Dave Thompson wrote in Goldmine magazine of its standing as the release that preceded Harrison's temporary retirement from music: "to accuse the album itself of hastening that demise is grossly unfair."
While conceding that it was a far from essential Harrison album, Thompson considered it to be "no worse than much of McCartney's period output" and opined that "Dream Away" and "Circles" "stand alongside any number of Harrison's minor classics". Kit Aiken of Uncut describes Gone Troppo as "a return to form of sorts" after Somewhere in England and a collection of "amiable, light-hearted music made by a bunch of mates with nothing to prove". In another favourable 2004 assessment, for Rolling Stone, Parke Puterbaugh wrote: "Gone Troppo might just be Harrison's most underrated album … captures Harrison at his most relaxed and playful on songs such as the title track." All songs composed by George Harrison, except where noted. Side one"Wake Up My Love" – 3:34 "That's the Way It Goes" – 3:34 "I Really Love You" – 2:54 "Greece" – 3:58 "Gone Troppo" – 4:25Side two"Mystical One" – 3:42 "Unknown Delight" – 4:16 "Baby Don't Run Away" – 4:01 "Dream Away" – 4:29 "Circles" – 3:46Bonus trackGone Troppo was remastered and reissued in 2004 with the bonus track: "Mystical One" – 6:02 George Harrison – vocals and acoustic guitars, bass, marimba, jal-tarang, backing vocals, production Ray Cooper – percussion, glockenspiel, electric piano, sound effects, production Mike Moran – keyboards, syn
Electric Light Orchestra
The Electric Light Orchestra are an English rock band formed in Birmingham in 1970 by songwriters/multi-instrumentalists Jeff Lynne and Roy Wood with drummer Bev Bevan. Their music is characterised by a fusion of Beatlesque pop, classical arrangements, futuristic iconography. After Wood's departure in 1972, Lynne became the band's leader and producing every album while writing all of their original material. For their initial tenure, Lynne and keyboardist Richard Tandy were the group's only consistent members. ELO was formed out of Lynne's and Wood's desire to create modern rock and pop songs with classical overtones, it derived as an offshoot of Wood's previous band, The Move, of which Lynne and Bevan were members. During the 1970s and 1980s, ELO released a string of top 10 albums and singles, including two LPs that reached the top of British charts: the disco-inspired Discovery and the science-fiction-themed concept album Time. In 1986, Lynne disbanded the group. Bevan responded by forming his own band, ELO Part II, which became the Orchestra.
With the exception of a short-lived reunion in 2000–01, when Jeff Lynne released a new album, Zoom, ELO remained inactive until the 2010s. In 2014, Lynne re-formed the band again with Tandy as Jeff Lynne's ELO, where he resumed concert touring and new recordings under the moniker. During ELO's original 14-year period of active recording and touring, they sold over 50 million records worldwide, collected 19 CRIA, 21 RIAA, 38 BPI awards. For a period in the mid 1970s, the band saw more success in the United States, where they were billed as "the English guys with the big fiddles". From 1972 to 1986, ELO accumulated twenty seven Top 40 songs on the UK Singles Chart, fifteen Top 20 songs on the US Billboard Hot 100; the band holds the record for having the most Billboard Hot 100 Top 40 hits without a number one single of any band in US chart history. In 2017, the ELO line-up of Wood, Lynne and Tandy were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.. In the late 1960s, Roy Wood—guitarist and songwriter of The Move—had an idea to form a new band that would use violins, string basses and woodwinds to give their music a classical sound, taking rock music in the direction to "pick up where The Beatles left off".
Jeff Lynne, frontman of fellow Birmingham group The Idle Race, was excited by the concept. In January 1970, when Carl Wayne left the Move, Lynne accepted Wood's second invitation to join the band on the condition that they focus their energy on the new project. On 12 July 1970, when Wood added multiple cellos to a Lynne-penned song intended to be a Move B-side, the new concept became a reality and "10538 Overture" became the first Electric Light Orchestra song. To help finance the fledgling band, one further Move album Message from the Country was recorded during the lengthy ELO recordings; the resulting debut album The Electric Light Orchestra was released in 1971. It was released in the United States in 1972 as No Answer; the name was chosen because a record company secretary had tried to ring the UK company and get the name of the album—since they were unable to contact them they left a note saying "No Answer". "10538 Overture" became. ELO's debut concert took place on 16 April 1972 at the Greyhound Pub in Croydon, with a line-up of Wood, Bevan, Bill Hunt, Andy Craig, Mike Edwards, Wilfred Gibson, Hugh McDowell, Richard Tandy.
