Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer system resources data storage and computing power, without direct active management by the user. The term is used to describe data centers available to many users over the Internet. Large clouds, predominant today have functions distributed over multiple locations from central servers. If the connection to the user is close, it may be designated an edge server. Clouds may be available to many organizations. Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale. Advocates of public and hybrid clouds note that cloud computing allows companies to avoid or minimize up-front IT infrastructure costs. Proponents claim that cloud computing allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with improved manageability and less maintenance, that it enables IT teams to more adjust resources to meet fluctuating and unpredictable demand, providing the burst computing capability: high computing power at certain periods of peak demand.
Cloud providers use a "pay-as-you-go" model, which can lead to unexpected operating expenses if administrators are not familiarized with cloud-pricing models. The availability of high-capacity networks, low-cost computers and storage devices as well as the widespread adoption of hardware virtualization, service-oriented architecture and autonomic and utility computing has led to growth in cloud computing. By 2019, Linux was the most used operating system, including in Microsoft's offerings and is thus described as dominant; the Cloud Service Provider will screen, keep up and gather data about the firewalls, intrusion identification or/and counteractive action frameworks and information stream inside the network. Cloud computing was popularized with Amazon.com releasing its Elastic Compute Cloud product in 2006. References to the phrase "cloud computing" appeared as early as 1996, with the first known mention in a Compaq internal document; the cloud symbol was used to represent networks of computing equipment in the original ARPANET by as early as 1977, the CSNET by 1981—both predecessors to the Internet itself.
The word cloud was used as a metaphor for the Internet and a standardized cloud-like shape was used to denote a network on telephony schematics. With this simplification, the implication is that the specifics of how the end points of a network are connected are not relevant for the purposes of understanding the diagram; the term cloud was used to refer to platforms for distributed computing as early as 1993, when Apple spin-off General Magic and AT&T used it in describing their Telescript and PersonaLink technologies. In Wired's April 1994 feature "Bill and Andy's Excellent Adventure II", Andy Hertzfeld commented on Telescript, General Magic's distributed programming language: "The beauty of Telescript... is that now, instead of just having a device to program, we now have the entire Cloud out there, where a single program can go and travel to many different sources of information and create sort of a virtual service. No one had conceived; the example Jim White uses now is a date-arranging service where a software agent goes to the flower store and orders flowers and goes to the ticket shop and gets the tickets for the show, everything is communicated to both parties."
During the 1960s, the initial concepts of time-sharing became popularized via RJE. Full-time-sharing solutions were available by the early 1970s on such platforms as Multics, Cambridge CTSS, the earliest UNIX ports. Yet, the "data center" model where users submitted jobs to operators to run on IBM mainframes was overwhelmingly predominant. In the 1990s, telecommunications companies, who offered dedicated point-to-point data circuits, began offering virtual private network services with comparable quality of service, but at a lower cost. By switching traffic as they saw fit to balance server use, they could use overall network bandwidth more effectively, they began to use the cloud symbol to denote the demarcation point between what the provider was responsible for and what users were responsible for. Cloud computing extended this boundary to cover all servers as well as the network infrastructure; as computers became more diffused and technologists explored ways to make large-scale computing power available to more users through time-sharing.
They experimented with algorithms to optimize the infrastructure and applications to prioritize CPUs and increase efficiency for end users. The use of the cloud metaphor for virtualized services dates at least to General Magic in 1994, where it was used to describe the universe of "places" that mobile agents in the Telescript environment could go; as described by Andy Hertzfeld: "The beauty of Telescript," says Andy, "is that now, instead of just having a device to program, we now have the entire Cloud out there, where a single program can go and travel to many different sources of information and create sort of a virtual service." The use of the cloud metaphor is credited to General Magic communications employee David Hoffman, based on long-standing use in networking and telecom. In addition to use by General Magic itself, it was used in promoting AT&T's associated PersonaLink Services. In August 2006, Amazon created subsidiary Amazon Web Services and introduced its Elastic Compute Cloud. In April 2008, Google released the beta version of Google App Engine.
The men's 4 x 800 metres relay at the 2015 IAAF World Relays was held at the Thomas Robinson Stadium on 2 May. Prior to the competition, the records were as follows: All times are local times Kenya's Alfred Kipketer started off fast, chased by USA's Duane Solomon, with Kipketer holding the advantage at the handoff, the 1:47 pace three seconds slower than Kipketer's PR at the time and five seconds slower than Solomon's. Kenya's second runner Nicholas Kipkoech pushed the pace followed by American Erik Sowinski as the two teams separated from the field. With 200 metres to go, Sowinski passed Kipkoech who ran out of gas, Sowinski sprinting the final straightaway to put a 20 metre gap on Kipkoech pulling away. Poland's Kamil Gurdak was gaining on Kipkoech. Sowinski's split was a more competitive 1:44.7. Lined up for the handoff, Timothy Kitum became alarmed at his teammate losing ground and bounced backward down the straightaway to grab the baton as Casimir Loxsom sprinted away. Loxsom ran another high 1:44 split to hand off to Robby Andrews with a 35 metre lead, while Poland put their best two runners last, Marcin Lewandowski closing down on Kitum to within 3 metres.
