The Lower Mainland is a name applied to the region surrounding and including Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. As of 2016, 2,759,365 people, lived in the region. Islands contained within rivers in the region are considered to be part of the Lower Mainland. While the term Lower Mainland has been recorded from the earliest period of non-native settlement in British Columbia, it has never been defined in legal terms; the British Columbia Geographical Names Information System comments that most residents of Vancouver might consider it to be only areas west of Mission and Abbotsford, while residents in the rest of the province consider it to be the whole region south of Whistler and west of Hope. However, the term has been in popular usage for over a century to describe a region that extends from Horseshoe Bay south to the Canada–United States border and east to Hope at the eastern end of the Fraser Valley. Climate and geology of the Lower Mainland are consistent enough that it has been classified as a separate ecoregion within the Ecological framework of Canada, used by both Federal and Provincial Environment Ministries.
The region is the traditional territory of the Sto:lo, a Halkomelem-speaking people of the Coast Salish linguistic and cultural grouping. There are two Regional Districts within Metro Vancouver and the Fraser Valley; the region is bounded to the north by the Coast Mountains and to the southeast by the Cascade Mountains, is traversed from east to west by the Fraser River. Due to its consistency of climate and fauna, geology and land use, "Lower Mainland" is the name of an ecoregion—a biogeoclimatic region—that comprises the eastern part of the Georgia Depression and extends from Powell River on the Sunshine Coast to Hope at the eastern end of the Fraser Valley. One of the mildest climates in Canada, the region has a mean annual temperature of 9 °C with a summer mean of 15 °C and a winter mean of 3.5 °C. Annual precipitation ranges from an annual mean of 850 mm in the west end to 2000 mm in the eastern end of the Fraser Valley and at higher elevations. Maximum precipitation occurs as rain in winter.
Less than ten percent falls as snow at sea level but the amount of snowfall increases with elevation. As of the 2016 census, the population of the Lower Mainland totals 2,759,385: 295,934 in the Fraser Valley Regional District 2,463,431 in Metro Vancouver Regional districtThese figures are inflated due to the inclusion of areas within the Regional Districts which are not considered to be part of the Lower Mainland, notably the lower Fraser Canyon and the heads of Harrison and Pitt Lakes, which are within the FVRD, Lions Bay and Bowen Island, which are within the Greater Vancouver Regional District; the population of the Lower Mainland was up 9.2 percent from the 2006 census. This is among the highest growth rates in the continent; the Lower Mainland is among the most diverse regions in Canada. Europeans form just over 50% of the population, while other significant ethnic groups which dominate the Lower Mainland include Chinese and South Asians. Regional districts were first created across British Columbia in 1966–1967 to form bodies for inter-municipal coordination and to extend municipal-level powers to areas outside existing municipalities.
Today, the Lower Mainland includes two Regional Districts: the Metro Vancouver Regional District and the Fraser Valley Regional District. Both regional districts, include areas outside the traditional limits of the Lower Mainland. Metro Vancouver includes areas like Langley that are geographically in the Fraser Valley; the Metro Vancouver Regional District is made up of 21 municipalities. The MVRD is bordered on the west by the Strait of Georgia, to the north by the Squamish-Lillooet Regional District, on the east by the Fraser Valley Regional District, to the south by Whatcom County, Washington, in the United States; the Fraser Valley Regional District lies east of the Greater Vancouver Regional District, comprises the cities of Abbotsford and Chilliwack, the district municipalities of Mission and Hope, the village of Harrison Hot Springs. It includes many unincorporated areas in the Fraser Valley and along the west side of the Fraser Canyon. Regional district powers are limited and other localized provincial government services are delivered through other regionalization systems.