However, this line-up did not last for long. First Craig departed, Wood, during the recordings for the band's second LP. Taking Hunt and McDowell with him, Wood left the band to form Wizzard. Both cited problems with their manager, Don Arden, an unsatisfactory tour of Italy, where the cellos and violins could not be heard over the electric instruments. Despite predictions from the music press that the band would fold without Wood, the driving force behind the creation of ELO, Lynne stepped up to lead the band, with Bevan, Edwards and Tandy remaining from the previous line-up, new recruits Mike de Albuquerque and Colin Walker joining the band on bass and cello respectively; the new line-up performed at the 1972 Reading Festival. Barcus Berry instrument pick-ups, now sported by the band's string trio, allowed them to have proper amplification on stage for their instruments, all but drowned out by all the sound of the electrified instruments; the band released their second album, ELO 2 in 1973, which produced their second UK top 10 and their first US chart single, an elaborate version of the Chuck Berry classic "Roll Over Beethoven".
ELO made their first appearance on American Bandstand show. During the recording of the third album, Gibson was let go after a dispute over money, Mik Kaminski joined as violinist and Walker left since touring was keeping him away from his family too much. Remaining cellist Edwards finished the cello parts for the album; the resulting album, On the Third Day, was released in late 1973, with the American version featuring the popular single "Showdown". After leaving Wizzard Hugh McDowell returned as the second cellist at the end of 1973. For the band's fourth album, Eldorado, A Symphony, a concept album about a daydreamer, Lynne stopped overdubbing strings and hired an orchestra and choir instead. Louis Clark was hired by the band as string arranger; the first single off the album, "Can't Get It Out of My Head", became their first US top 10 hit, Eldorado, A Symphony became ELO's first gold album. Mike de Albuquerque departed the band during the recording sessions as he wished to spend more
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. The line-up of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr led the band to be regarded as the foremost and most influential in history. With a sound rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the group were integral to the evolution of pop music into an art form, to the development of the counterculture of the 1960s, they incorporated elements of classical music, older pop forms, unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways, in years experimented with a number of musical styles ranging from pop ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock. As they continued to draw influences from a variety of cultural sources, their musical and lyrical sophistication grew, they came to be seen as embodying the era's sociocultural movements. Led by primary songwriters Lennon and McCartney, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960 with Stuart Sutcliffe playing bass.
The core trio of Lennon, McCartney and Harrison, together since 1958, went through a succession of drummers, including Pete Best, before asking Starr to join them in 1962. Manager Brian Epstein moulded them into a professional act, producer George Martin guided and developed their recordings expanding their domestic success after their first hit, "Love Me Do", in late 1962; as their popularity grew into the intense fan frenzy dubbed "Beatlemania", the band acquired the nickname "the Fab Four", with Epstein and other members of the band's entourage sometimes given the informal title of "fifth Beatle". By early 1964, the Beatles were international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States pop market, breaking numerous sales records, they soon made their motion-picture debut with A Hard Day's Night. From 1965 onwards, they produced innovative recordings, including the albums Rubber Soul, Sgt. Pepper's The Beatles and Abbey Road. In 1968, they founded Apple Corps, a multi-armed multimedia corporation that continues to oversee projects related to the band's legacy.
After the group's break-up in 1970, all four members enjoyed success as solo artists. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980. McCartney and Starr remain musically active; the Beatles are the best-selling band in history, with estimated sales of over 800 million records worldwide. They are the best-selling music artists in the US, with certified sales of over 178 million units, have had more number-one albums on the British charts, have sold more singles in the UK, than any other act; the group were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, all four main members were inducted individually between 1994 and 2015. In 2008, the group topped Billboard magazine's list of the all-time most successful artists; the band have received an Academy Award and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards. They were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. In March 1957, John Lennon aged sixteen, formed a skiffle group with several friends from Quarry Bank High School in Liverpool.
They called themselves the Blackjacks, before changing their name to the Quarrymen after discovering that a respected local group was using the other name. Fifteen-year-old Paul McCartney joined them as a rhythm guitarist shortly after he and Lennon met that July. In February 1958, McCartney invited his friend George Harrison to watch the band; the fifteen-year-old auditioned for Lennon, impressing him with his playing, but Lennon thought Harrison was too young for the band. After a month of Harrison's persistence, during a second meeting, he performed the lead guitar part of the instrumental song "Raunchy" on the upper deck of a Liverpool bus, they enlisted him as their lead guitarist. By January 1959, Lennon's Quarry Bank friends had left the group, he began his studies at the Liverpool College of Art; the three guitarists, billing themselves at least three times as Johnny and the Moondogs, were playing rock and roll whenever they could find a drummer. Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe, who had just sold one of his paintings and was persuaded to purchase a bass guitar, joined in January 1960, it was he who suggested changing the band's name to Beatals, as a tribute to Buddy Holly and the Crickets.
