IBC Vehicles Limited is a British automotive manufacturing company based in Luton, Bedfordshire and a subsidiary of Vauxhall, itself a wholly owned subsidiary of General Motors. Its principal operation is a plant located in Luton, GM Manufacturing Luton. IBC Vehicles has its roots in Bedford Vehicles, the van manufacturing subsidiary of Vauxhall, in 1986 the Bedford Vehicles van factory in Luton was reorganised as a joint venture with Isuzu. The resulting company was named IBC Vehicles and its first product was the Bedford Midi - a badge engineered clone of the Isuzu Fargo midsize panel van, intended to replace the ageing Bedford CF. The Suzuki-based Bedford Rascal microvan followed in 1987, the Bedford name was dropped completely as were all of its preceding range apart from the Midi. The Frontera A was produced from 1992 -1998 and the Frontera B1998 -2004, in 1998 GM bought Isuzu out of the IBC partnership and renamed the plant to GMM Luton. GMM Luton produced the Opel/Vauxhall Vivaro A, Renault Trafic and Nissan Primastar fom 2001 to 2014, the Hi-top roof versions were built in Barcelona, Spain by Renault at the former Nissan Plant because the Luton IBC building was not high enough to accommodate the Hi-top vehicles.
By 2011, the plant had produced 1.25 million vehicles since the 2001 launch, with production now down to 68,000 vehicles a year, with a capacity for 100,000. Opel/Vauxhall announced in 2011 that the 2013 Vivaro would continue production at Luton and the high roof versions and the Renault Trafic would be manufactured at Sandouville, France
Economy of the United Kingdom
It is the second-largest economy in the European Union by both metrics. The UK is one of the strongest EU countries in regards to GDP growth, job creation and it is one of the most globalised economies, and is composed of the economies of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Britains aerospace industry is the second- or third-largest national aerospace industry depending on the method of measurement and its pharmaceutical industry plays an important role in the economy and the UK has the third-highest share of global pharmaceutical research and development. Of the worlds 500 largest companies,26 are headquartered in the UK, the British economy is boosted by North Sea oil and gas production, its reserves were estimated at 2.9 billion barrels in 2015, although it has been a net importer of oil since 2005. There are significant regional variations in prosperity, with South East England, the size of Londons economy makes it the largest city by GDP in Europe. In the 18th century the UK was the first country to industrialise, from the late 19th century the Second Industrial Revolution was taking place rapidly in the United States and the German Empire, this presented an increasing economic challenge for the UK.
The costs of fighting World War I and World War II further weakened the UKs relative position, in the 21st century, however, it remains a great power and has an influential role in the world economy. Since 1979 management of the economy has followed a broadly laissez-faire approach, the Bank of England is the UKs central bank and its Monetary Policy Committee is responsible for setting interest rates, quantitative easing, and forward guidance. 5% until the early 1970s. According to the OECD, the rate of growth between 1960 and 1973 averaged 2. 9%, although this figure was far behind the rates of other European countries such as France, West Germany. Deindustrialization meant the closure of operations in mining, heavy industry and manufacturing. A certain amount of turnover had always taken place, with older businesses shutting down, the post-1973 scene was different, with a worldwide energy crisis, and a dramatic influx of low-cost manufactured goods from Asia. Coal mining quickly collapsed, and practically disappeared in the 21st century, the consumption of coal--mostly for electricity--plunged from 157 million tonnes in 1970 to 37 million tonnes in 2015, nearly all of it imported.