The traditional territories of the Musqueam and Tsleil'waututh lie within the region. Its claims overlap those of the Tsleil-waututh and Kwikwetlem. Other peoples whose territories lie within the region are the Sto:lo, Katzie, Kwantlen and Semiahmoo. Many other peoples of the Georgia Strait region frequented the lower Fraser, including those from Vancouver Island and what is now Whatcom County, Washington. Sto:lo traditional territory, known as Solh Temexw in Halkomelem, more or less coincides with the traditional conception of the Lower Mainland, except for the inclusion of Port Douglas at the head of Harrison Lake, in In-SHUCK-ch territory, the lands around Burrard Inlet. Health system services and governance in the Lower Mainland are provided by Vancouver Coastal Health, serving Vancouver and the North Shore, the mainland coast as far north as the Central Coast region, Fraser Health, which serves the area of the Lower Mainland east
A riot is a form of civil disorder characterized by a group lashing out in a violent public disturbance against authority, property or people. Riots involve theft and destruction of property, public or private; the property targeted varies depending on the inclinations of those involved. Targets can include shops, restaurants, state-owned institutions, religious buildings. Riots occur in reaction to a grievance or out of dissent. Riots have occurred due to poor people with no jobs or living conditions, governmental oppression, taxation or conscription, conflicts between ethnic groups, or religions, the outcome of a sporting event or frustration with legal channels through which to air grievances. While individuals may attempt to lead or control a riot, riots consist of disorganized groups that are "chaotic and exhibit herd behavior." However, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that riots are not irrational, herd-like behavior, but follow inverted social norms. T. S. Ashton, in his study of food riots among colliers, noted that "the turbulence of the colliers is, of course, to be accounted for by something more elementary than politics: it was the instinctive reaction of virility to hunger."
Charles Wilson noted, "Spasmodic rises in food prices provoked keelmen on the Tyne to riot in 1709, tin miners to plunder granaries at Falmouth in 1727."Today, some rioters have an improved understanding of the tactics used by police in riot situations. Manuals for successful rioting are available on the internet, with tips such as encouraging rioters to get the press involved, as there is more safety and attention with the cameras rolling. Civilians with video cameras may have an effect on both rioters and police. Dealing with riots is a difficult task for police forces, they may use tear gas or CS gas to control rioters. Riot police may use less-than-lethal methods of control, such as shotguns that fire flexible baton rounds to injure or otherwise incapacitate rioters for easier arrest. A police riot is a term for the disproportionate and unlawful use of force by a group of police against a group of civilians; this term is used to describe a police attack on civilians, or provoking civilians into violence.
A prison riot is a large-scale, temporary act of concerted defiance or disorder by a group of prisoners against prison administrators, prison officers, or other groups of prisoners. It is done to express a grievance, force change or attempt escape. In a race riot, race or ethnicity is the key factor; the term had entered the English language in the United States by the 1890s. Early use of the term referred to riots that were a mob action by members of a majority racial group against people of other perceived races. In a religious riot, the key factor is religion; the rioting mob targets people and properties of a specific religion, or those believed to belong to that religion. Student riots are riots precipitated by students in higher education, such as a college or university. Student riots in the US and Western Europe in the 1960s and the 1970s were political in nature. Student riots may occur as a result of oppression of peaceful demonstration or after sporting events. Students may constitute an active political force in a given country.
Such riots may occur in the context of wider social grievances. Urban riots are riots in the context of urban decay, provoked by conditions such as discrimination, high unemployment, poor schools, poor healthcare, housing inadequacy and police brutality and bias. Urban riots are associated with race riots and police riots. Sports riots such as the Nika riots can be sparked by the losing or winning of a specific team or athlete. Fans of the two teams may fight. Sports riots may happen as a result of teams contending for a championship, a long series of matches, or scores that are close. Sports are the most common cause of riots in the United States, accompanying more than half of all championship games or series. All sports riots occur in the winning team's city. Food and bread riots are caused by harvest failures, incompetent food storage, poisoning of food, or attacks by pests like locusts; when the public becomes desperate from such conditions, groups may attack shops, homes, or government buildings to obtain bread or other staple foods like grain or salt, as in the 1977 Egyptian Bread Riots.