Kenya's Jeremiah Mutai took off in chase of Andrews, ignoring Poland's European Champion Adam Kszczot. Over the next 650 metres, Mutai closed down the lead to a manageable 10 metres, but Andrews is a kicker serving as a cruel decoy, Andrews sprinted away from a dejected Mutai to retain the huge lead he had started with. With Kszczot sprinting from behind, Mutai crossed the line in second place with Australia a distant fourth. After the race, Kenya was disqualified for Kitum wandering out of the passing zone. USA's time of 7:04.84 was the Championship record. The final was started at 20:13
The 2015 Scotties Tournament of Hearts was held from February 14 to 22 at Mosaic Place in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan. The winners represented Canada at the 2015 World Women's Curling Championship held from March 14 to 22 at the Tsukisamu Gymnasium in Sapporo, Japan. For the first time, the event was to be expanded to include entries from Nunavut, which has never participated in the Scotties, Northern Ontario, which will now have a berth separate from Ontario, as well as separate entries from the Yukon and Northwest Territories, which have competed as a single entry; the Nunavut Curling Association decided they were not ready to send teams to either the Scotties or the Brier, so will be sitting out this year's events. Starting with the 2015 tournament, the top eleven teams will automatically qualify to the main tournament, which will be a competition between twelve teams, as in years past; the remaining teams will play in a pre-qualifying tournament to determine the twelfth team to play in the main tournament.
At the end of the tournament, the last place team will join the two teams who do not qualify via the pre-qualifiers in next year's pre-qualifying tournament. Similar changes were implemented for the 2015 Tim Hortons Brier, meaning that for the first time the Canadian men's and women's curling championships will be conducted using identical formats. Previous versions of the Tim Hortons Brier differed from the Tournament of Hearts in that they included the entry from Northern Ontario but did not include a Team Canada entry. After winning the 2013 & 2014 Scotties, Rachel Homan returns again as skip of Team Canada, this time with a new teammate in Joanne Courtney at second, she replaces Alison Kreviazuk who moved to Sweden to be with Fredrik Lindberg. Courtney played in the 2014 Scotties for Alberta's Val Sweeting rink who returns with a new third in Lori Olson-Johns, they were the silver medalists last year after having lost to Homan in the final. After missing the Scotties last year for the Olympics, where she received a gold medal, Jennifer Jones and her team from Manitoba look to capture her fifth Scotties title.
The other favourite is Team Stefanie Lawton, representing Saskatchewan. Although they have never won the Scotties, they have placed 4th four times in previous Scotties tournaments, they are three-time Canada Cup winners, four-time Grand Slam winners, are playing on home ice in Saskatchewan. The teams are listed as follows: Northern Ontario, the Yukon and the Northwest Territories will play a single round-robin at Mosaic Place, with the teams with the two best records advancing to the play-in game, which will be contested Saturday, February 14, concurrent with the opening draw of the Scotties round-robin. All draw times are listed in Central Standard Time. Thursday, February 12, 7:00 pm Friday, February 13, 8:00 am Friday, February 13, 3:30 pm Saturday, February 14, 2:00 pm Final Round Robin Standings All draw times are listed in Central Standard Time. Saturday, February 14, 2:00 pm Saturday, February 14, 7:00 pm Sunday, February 15, 9:00 am Sunday, February 15, 2:00 pm Sunday, February 15, 7:00 pm Monday, February 16, 9:00 am Monday, February 16, 2:00 pm Monday, February 16, 7:00 pm Tuesday, February 17, 2:00 pm Tuesday, February 17, 7:00 pm Wednesday, February 18, 9:00 am Wednesday, February 18, 2:00 pm Wednesday, February 18, 7:00 pm Thursday, February 19, 9:00 am Thursday, February 19, 2:00 pm Thursday, February 19, 7:00 pm Friday, February 20, 9:00 am Friday, February 20, 7:00 pm Saturday, February 21, 10:00 am Saturday, February 21, 3:00 pm Sunday, February 22, 2:00 pm Sunday, February 22, 7:00 pm Round robin only The awards and all-star teams are as follows: All-Star TeamsFirst Team Skip: Stefanie Lawton, Saskatchewan Third: Kaitlyn Lawes, Manitoba Second: Jill Officer, Manitoba Lead: Dawn McEwen, ManitobaSecond Team Skip: Jennifer Jones, Manitoba Third: Lori Olson-Johns, Alberta Second: Stephanie Schmidt, Saskatchewan Lead: Lisa Weagle, Team CanadaMarj Mitchell Sportsmanship Award Sherry Anderson, SaskatchewanJoan Mead Builder AwardBernadette McIntyre, former chair and executive vice-chair of Scotties host committees 2015 Alberta Scotties Tournament of Hearts 2015 British Columbia Scotties Tournament of Hearts 2015 Manitoba Scotties Tournament of Hearts 2015 New Brunswick Scotties Tournament of Hearts 2015 Newfoundland and Labrador Scotties Tournament of Hearts 2015 Northern Ontario Scotties Tournament of Hearts 2015 Nova Scotia Scotties Tournament of Hearts 2015 Ontario Scotties Tournament of Hearts 2015 Prince Edward Island Scotties Tournament of Hearts 2015 Quebec Scotties Tournament of Hearts 2015 Saskatchewan Scotties Tournament of Hearts 2015 Northwest Territories Scotties Tournament of Hearts Official website