Employment in the mines fell from a peak of 1,191,000 in 1920 to 695,000 in 1956,247,000 in 1976,44,000 in 1993. The railways were decrepit, more textile mills closed than opened, steel employment fell sharply, popular responses varied a great deal. Tim Strangleman et al. found a range of responses from the affected workers, some nostalgically invoked a glorious industrial past or the bygone British Empire to cope with their newfound personal economic insecurity. Others looked to the EU for help, some turned to exclusionary Englishness as the solution to current grievances. By the 21st century, grievances accumulated enough to have a political impact, the United Kingdom Independence Party, based in white working-class towns, gained increasing share of the vote while warning against the dangers of immigration. The political reverberations came to a head in the vote in favor of Brexit in 2016
They began making Karrier motor vehicles in 1908 in Queen Street South, Huddersfield. Karrier produced buses as well as their other municipal vehicles and in years, especially during the Second World War, Trolleybuses. In 1934 Karrier became part of the Rootes Group where it retained its brand identity though the business was operated as part of Rootes Commer commercial vehicle operation, the Karrier name began to disappear from products when Chrysler bought Rootes in 1967. It was finally dropped in the early 1970s, in 1908, joined by his second son, Reginald Fitzroy Clayton MIAE, Clayton & Co began designing and making Karrier petrol driven motor vehicles and charabancs which became their main business. Motors Limited with Karrier agreed in August 1932 was dropped a month without explanation, the following August 1933 Karrier tardily announced that under difficult trading conditions they had made a substantial loss during that 1932 calendar year. At the beginning of June 1934 Karrier was put into receivership though it was announced that business would continue while negotiations were completed.
Rootes Securities, through its subsidiaries, acquired Karrier in August 1934 when employee numbers had fallen to 700. Tilling Stevens would eventually join the Rootes Group in 1950, Dodge Dodge Brothers, a leading builder of light trucks in USA, in 1922 began to bring knocked-down kits for assembly in Park Royal, London. Dodge Brothers became a Chrysler subsidiary in 1928 and truck production moved to Chryslers car plant at Kew, dodges built there were known as Dodge Kews and the American model cars built beside them, Chrysler Kews. During the Second World War this Chrysler factory was part of London Aircraft Production Group, Dodge truck production was merged with Commer and Karrier at Dunstable in 1965. The Public Record Office is now on the site of the Chrysler plant, the Dodge brand began to take precedence on all commercial models. The last vestige of Karrier was probably in the Dodge 50 Series and Renault Chrysler eventually withdrew from UK operations, selling the business to Peugeot.
The new owner had little interest in heavy trucks and the factory was run in conjunction with Renault Véhicules Industriels. The combined company used the name Karrier Motors Ltd, although the vehicles took on Renault badges and were sold through Renault Trucks dealers. The end of the Karrier name could not be far off, Renault severed ties with Peugeot, the Karrier trademark is still in the possession of Peugeot, and it is not uncommon for vehicle marques to be reinstated. Colt In 1929, Karrier started production of the Colt three-wheeler as a chassis for Huddersfield Corporation. In 1930, this was developed into the Cob tractor to haul road trailers for the London, later, in 1933, Scammell produced their own, Napier designed, Scammell Mechanical Horse. In the mid-1930s, the Cob range was supplemented by the four-wheel Bantam, Cob Described by newspapers, quoting Karrier, in 1930 as a mechanical horse the small Cob tractor was designed by J Shearman, road motor engineer for London and Scottish Railway
Bath is a city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859, Bath is in the valley of the River Avon,97 miles west of London and 11 miles south-east of Bristol. The city became a World Heritage Site in 1987, the city became a spa with the Latin name Aquæ Sulis c. AD60 when the Romans built baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, Bath Abbey was founded in the 7th century and became a religious centre, the building was rebuilt in the 12th and 16th centuries. In the 17th century, claims were made for the properties of water from the springs. Many of the streets and squares were laid out by John Wood, the Elder, and in the 18th century the city became fashionable, Jane Austen lived in Bath in the early 19th century. Further building was undertaken in the 19th century and following the Bath Blitz in World War II, the city has software and service-oriented industries. Theatres and other cultural and sporting venues have helped make it a centre for tourism with more than one million staying visitors and 3.8 million day visitors to the city each year.