The economic and political effects of riots can be as complex as their origins. Property destruction and harm to individuals are immediately measurable. During the 1992 Los Angeles riots, 2,383 people were injured, 8,000 were arrested, 63 were killed and over 700 businesses burned. Property damage was estimated at over $1 billion. At least ten of those killed were shot by police or National Guard forces; the 2005 civil unrest in France lasted over three weeks and spread to nearly 300 towns. By the end of the incident, over 10,000 vehicles were over 300 buildings burned. Over 2,800 suspected rioters were arrested and 126 police and firefighters were injured. Estimated damages were over €200 Million. Many governments and political systems have fallen after riots, including: Russian Empire Ancien Régime British Raj in India, when bread and salt riots hastened the withdrawal in 1947 Governments across the Middle East and North Africa during the Arab Spring Riots are dealt with by the police, although methods differ from country to country.
Tactics and weapons used can include attack dogs, water cannons, plastic bullets, rubber bullets, pepper spray, flexible baton rounds, snatch squads. Many police forces have dedicated divisions to deal wit
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
Langley, British Columbia (city)
The City of Langley is a municipality in the Metro Vancouver Regional District. It lies directly east of the City of Surrey, adjacent to the Cloverdale area, surrounded on the north and south by the Township of Langley. Early European settlement in the area was known as "Innes Corners". Langley Township since 1873. Owing to its more urban development and related needs, the City of Langley decided to separate and incorporate as a separate municipality on March 15, 1955. Langley City follows the same block system as its neighbouring Township of Langley as well as other Districts in the Fraser Valley, where Streets run North-South, Avenues run East-West. Many natural and artificial barriers prevent Langley City from following a complete tidy grid: The land governed by the City is not a rectangle but an uneven shape with "cut-out" corners. Fraser Highway intersects the City at an approximate 45 degree angle North West to South East, mirrored by Glover Road which enters the city North East to South West.
The Nicomekl River flows through the middle of the city East to West. Railroad tracks run across the north of the City; this has affected development in a number of ways, for example the Langley Bypass turns 45 degrees in the North-West, tracing the boundary outline since it was constructed by the City and could not go over the boundary into the Langley Township. Many streets come to an abrupt halt when reaching the river and continue on the other side without a connecting bridge. Roads such as Douglas Crescent, Logan Avenue, Eastleigh Crescent parallel the 45 degree angles of Fraser Highway and Glover Road proposing an alternative grid at an angle which conflicts with the grid in place. Grade Crescent, much further south than these roads, follows this same angle, demonstrating the impact Fraser Highway had on the development of Langley. Langley City's Downtown was developed around Old Yale Road, which on became Fraser Highway; until 1964, Fraser Highway was part of the Trans-Canada Highway network - this major route attracted many businesses to the area.
Today, with the Trans-Canada Highway now in the north of the Langley Township, the downtown is more pedestrian oriented. Where Fraser Highway goes through the downtown it is reduced to a single lane of traffic in one direction to limit traffic flow; this stretch is affectionately referred to by residents as "The One-Way" and is lined with restaurants and shops either side, making it a retail centre in the city. Douglas Park is near this area in the downtown, is seen as main park in the city being used for events and shows. In Summer 2013, McBurney Plaza opened to the public replacing McBurney Lane; this area connects Fraser Highway and Douglas Park with a pedestrian boulevard, providing outdoor space for cafes and a space the city can use for street performance and other civic events. Just outside this downtown centre are strip malls and a number of low rise apartment buildings. Most detached housing remains outside the downtown area. There are over 17 public parks in this city, they range from small neighbourhood adventure playgrounds, to larger parks with nature trails and various sporting fields and equipment.
This park contains an adventure playground, a paved play area for ball hockey and basketball, an intermediate soccer field, a softball diamond. Public washrooms are available. Brydon Lagoon is south of the park and has a peaceful perimeter walk around the lagoon where one may observe wildfowl and turtles; this park features Al Anderson Memorial Pool, a children’s waterpark and playground, a lacrosse box, twelve picnic tables, public washrooms. A covered picnic shelter that can accommodate up to 75 people is available and can be booked for a picnic; this is an 18-acre fenced area with a perimeter walking path. Dogs and their owners can enjoy a large open space for walking and playing. There is a drinking fountain designed for both dogs and people. Douglas Park is located at the intersection of Douglas Crescent and 206th Street in Langley, British Columbia, Canada; the park contains an adventure playground, two tennis courts, a water park, bowling green, sports box, basketball hoops and public washrooms.