They used this name until May, when they became the Silver Beetles, before undertaking a brief tour of Scotland as the backing group for pop singer and fellow Liverpudlian Johnny Gentle. By early July, they had refashioned themselves as the Silver Beatles, by the middle of August shortened the name to The Beatles. Allan Williams, the Beatles' unofficial manager, arranged a residency for them in Hamburg, but lacking a full-time drummer they auditioned and hired Pete Best in mid-August 1960; the band, now a five-piece, left four days contracted to club owner Bruno Koschmider for what would be a 31⁄2-month residency. Beatles historian Mark Lewisohn writes: "They pulled into Hamburg at dusk on 17 August, the time when the red-light area comes to life... flashing neon lights screamed out the various entertainment on offer, while scantily clad women sat unabashed in shop windows waiting for business opportunities." Koschmider had converted a couple of strip clubs in the district into music venues, he placed the Beatles at the Indra Club.
Sir Richard Starkey, known professionally as Ringo Starr, is an English musician, singer and actor who gained worldwide fame as the drummer for the Beatles. He sang lead vocals with the group for one song on each album, including "With a Little Help from My Friends", "Yellow Submarine", "Good Night", their cover of "Act Naturally", he wrote and sang the Beatles' songs "Don't Pass Me By" and "Octopus's Garden", is credited as a co-writer of others, including "What Goes On" and "Flying". Starr was afflicted by life-threatening illnesses during childhood, he fell behind in school as a result of prolonged hospitalisations, he held a position with British Rail before securing an apprenticeship at a Liverpool equipment manufacturer. Soon afterwards, he became interested in the UK skiffle craze and developed a fervent admiration for the genre. In 1957, he co-founded his first band, the Eddie Clayton Skiffle Group, which earned several prestigious local bookings before the fad succumbed to American rock and roll by early 1958.
When the Beatles formed in 1960, Starr was a member of another Liverpool group, Rory Storm and the Hurricanes. After achieving moderate success in the UK and Hamburg, he quit the Hurricanes and joined the Beatles in August 1962, replacing Pete Best. Starr appeared in numerous others. After the band's break-up in 1970, he released several successful singles including the US number-four hit "It Don't Come Easy", number ones "Photograph" and "You're Sixteen". In 1972, he released his most successful UK single, "Back Off Boogaloo", he achieved commercial and critical success with his 1973 album Ringo, a top-ten release in both the UK and the US. He hosted television shows, he narrated the first two series of the children's television programme Thomas & Friends and portrayed "Mr Conductor" during the first season of the PBS children's television series Shining Time Station. Since 1989, he has toured with thirteen variations of His All-Starr Band. Starr's musicianship has received praise from other drummers, including Phil Collins and Journey's Steve Smith.
He was inducted into the Modern Drummer Hall of Fame in 1998. In 2011, Rolling Stone readers named Starr the fifth-greatest drummer of all time. Starr, inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a Beatle in 1988, was inducted for his solo career in 2015, making him one of 21 performers inducted more than once, he is the richest drummer in the world with a net worth of US$350 million. He was appointed a Knight Bachelor in the 2018 New Year Honours for services to music. Richard Starkey was born on 7 July 1940, at 9 Madryn Street, in Liverpool, he was the only child of confectioners Richard Elsie Gleave. Elsie enjoyed singing and dancing, a hobby that she shared with her husband, an avid fan of swing. Prior to the birth of their son – whom they nicknamed "Ritchie" – the couple had spent much of their free time on the local ballroom circuit, but their regular outings ended soon after his birth. Elsie adopted an overprotective approach to raising her son. Subsequently, "Big Ritchie", as Starkey's father became known, lost interest in his family, choosing instead to spend long hours drinking and dancing in pubs, sometimes for several consecutive days.
In an effort to reduce their housing costs, his family moved in 1944 to another neighbourhood in the Dingle, Admiral Grove. Starkey stated that he has "no real memories" of his father, who made little effort to bond with him, visiting as few as three times thereafter. Elsie found it difficult to survive on her ex-husband's support payments of thirty shillings a week, so she took on several menial jobs cleaning houses before securing a position as a barmaid, an occupation that she held for twelve years. At age six Starkey developed appendicitis. Following a routine appendectomy he contracted peritonitis, causing him to fall into a coma that lasted days, his recovery spanned twelve months, which he spent away from his family at Liverpool's Myrtle Street children's hospital. Upon his discharge in May 1948, his mother allowed causing him to miss school. At age eight, he remained illiterate, with a poor grasp of mathematics, his lack of education contributed to a feeling of alienation at school, which resulted in his playing truant at Sefton Park.