There are several museums including the Museum of Bath Architecture, Victoria Art Gallery, Museum of East Asian Art, the city has two universities, the University of Bath and Bath Spa University, with Bath College providing further education. Sporting clubs include Bath Rugby and Bath City F. C. while TeamBath is the name for all of the University of Bath sports teams. Bath became part of the county of Avon in 1974, the hills in the locality such as Bathampton Down saw human activity from the Mesolithic period. Several Bronze Age round barrows were opened by John Skinner in the 18th century, solsbury Hill overlooking the current city was an Iron Age hill fort, and the adjacent Bathampton Camp may have been one. A long barrow site believed to be from the Beaker people was flattened to make way for RAF Charmy Down, messages to her scratched onto metal, known as curse tablets, have been recovered from the sacred spring by archaeologists. The tablets were written in Latin, and cursed people whom the writers felt had wronged them, for example, if a citizen had his clothes stolen at the baths, he might write a curse, naming the suspects, on a tablet to be read by the goddess. A temple was constructed in AD 60–70, and a complex was built up over the next 300 years.
Engineers drove oak piles into the mud to provide a stable foundation, in the 2nd century, the spring was enclosed within a wooden barrel-vaulted structure that housed the caldarium and frigidarium. The town was given defensive walls, probably in the 3rd century. After the failure of Roman authority in the first decade of the 5th century, in March 2012 a hoard of 30,000 silver Roman coins, one of the largest discovered in Britain, was unearthed in an archaeological dig
Manufacturing in the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom, where the Industrial Revolution began in the late 18th century, has a long history of manufacturing, which contributed to Britains early economic growth. During the second half of the 20th century, there was a decline in the importance of manufacturing. Manufacturing, remains important for trade and accounted for 44% of goods exports in 2014. In June 2010, manufacturing in the United Kingdom accounted for 8. 2% of the workforce, the East Midlands and West Midlands were the regions with the highest proportion of employees in manufacturing. London had the lowest at 2. 8%, Manufacturing in the United Kingdom expanded on an unprecedented scale in the 19th century. Innovation in Britain led to changes in manufacturing, the development of factory systems. The main sectors were textiles and steel making, engineering, in many industrial sectors, Britain was the largest manufacturer in the world and the most technologically advanced. In the part of the 19th century, a second phase developed which is known as the Second Industrial Revolution.
Germany and the United States, which developed the American system of manufacturing, caught up, Britain remained one of the largest industrial producers. By the middle of the century, in 1948, manufacturing made up 48% of the UK economy, in the post-war decades, manufacturing began to lose its competitive advantage and heavy industry experienced a relative decline. By 2013, the percentage of manufacturing in the economy had fallen to 13% and this trend is common in all mature Western economies. Manufacturing employment fell faster in the UK since 1998 and this started with manufacturing productivity flatlining from 1993 to 1997 and a rise in pound sterling. PricewaterhouseCoopers presumed that British manufacturing was less able to adapt to new production immune from Asian competition, since 1993, the UK invested less in R&D and adaptation than its OECD competitors. However, manufacturing remains an important sector of the modern British economy, the Blue Book 2006 reports that this sector added a gross value of £147,469 million to the UK economy in 2004.
Engineering and allied industries comprise the single largest sector, contributing 30. 8% of total Gross Value Added in manufacturing in 2003, within this sector, transport equipment was the largest contributor, with 8 global car manufacturers being present in the UK. The British motor industry comprises numerous components for the sector, such as Fords diesel engine plant in Dagenham, triumph Motorcycles Ltd is the only wholly British owned major transport manufacturer. A range of companies like Brush Traction and Hunslet manufacture railway locomotives, associated with this sector are the aerospace and defence equipment industries. Commercial shipbuilders include Harland and Wolff, Cammell Laird, Barclay Curle, companies such as Princess, Fairline Boats and Sunseeker are major builders of private motor yachts
Electrical engineering is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity and electromagnetism. This field first became an occupation in the half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone. Subsequently and recording media made electronics part of daily life, the invention of the transistor, and the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in almost any household object. Electrical engineers typically hold a degree in engineering or electronic engineering. Practicing engineers may have professional certification and be members of a professional body, such bodies include the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the Institution of Engineering and Technology. Electrical engineers work in a wide range of industries and the skills required are likewise variable. These range from basic circuit theory to the management skills required of a project manager, the tools and equipment that an individual engineer may need are similarly variable, ranging from a simple voltmeter to a top end analyzer to sophisticated design and manufacturing software.