It has an outdoor covered performance platform called "Langley Spirit Square". Langley Spirit Square is the site of an annual Shakespeare performance, "Bard in the Valley." Douglas Recreation Centre, situated in the park, offers many programs for the citizens of Langley and is available for rentals such as wedding receptions or banquets and other events. In 1965, there were plans to build a library in the park, but public opposition forced the library be built elsewhere. In 1971, Langley's city council had plans to install a Chinese garden in the park, but this was never carried out. In 1982, a day care centre in the park was replaced by a bowls meeting house and a bowling green was established adjacent to it. Douglas Park is the main park in the City of Langley for events and other civic activities. Featuring a permanent stage, the park is equipped for live performance of music and other arts; this park contains a wheelchair accessible playground. Public washrooms are available; this park has a suitable parking area and is the starting point to enter the floodplain and various walking trails.
This park has dirt jumps for mountain bike enthusiasts. A nature trail passes through the park; this park contains a playground, ball diamond, senior soccer field, display garden beds, public washrooms. A paved walking path follows the perimeter, the facilities are wheelchair accessible. Th
Victoria Day is a federal Canadian public holiday celebrated on the last Monday preceding May 25, in honour of Queen Victoria's birthday. As such, it is the Monday between the 18th to the 24th inclusive, thus is always the penultimate Monday of May; the date is that on which the current Canadian sovereign's official birthday is recognized. It is sometimes informally considered the beginning of the summer season in Canada; the holiday has been observed in Canada since at least 1845 falling on Victoria's actual birthday. It continues to be celebrated in various fashions across the country. Victoria Day is a federal statutory holiday, as well as a holiday in six of Canada's ten provinces and all three of its territories. In Quebec, before 2003, the Monday preceding 25 May of each year was unofficially the Fête de Dollard, a commemoration of Adam Dollard des Ormeaux initiated in the 1920s to coincide with Victoria Day. In 2003, provincial legislation created National Patriots' Day on the same date.
The birthday of Queen Victoria was a day for celebration in Canada long before Confederation, with the first legislation regarding the event being in 1845 passed by the parliament of the Province of Canada to recognize May 24 as the Queen's birthday. It was noted that on that date in 1854, the 35th birthday of Queen Victoria, some 5,000 residents of Canada West gathered in front of Government House to "give cheers to their queen". An example of a typical 19th century celebration of the Queen's birthday took place on May 24, 1866, in Omemee in Canada West: the town mounted a day-long fête to mark the occasion, including a gun salute at midnight, pre-dawn serenades, athletic competitions, a display of illuminations, a torch-light procession. Following the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, May 24 was made by law to be known as Victoria Day, a date to remember the late queen, deemed the "Mother of Confederation", and, in 1904, the same date was by imperial decree made Empire Day throughout the British Empire.
Over the ensuing decades, the official date in Canada of the reigning sovereign's birthday changed through various royal proclamations until the haphazard format was abandoned in 1952. That year, both Empire Day and Victoria Day were, by order-in-council and statutory amendment moved to the Monday before May 25 and the monarch's official birthday in Canada was by regular viceregal proclamations made to fall on this same date every year between 1953 and January 31, 1957, when the link was made permanent by royal proclamation; the following year, Empire Day was renamed Commonwealth Day and in 1977 it was moved to the second Monday in March, leaving the Monday before May 25 only as both Victoria Day and the Queen's Birthday. Victoria Day celebrations have been marred by major tragedy at least twice: In 1881, the passenger ferry Victoria overturned in the Thames River, near London, Ontario; the boat departed in the evening with 600 to 800 people on board—three times the allowable passenger capacity—and capsized part way across the river, drowning some 182 individuals, including a large number of children, with their families for Victoria Day picnics at Springbank Park.
