Francs Peak is the highest point in the Absaroka Range which extends from north central Wyoming into south central Montana, in the United States. It is in the Washakie Wilderness of Shoshone National Forest, the peak is the highest point in Park County, which include many of Yellowstone National Park, it was named after a cattle baron and homesteader in the Big Horn Basin. 4000 meter peaks of North America Central Rocky Mountains Mountain peaks of North America Mountain peaks of the Rocky Mountains Mountain peaks of the United States
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show
Mount Doane el. 10,551 feet is a mountain peak in the Absaroka Range in Yellowstone National Park. The peak is named for Lieutenant Gustavus Cheyney Doane, a U. S. Army cavalry officer who escorted the Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition into Yellowstone in 1870. During that expedition and Nathaniel P. Langford ascended several peaks east of Yellowstone Lake. Henry D. Washburn, the leader of the expedition named a peak for Doane, but that peak's name was changed to Mount Schurz. Mount Doane was named by the Hayden Geological Survey of 1871 to honor the first official report of an exploration of the Yellowstone region that Doane wrote after the Washburn expedition. Doane participated in the 1st Hayden expedition in 1871. Doane's account of his and Langford's ascent into the Absaroka Range: Seventeenth day -- September 7. -- In company with Mr. Langford, I climbed to the summit of a neighboring peak, the highest of the east range. We were four hours reaching the highest point, climbing for over a mile over shelly, feldspathic granite, after leaving our horses at the limit of pines.
Summit at noon, barometer, 20.35. The view from this peak commanded the lake, enabling us to sketch a map of its inlets and bearings with considerable accuracy. On the southwestern portion of the lake rose a high mountain of a yellow rock, forming a divide or water-shed in the center of the great basin, beyond which the waters flowed south and west; the stream we failed in crossing on the previous day rises in the southeast range, running east several miles, joining another stream from the southwest at Bridger's Lake, a sheet of water about two miles in diameter, at the foot of a rocky peak about twenty-five miles to the south, from whence the stream flows due north, in a straight valley, to the Yellowstone Lake. This valley has a uniform width of about three miles, is level and swampy through its whole extent, with numerous lakelets of considerable size scattered at intervals over its surface. South of Bridger's Lake, beyond the Snake River divide, were seen two vast columns of vapor, thirty miles away, which rose at least 500 feet above the tops of the hills.
These were twenty times as large as any we had seen, but lay a long distance out of our course, were not visited. Looking east, one mountain succeeds another, with precipitous ravines, rugged, in many places impassable, as if all the fusible portions of the mountains had melted and run away, leaving a vast cinder behind. There were no ranges of peaks; this formation extended to the limit of vision. The deep and narrow valleys were grassed and timbered, had sparkling streams, furnished basins for numbers of small lakes. Various groups of Native Americans have proposed renaming the mountain in 2017 and 2018, to First Peoples Mountain; the Great Plains Tribal Chairman's Association stated that Gustavius Doane should not be honored because of his role in leading the military to murder hundreds of Native American people, predominantly women and children who were recovering from smallpox, in the Marias Massacre. Hayden stated. Mountains and mountain ranges of Yellowstone National Park
Breccia Peak (Wyoming)
Breccia Peak is a mountain in the southern Absaroka Range in the Rocky Mountains. It is located in Teton County in U. S. state of Wyoming near Togwotee Pass and close to the southwest border of the Teton Wilderness within the Bridger-Teton National Forest. Breccia Peak is located about 2.5 miles north of Togwotee Pass, which connects Jackson Hole, traversed by the Snake River, in the west from the Wind River valley in the east. The pass is part of the Great Continental Divide, the mountain is located about 4.5 miles west of it. The plateau-like summit shows steep and rocky cliffs to the west and north, the Breccia Cliffs. To the east and southeast however, it shows a grassy face. Between altitudes of 10,500 and 10,800 feet, there is a steep rock barrier, except for the section near the east and southeast ridge. In the west of the Breccia Peak there is no higher mountain for more than 30 miles, up to the Teton Range. Breccia Peak is not independent, because it has only 200 feet of clean prominence from neighboring Buffalo Fork Peak in the north.
About 1.25 miles southwest of Breccia peak lies Lost Lake at an elevation of about 9,500 feet, a small but scenic lake, where Breccia Cliffs can reflect off the water in the right setting. Breccia Peek is made of volcanic Absorka breccia; the rocks in the section of the summit belong to the Wiggins Formation of the Thorofare Creek Group originated in the Upper Eocene. In the saddle between Breccia Peak and Angle Mountain lying northwest is an elongate irregular intrusive body of glassy flow-banded rhyodacite porphyry showing minor associated wall-rock alteration. Breccia Peak is one of the most rewarding summits in the Yellowstone Region reachable within two hours. From the trailhead near U. S. Highway 26/U. S. Highway 287 0.6 miles north of Togwotee Pass, visitors can get to the summit with a easy hike. Starting at the pullout at the highway there is a well-established, but unofficial trail leading to the treeline. Early on there is a fork. After some stream crossings the path reaches open timber.