Electricity has been a subject of scientific interest since at least the early 17th century and he designed the versorium, a device that detected the presence of statically charged objects. In the 19th century, research into the subject started to intensify, Electrical engineering became a profession in the 19th century. Practitioners had created an electric telegraph network and the first professional electrical engineering institutions were founded in the UK. Over 50 years later, he joined the new Society of Telegraph Engineers where he was regarded by other members as the first of their cohort, Practical applications and advances in such fields created an increasing need for standardised units of measure. They led to the standardization of the units volt, coulomb, farad. This was achieved at a conference in Chicago in 1893. During these years, the study of electricity was considered to be a subfield of physics. Thats because early electrical technology was electromechanical in nature, the Technische Universität Darmstadt founded the worlds first department of electrical engineering in 1882.
The first course in engineering was taught in 1883 in Cornell’s Sibley College of Mechanical Engineering. It was not until about 1885 that Cornell President Andrew Dickson White established the first Department of Electrical Engineering in the United States, in the same year, University College London founded the first chair of electrical engineering in Great Britain. Professor Mendell P. Weinbach at University of Missouri soon followed suit by establishing the engineering department in 1886
Optare is a British bus manufacturer based in Sherburn-in-Elmet, North Yorkshire. It is a subsidiary of Ashok Leyland, part of the Hinduja Group, in September 1984, Leyland closed its Charles H Roe vehicle bodywork building business in Leeds. In response, Russell Richardson, a plant director at Roe, backed by the West Yorkshire Enterprise Board and many redundant former employees. The company was created at a difficult time for the bus and coach industry. The first orders came from the publicly owned West Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive. The publicly owned but arms-length company Yorkshire Rider, as successor to the WYPTE bus fleet, when the Roe business closed down, WYPTE had an unfulfilled order for five Leyland Olympian coach-seated double-decker buses in place for its Metro coach operation. Five went to WYPTE, and five to its successor Yorkshire Rider, the first Optare designed bodies were fourteen Dennis Dominos for the SYPTE built starting in February 1986. Optare bodied fifteen Leyland Cubs for the WYPTE, a preserved Cub visited the Optare plant in 2005.
Starting in August 1986 Optare built fifteen minibuses converted from the Freight Rover Sherpa 350 vans for the WYPTE, in 1986, Optare introduced the CityPacer minibus. This was based on a version of the Volkswagen LT50 van chassis. The engine was a six-cylinder 2. 4-litre and the body seated 25, with space for a further five standing passengers, while its competitors looked like the modified vans they were, the CityPacer had attractive styling notable for its large one-piece raked windscreen. London Regional Transport bought 52, and other major operators bought small batches, more than 290 CityPacers were produced in total between 1986 and 1992. In 1987, the StarRider based on the Mercedes-Benz 811D chassis was introduced and this was a heavier chassis with a proven reliability record and had seating for 33 passengers. London Regional Transport took 123 StarRiders and a total of just under 320 were built between 1987 and 1994, in 1988 the first full size Optare product appeared, the Delta. This was a bus based on the DAF SB220 chassis.