After several years of twice-weekly tutoring from his surrogate sister and neighbour, Marie Maguire Crawford, Starkey had nearly caught up to his peers academically, but in 1953, he contracted tuberculosis and was admitted to a sanatorium, where he remained for two years. During his stay the medical staff made an effort to stimulate motor activity and relieve boredom by encouraging their patients to join the hospital band, leading to his first exposure to a percussion instrument: a makeshift mallet made from a cotton bobbin that he used to strike the cabinets next to his bed. Soon afterwards, he grew interested in drumming, receiving a copy of the Alyn Ainsworth song "Bedtime for Drums" as a convalescence gift from Crawford. Starkey commented: "I was in the hospital band... That's where I started playing. I never wanted anything else from there on... My grandparents gave me a mandolin and a banjo. My grandfather gave me a harmonica... we had a piano – nothing. Only the drums."Starkey attended St Silas, a Church of England primary school near his house where his classmates nicknamed him "Lazarus", Dingle Vale Secondary modern school, where he showed an aptitude for ar
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Dark Horse Records
Dark Horse Records is a record label founded by former Beatle George Harrison in 1974. The label's formation coincided with the winding down of the Beatles' Apple Records and allowed Harrison to continue supporting other artists' projects while maintaining his solo career; the initial signings were Indian musician Ravi Shankar and Splinter, the last of whom provided the label with its only significant commercial success until Harrison himself signed with Dark Horse in 1976. The label was distributed internationally by A&M Records for the first two years of its operation. Following a publicised split with A&M, Harrison and Dark Horse formed a long-term partnership with Warner Bros. Records that lasted until the expiration of his contract in 1994. Attitudes and Keni Burke were among the other artists who recorded for Dark Horse, although it became a vehicle for Harrison's solo releases once Warner's had taken over distribution. After a ten-year period of inactivity, the label returned in 2002 with the posthumous release of Harrison's final studio album, followed by his Dark Horse Years box set in 2004.
More Dark Horse Records issued the Shankar–Harrison compilation box set Collaborations. Since the formation of the Beatles' EMI-affiliated Apple Records in 1968, George Harrison had produced and helped nurture acts signed to the label, including Jackie Lomax, Billy Preston and Badfinger, all of whom were little known at the time. Following the Beatles' break-up in 1970, Harrison continued in this role while maintaining a successful solo career, adding prestigious signings such as Ravi Shankar and Ronnie Spector to Apple's roster. By 1973, when he was producing an ambitious "East-meets-West" album by Shankar and the debut by a duo from South Shields, Apple was being wound down following Harrison, John Lennon and Ringo Starr severing their ties with Beatles manager Allen Klein. While all the former Beatles were contractually obliged to EMI until 26 January 1976, as solo artists, Harrison sought a new avenue for his extracurricular projects, he and Starr considered buying Apple in 1973 and running it themselves, but Harrison was wary of business complications associated with the label.
In early 1974, he began a dialogue with David Geffen, head of Asylum Records in Los Angeles, according to Tom Petty's recollection, he consulted Leon Russell, co-founder of Shelter Records, about setting up a label. Harrison agreed terms with A&M Records for the latter to distribute his new label worldwide. For a company name, Harrison used the title of a song he had written in 1973, "Dark Horse"; the inspiration for the Dark Horse Records logo came from a label on a tin that Harrison found during a trip to India. The logo features a common figure in Indian art and mythology. After Harrison signed with Dark Horse Records on 27 January 1976, all of his subsequent recordings were released through the label, starting with that year's Thirty Three & 1/3 and ending with Live in Japan in 1992. After the latter, it went into hiatus for ten years. Dark Horse was distributed by A&M Records, Warner Bros. Records and EMI. Dark Horse was revived with the posthumous release of Brainwashed in 2002. Harrison's back catalogue on the label was remastered and reissued as the Dark Horse Years 1976–1992 box set during 2004.
In 2010, Dark Horse released the Ravi Shankar–George Harrison box set Collaborations, with distribution through Rhino Entertainment. In 2017 all original Apple and Dark Horse Records albums were reissued and distributed by Universal Music Group. Though Dark Horse focused on Harrison's releases, the label released albums by the following artists between 1974 and 1978: Ravi Shankar Attitudes, a Los Angeles band Splinter, a South Shields duo The Stairsteps, a Chicago soul vocal group R&B vocalist Keni Burke, a former member of the Stairsteps Henry McCullough guitarist with Joe Cocker and Wings Jiva, a California band SinglesAlbumsNotes 1 Also released as a picture disc, catalog number K 17423P2 Released by Dark Horse/Parlophone.3 Box set of Harrison's remastered Dark Horse years albums: Thirty Three & 1/3 to Cloud Nine.4 Box set consisting of Shankar's two Harrison-produced albums on Dark Horse – Ravi Shankar's Music Festival from India and Shankar Family & Friends – together with Chants of India and a DVD containing film of a 1974 Musical Festival from India performance at the Royal Albert Hall, London.
List of record labels George Harrison discography George Harrison