The event came to be known as the Victoria Day disaster. On May 26, 1896, the Point Ellice Bridge disaster occurred in Victoria, British Columbia, when a bridge collapsed under the weight of a streetcar overloaded with passengers on their way to attend Victoria Day celebrations. In 2013, a group of prominent Canadian actors and politicians sent a petition to Prime Minister Stephen Harper, requesting that the holiday be renamed Victoria and First Peoples Day. Most workplaces in Canada are regulated by the territorial governments. Therefore, although Victoria Day is a statutory holiday for federal purposes, whether an employee is entitled to a paid day off depends on the province or territory of residence; the status of Victoria Day in each of the provinces and territories is as follows: It is a general holiday in Alberta, the Northwest Territories, Yukon and is a statutory holiday in British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Victoria Day is not a paid public holiday in Newfoundland and Labrador, but is a government holiday.
In Nunavut and New Brunswick, the date is set as a general holiday to mark the reigning sovereign's official birthday. In Quebec, the province's legislative assembly passed legislation that dedicated National Patriots' Day, commemorating the patriotes of the Lower Canada Rebellion of 1837, to be celebrated on the Monday preceding May 25; this replaced the Fête de Dollard, celebrated by Quebecers on Victoria Day since the 1960s and which commemorated Adam Dollard des Ormeaux. Canada is the only country. Federal government protocol dictates that, on Victoria Day, the Royal Union Flag is to be flown from sunrise to sunset at all federal government buildings—including airports, military bases, other Crown owned property across the country—where physical arrangements allow (i.e. where a second flag pole exists, as the Royal Un
South Asian Canadians in Greater Vancouver
South Asian Canadians in Metro Vancouver form the third-largest ethnic group in the region, comprising 291,005 or 12% of the total population. Sizable South Asian communities exist within the city of Vancouver along with the adjoining city of Surrey, which houses one of the world's largest South Asian enclaves. Most South Asian-Canadians in Greater Vancouver and cities adjacent to it are Punjabi Sikhs; this differs from the overall composition of South Asians in Canada. Canadian-raised Punjabi Sikhs living in the Vancouver area, which comprises the western half of the Lower Mainland region, perceive "Punjabi" and "Sikh" as being the same thing, therefore they use the two words interchangeably. Hugh Johnston, the author of "The Development of the Punjabi Community in Vancouver since 1961," wrote that "Sikhs are Punjabi". Margaret Walton-Roberts and Daniel Hiebert, the authors of Immigration and the Family, wrote that "The history of Indo-Canadian settlement in Vancouver began in the late 19th century".
The Empress of India arrived in Vancouver in 1904. On board were the first members of Vancouver's South Asian community. At the turn of the century the Mayor of Vancouver did not permit cremation, so when the first Sikh died in 1907 he could not be cremated in the Vancouver city limits. Christian missionaries did not permit him to be buried with whites. Though the missionaries promoted burial, the Sikhs instead cremated the man in a distant wilderness; this prompted Sikhs to establish their own religious institutions. In 1908 the Canadian Dominion government had a plan to obtain labour for sugar plantations in British Honduras, now Belize, by recruiting Punjabis in Vancouver; the plan was not tested because the Punjabis had found employment. In 1914 Sikhs in Vancouver protested after authorities turned away the Komagata Maru and most of its passengers. Shelley Sang-Hee Lee, the author of A New History of Asian America, wrote that the incident had persuaded persons of Indian origin residing on the North American West Coast to oppose discrimination against their ethnic groups.
The system of sponsoring Vancouver-based South Asians sponsoring relatives in India to immigrate to Vancouver began in 1919, when the Canadian government began permitting children and women based in India entry into Canada. By 1923 Vancouver became the primary cultural and religious centre of British Columbia Indo-Canadians and it had the largest East Indian-origin population of any city in North America. Walton-Roberts and Hiebert stated that until the 1960s the Indo-Canadian community in Vancouver "was small". In 1961 the immigration patterns of Sikhs arriving to Canada changed, with Ontario becoming a major centre of immigration. Prior to 1961 Vancouver was the sole major point of Sikh immigration to Canada; the first significant non-Sikh immigration occurred. Additional immigration of those of Indian background residing in India and England occurred in the late 1960s. Immigration from Fiji continued to occur in the 1969-1979 period. Other groups immigrating from 1969 through 1979 included Pakistanis, Sri Lankans, Ismaili Muslims and Gujarati Hindus from East Africa.