The Delta bodywork featured contemporary styling and was aluminium with a bolted frame licensed from Alusuisse, the Delta successfully found a niche in the full-size single deck bus market, which was very limited at that time. Approaching 370 Deltas were built before production ended in 1998, Dennis had effectively created a new market segment, known as a midibus, with the introduction of the Dennis Dart. Optare soon introduced a competitor, the Vecta, albeit slightly bigger and wider than the Dart at that time, the chassis was the MAN11.190 and featured a ZF gearbox and full air suspension
Not to be confused with Wightbus, the bus operator. Wrightbus is a Northern Irish coachbuilder and pioneer of the low-floor bus based in Northern Ireland, it was established in 1946 by Robert Wright, Wrightbus was founded in 1946 as Robert Wright & Son Coachbuilders. In its early years it rebodied lorries, in 1978, the company released its first aluminium-structured bus bodywork. Wrights breakthrough into the bus bodybuilding sector came in the early 1990s. Other Wright products introduced in this included two Mercedes-Benz-based products, the O405 based Cityranger and the OH1416 based Urbanranger. This was launched around the bus operators in the UK began switching to low floor chassis. As a consequence the Urbanranger only attracted a handful of orders, however Wright had become well established in the bus bodybuilding sector by and was more than able to exploit the opportunities the low-floor revolution would offer it from mid-1990s onwards. In 1993, the Pathfinder on low floor Dennis Lance SLF, the Axcess-Ultralow was introduced in 1995 and offered on the Scania L113 chassis.
A major customer for the Axcess-Ultralow was FirstGroup taking approximately 240, next up was the Volvo B10L based Liberator introduced at the end of 1995. Notable came from the National Express Group who ordered 120 in 1997, next came the Renown body built on the Volvo B10BLE which went on to become the standard bus of the Blazefield Group. However Renown production was stopped when the B10BLE was replaced by the Volvo B7L on the new Wright Eclipse, however Wright didnt lose custom and many operators including the likes of Ulsterbus simply switched to the incline-engined Scania L94UB, on a similar Wright Solar body. Another bodywork, which resembles the current Solar/Eclipse range is the Meridian, the most distinctive product of Wright is the New Routemaster London bus, introduced on 27 February 2012 as an update of the AEC Routemaster. By the end of 2016,1,000 will be in service, the first Wright Eclipse Gemini double-decker was first built on the Volvo B7TL chassis in 2001. A similarly styled bus entered service with Arriva London in August 2001 as the Wright Pulsar Gemini on the VDL DB250 chassis, large operators of Gemini-bodied buses include Arriva, FirstGroup, Go-Ahead Group, Lothian Buses and National Express.
In 2016, the Wright SRM was introduced on the Volvo B5LH, since May 2013, Wrightbus has built its own chassis, the StreetLite single-decker and StreetDeck double decker. In 1997, an order for 25 Wright Crusader bodied Dennis Darts were delivered to Australian operator ACTION. Between 2003 and 2006, Kowloon Motor Bus received a total of 164 Wrightbus three-axle double-deckers,100 of them were on Volvo Super Olympian and 64 of them were on Volvo B9TL chassis. In 2009, Kowloon Motor Bus had order a total 291 buses which including one demonstrator with 2-axle, in 2010, the first of 450 Wright Eclipse Gemini 2 bodied Volvo B9TLs was delivered to SBS Transit, Singapore till end 2012
East Lancashire Coachbuilders
East Lancashire Coachbuilders Limited was a manufacturer of bus bodies and carriages founded in 1934 in Blackburn, England. On 17 August 2007, the company went into administration, but was saved and it is thought that the problem was a direct consequence of changing to the Euro IV chassis, with a shortage of Scania chassis being a factor. After the purchase, the Darwen Group rebranded the company as Darwen East Lancs, in 2008, Jamesstan Investments, an investment company controlled by the Darwen Group, purchased another bus manufacturer, Optare. Later, in June 2008, a takeover was performed. This brings East Lancs name into the Optare Group, with a range of vehicles. Production of all the original East Lancs bodies ceased by 2011, East Lancs has had many different styles of bodywork. They had a tradition of using cacography, mostly replacing a i with a letter y. Greenway EL2000 predecessor to the Flyte Cityzen predecessor to the OmniDekka Pyoneer predecessor to the Lolyne In the early 1990s, in 2001, a new body was launched.