At an elevation of 10,000 feet, climbers get to a vast meadow southeast of Breccia Peak where they can see the southeast face of the mountain entirely. Here they have to leave the trail; the easiest route from there is to traverse the southeast face in northern direction to reach the east ridge, avoiding the steep rocky cliff in the middle. From there, climbers follow that ridge to the summit near the edge to the cliff on its right hand end on grass. A somewhat shorter alternative involving a little more scrambling is to avoid the steep rocky cliff on its left hand, southwest end. To do so, climbers have to head west from the meadow to the south ridge of Breccia Peak and follow this ridge to the summit; the southeast face of the mountain above timber is suitable for backcountry skiing. There are only short runs; the summit was in the zone of totality of the Solar eclipse of August 21, 2017. It was called a "quirky place to see the total solar eclipse" in the Wind River region in Wyoming
The Yun Feng is a supersonic land attack cruise missile of Republic of China. The missile was developed by the Chungshan Institute of Science and Technology and has a range of about 1200-2000 kilometers, it has a ramjet engine with a solid rocket booster capable of a speed of 1,030 m/s. It can carry a semi-armor piercing high fragmentation warhead; the missile is under development, is one of the few assets within the Republic of China which can reach targets in north and central People's Republic of China. In 2016, Ministry of National Defense denied reports; the missile is being upgraded to function as a satellite launch vehicle by National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology. This vehicle will be capable of delivering satellites between 50 and 200 kilograms at a low earth orbit of around 500 kilometers, it is suspected that the upgrade program will extend range of the missile to 2000 km, which puts Beijing within its striking range. Republic of China Armed Forces
Cloud Peak Wilderness
The Cloud Peak Wilderness is located in north central Wyoming in the United States. Within Bighorn National Forest, the wilderness was established in 1984 in an effort to preserve the wildest section of the Bighorn Mountains; the wilderness has the highest peaks in the Bighorn Mountains including Cloud Peak and Black Tooth Mountain, as well as Cloud Peak Glacier, the only remaining active glacier in the Bighorn Mountains. The Cloud Peak Wilderness is 189,039 acres. U. S. Wilderness Areas do not allow mechanized vehicles, including bicycles. Although camping and fishing are allowed with proper permit, no roads or buildings are constructed and there is no logging or mining, in compliance with the 1964 Wilderness Act. Wilderness areas within National Forests and Bureau of Land Management areas allow hunting in season. List of U. S. Wilderness Areas "Cloud Peak Wilderness"; the National Wilderness Preservation System. Wilderness.net. Retrieved 2006-08-16. "USGS Cloud Peak Topo Map Quad". TopoQuest. Retrieved 2008-06-30.
"Wilderness Legislation: The Wilderness Act of 1964". The National Wilderness Preservation System. Wilderness.net. Retrieved 2006-08-16
In mountaineering, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others; the person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist. In free climbing, a first ascent of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting; the details of the first ascents of many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown. Today, first ascents are carefully recorded and mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a "first ascent" is a modern one in places such as Africa and the Americas with a history of colonialism. There may be little or no physical evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain.
For example, the volcano Llullaillaco on the border of Argentina and Chile is known to have been climbed in the prehistoric period due to the presence of Incan artifacts at the summit, yet credit for the first recorded ascent is given to Chilean climbers Bión González and Juan Harseim, who summited in 1952. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face, without ropes or without oxygen. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents for difficult routes, involved a mix of free and aid climbing; as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only. Second ascents are noteworthy in climbing circles involving improving on a pioneering route through lessons learned from it, experience which may span from technical improvements to having a better understanding of how much gear and provisions to take.
Some other "first ascents" could be recorded for particular routes. One is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name suggests, the first ascent made during winter season; this is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route. In the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. In the Himalayan area, although Nepal and China's winter season permits start on December 1, the conventional winter ascents begin on December 21. Another is the First Solo Ascent, the first ascent made by a single climber; this is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or when climbing without any protection at all. Another type of ascent known as FFA is the first female ascent. While not considered as important, this designation remains significant on some difficult, limit-pushing climbs, where the first female ascent may not happen until well after the FA, due to possible difficulties encountered by female physicality.
The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has subsequently changed to such an extent – because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists. It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb, so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent party's ordeal. List of first ascents Notable first free ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimer's First Ascent, Issue 17