In the period 1971 through 1981 East Indians from South Asia, England, East Africa, East Asia, the Caribbean, Southeast Asia arrived in Vancouver. These immigrants included non-Sikhs. Punjabi Canadians began occupying all areas of Vancouver in the 1960s. In the 1970s Punjabi populations began appearing in Delta and Surrey. Vandalism against houses owned by Indo-Canadians and a Sikh gurdwara occurred in the 1970s in 1974-1975 in Surrey. 71,801 South Asian immigrants moved to Vancouver during the period 1980 to 2001. As of 1981 there were about 25,000 ethnic Punjabis in Vancouver, including about 2,288 Hindus with the remainder being Sikhs. In the period 1980 to 2001, India supplied 75 % of the Indo-Canadians. 14% originated from Fiji. Others originated from Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka. In 2001, according to Statistics Canada data on 250,095 immigrants into Vancouver, 12,385 were born in India; some passengers on board Air India Flight 182, which crashed in 1985, were from Greater Vancouver. The bomb that went on AI182 was first placed on a connecting flight.
Since there have been memorial services held at Stanley Park. The Ceperley Playground at Stanley Park has a memorial listing the names of the passengers. By the mid-1980s wealthier Indo-Canadians were moving to Surrey from South Vancouver because land in Surrey was more inexpensive; the 1992 Census stated that in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area there were about 75,000 persons of South Asian origin. In 1996 a controversy occurred when Dr. Stephens, a doctor in San Jose, put advertisements for sex-selection services which would allow parents to reject female children; the Coalition of Women's Organizations Against Sex Selection, organized by Mahila, a women's group headquartered in Vancouver, criticized Stephens. In 2006 the Royal Canadian Mounted Police stated that there had been attempts to extort and kidnap people in Surrey; the RCMP stated. In response, the president of Sikh Alliance Against Violence, stated that the warning
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011; the Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada with over 5,400 people per square kilometre, which makes it the fifth-most densely populated city with over 250,000 residents in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, Mexico City according to the 2011 census. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada according to that census. 30% of the city's inhabitants are of Chinese heritage. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. Vancouver is named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city ranked among the top-ten of the world's most well-living cities for five consecutive years.
Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place; the original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on July 1, 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B. I.. As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the Canadian Pacific Railway, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886.
By 1887, the Canadian Pacific transcontinental railway was extended westward to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport to the Pacific Ocean, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient / East Asia, Eastern Canada, Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third-largest port by tonnage in the Americas, 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and nearby Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the nickname "Hollywood North"; the city takes its name from George Vancouver, who explored the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet in 1792 and gave various places British names. The family name "Vancouver" itself originates from the Dutch "Van Coevorden", denoting somebody from the city of Coevorden, Netherlands.
The explorer's ancestors came to England "from Coevorden", the origin of the name that became "Vancouver". Archaeological records indicate that Aboriginal people were living in the "Vancouver" area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the city is located in the traditional and presently unceded territories of the Squamish and Tseil-Waututh peoples of the Coast Salish group. They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Point Grey and near the mouth of the Fraser River. Europeans became acquainted with the area of the future Vancouver when José María Narváez of Spain explored the coast of present-day Point Grey and parts of Burrard Inlet in 1791—although one author contends that Francis Drake may have visited the area in 1579; the explorer and North West Company trader Simon Fraser and his crew became the first-known Europeans to set foot on the site of the present-day city. In 1808, they travelled from the east down the Fraser River as far as Point Grey.
The Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 brought over 25,000 men from California, to nearby New Westminster on the Fraser River, on their way to the Fraser Canyon, bypassing what would become Vancouver. Vancouver is among British Columbia's youngest cities. A sawmill established at Moodyville in 1863, began the city's long relationship with logging, it was followed by mills owned by Captain Edward Stamp on the south shore of the inlet. Stamp, who had begun logging in the Port Alberni area, first attempted to run a mill at Brockton Point, but difficult currents and reefs forced the relocation of the operation in 1867 to a point near the foot of Dunlevy Street; this mill, known as the Hastings Mill, became the nucleus. The mill's central role in the city waned after the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, it remained important to the local economy until it closed in the 1920s. The settlement which came to be called Gastown grew around