Again, the product didnt have a name, it varied according to the chassis. This series are the last surviving variants of the myllennium series and they are now part of their own series. These have the body but with Scania own front styling. Single-decker OmniTown for Scania N94UB chassis Double-decker OmniDekka for Scania N94UD/N230UD/N270UD chassis The Esteem was launched early in 2006, the Olympus was launched at the Euro Bus Expo 2006 and its lower dash is the same as the Esteem. The Visionaire launched in summer 2007 with Arrivas Original London Sightseeing Tour, single-decker Esteem for Alexander Dennis Enviro200 Dart, MAN12. The Kinetec series was launched at the Euro Bus Expo 2006 and they are designed as low-floor bodies for MAN chassis. They have the Esteem/Olympus body but with MANs own Lions City design front and rear
In 1865, Henry Hughes, who was a timber merchant engineer, began building horse-drawn tramcars and railway rolling stock at the Falcon Works in Loughborough. His first company was known as the Hughess Locomotive & Tramway Engine Works Ltd, records are very sparse, but it seems that he began producing steam locomotives about 1867 for the Paris Exhibition. His main business, was tram engines, lightweight steam engines which drew passenger cars, among these was The Pioneer for the Swansea and Mumbles Railway. These were distinct from those tramcars where the boiler and mechanism was integral with the passenger car, amongst the first steam locomotives built there was Belmont, which ran on the Snailbeach District Railways, and three 2 ft 3 in gauge 0-4-0STs for the Corris Railway supplied in 1878. The Corris locomotives are said to have been works numbers 322,323 and 324, implying that the tram vehicles, in 1881 Hughes built two 3 ft gauge 0-4-0STs for the Liverpool Corporation Water Committee for use in the construction of the waterworks at Lake Vyrnwy in Wales.
In 1881 the company ran into problems and in 1882 it was in receivership. Hughes departed, soon after, for New Zealand, where in collaboration with local engineer E. W Mills, late in 1882 the company reformed as the Falcon Engine & Car Works Ltd. and supplied three more locomotives of the same design for the railways at Vyrnwy. Again there are few records, but the factory remained busy with railway and tramway locomotives and rolling stock. Among these were tank locomotives for Ireland and the Azores, some were subcontracts from other firms, such as Kerr Stuart, at that time in Glasgow. In 1889 the assets were taken over by the Anglo-American Brush Electric Light Corporation and it became known as the Brush Electrical Engineering Company. Between 1901 and 1905 the Brushmobile electric car was developed using a Vauxhall Motors engine, one of these six featured in the film Carry on Screaming. Nearly 100 buses, plus some lorries were built using French engines until 1907, in all, about 250 steam locomotives were built in addition to the tram engines.
Production finished after World War I and the company concentrated on transport-related electrical equipment, including tramcars, trolleybuses, in World War II Brush Coachworks diversified into aircraft production, building 335 de Havilland Dominies for the Royal Air Force and Fleet Air Arm. Wing sections were built for Lancaster bombers and Hampden fuselages were overhauled, in 1952 the coachworks was closed and the goodwill and patents were bought by neighbouring Willowbrook. Close to Derby and its workshops, it retained its contacts with the railway. Acquired by Heenan & Froude in 1947, it was merged with W. G. Bagnall to produce diesel locomotives, in 1951, the company Brush Bagnall Traction Limited was formed. When British Railways began to replace its fleet of steam engines, in 1957 it and Brush Electrical Machines were bought up by Hawker Siddeley to become the Brush Electrical Engineering Company Limited. As part of Hawker Siddeley Electric Power Group it passed to BTR plc and it is now part of FKI Energy Technologies
Dennis Specialist Vehicles
Dennis Specialist Vehicles Limited was a major British manufacturer of specialised commercial vehicles based in Guildford, England. The company was best known as the manufacturer of engines, although its other major product lines were buses, dustcarts. They made their first motor vehicle in 1898, and in 1899, their first car, though shown at the National Cycle Show and they entered car production around 1900. Larger models followed with a 35 hp model in 1906 powered by a White and Poppe engine, commercial vehicle activity was increasing with the first bus being made in 1903 and fire engine in 1908. Cars soon took place and it is doubtful if any were made after about 1915. In 1913 Dennis Brothers moved to a new larger building of almost four acres on a twelve acre site at Woodbridge on the outskirts of Guildford leaving Onslow Street solely for repairs. The rate of expansion of the business may be gauged from the expansions at Woodbridge in 1907,1910. In mid-1913 an offer of shares to the made the business owner a public listed company.
At that time the business was described as manufacturers of motor-vans, motor-lorries, motor-fire-engines, wartime production was reduced to military lorries for the War Office and the Dennis turbine fire engine. New buildings were added to contain the manufacture of munitions and Poppe in Coventry has always supplied engines for Dennis Brothers motor vehicles. It had been under consideration from before the war and it was announced in April 1919 that Dennis Brothers and White, the fact being to give Dennis Brothers a controlling interest in the other company. Mr White and Mr Poppe joined the Dennis Brothers board. the Karnataka Fire and Emergency Services owns a pumper that was built by Dennis Brothers and delivered to the erstwhile Kingdom of Mysore in 1925 from England. In 1972 the company was acquired by Hestair Group and renamed Hestair Dennis after a few years of financial difficulties and it was sold to Trinity Holdings in 1989 and to Mayflower Corporation in October 1998. Dennis Bus - manufacturer of buses and other transport vehicles Dennis Eagle - manufacturer of dustcarts/refuse lorries.
This company incorporated the remains of the Eagle Engineering and Shelvoke, Dennis Group plc owned Duple Metsec, the bus bodywork builder which usually supplied body kits for assembly overseas. Mayflower Corporation sold Dennis Eagle in July 1999 and purchased by Ros Roca in 2006, Dennis Bus and Dennis Fire were incorporated into Transbus International in 2001. Dennis fire engines were noted, from the outset, for their use of a pump or turbine as a water pump. This was more complex to build than the piston pumps
It is the worlds third-largest construction equipment manufacturer. It produces over 300 types of machine, including diggers, tractors and it has 22 factories across Asia, North America, and South America, its products are sold in over 150 countries. JCB was founded in 1945 by Joseph Cyril Bamford, after whom it is named, JCB was founded by Joseph Cyril Bamford in October 1945 in Uttoxeter, England. He rented a lock-up garage 3.7 by 4.6 m, in it, using a welding set which he bought second-hand for £1 from English Electric, he made his first vehicle, a tipping trailer from war-surplus materials. The trailers sides and floor were made from steel sheet that had part of air-raid shelters. On the same day as his son Anthony was born, he sold the trailer at a market for £45. At one time he made vehicles in Eckersleys coal yard in Uttoxeter, the first trailer and the welding set have been preserved. In 1948, six people were working for the company, in 1950, it moved to an old cheese factory in Rocester, still employing six. A year later, he began painting his products yellow, in 1953, his first backhoe loader was launched, and the JCB logo appeared for the first time.
It was designed by Derby Media and advertising designer Leslie Smith, in 1957, the firm launched the hydra-digga, incorporating the excavator and the major loader as a single all-purpose tool useful for the agricultural and construction industries. In 1960, JCBs hydraulic tractors entered the North American market, JCB became, and still is, the brand leader in the world. By 1964, JCB had sold over 3,000 3C backhoe loaders, the next year, the first 360-degree excavator was introduced, the JCB7. In 1978, the Loadall machine was introduced, the next year, JCB started its operation in India. In 1991, the firm entered a joint venture with Sumitomo of Japan to produce excavators, two years later, a JCB factory was completed in Pooler near Savannah, Georgia in the USA, and the next year a factory was opened in Brazil. Production of the first engine designed and manufactured by JCB, the JCB444 diesel engine, in 2005, for the first time in nearly forty years, JCB bought a company, purchasing the German equipment firm Vibromax.
In the same year, the opened a new factory in Pudong. By 2006, the firm had 4000 employees, twice what it had in 1975, during that year, JCB announced plans to make India its largest manufacturing hub. Its factory at Ballabgarh in Haryana, was to become the world’s largest backhoe loader manufacturing facility, JCB shed 2,000 jobs during the recession, but in 2010 it announced it was recruiting up to 200 new workers