Goalkeeper (association football)
The goalkeeper shortened to keeper or goalie, is one of the major positions of association football. It is the most specialised position in the sport; the goalkeeper's primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring. This is accomplished by the goalkeeper moving into the path of the ball and either catching it or directing it away from the vicinity of the goal line. Within the penalty area goalkeepers are able to use their hands, making them the only players on the field permitted to handle the ball; the special status of goalkeepers is indicated by them wearing different coloured kits from their teammates. The back-pass rule prevents goalkeepers handling direct passes back to them from teammates. Goalkeepers perform goal kicks, give commands to their defense during corner kicks and indirect free kicks, marking. Goalkeepers play an important role in directing on field strategy as they have an unrestricted view of the entire pitch, giving them a unique perspective on play development.
The goalkeeper is the only required position of a team. If they are injured or sent off, a substitute goalkeeper has to take their place, otherwise an outfield player must take the ejected keeper's place in goal. In order to replace a goalkeeper, sent off, a team substitutes an outfield player for the backup keeper, they play the remainder of the match with nine outfield players. If a team does not have a substitute goalkeeper, or they have used all of their permitted substitutions for the match, an outfield player has to take the dismissed goalkeeper's place and wear the goalkeeper shirt; the squad number for a first choice goalkeeper is number 1, although they may wear any jersey number between 1 and 99. Association football, like many sports, has experienced many changes in tactics resulting in the generation and elimination of different positions. Goalkeeper is the only position, certain to have existed since the codification of the sport. In the early days of organised football, when systems were limited or non-existent and the main idea was for all players to attack and defend, teams had a designated member to play as the goalkeeper.
The earliest account of football teams with player positions comes from Richard Mulcaster in 1581 and does not specify goalkeepers. The earliest specific reference to keeping goal comes from Cornish Hurling in 1602. According to Carew: "they pitch two bushes in the ground, some eight or ten foot asunder. One of these is appointed by lots, to the one side, the other to his adverse party. There is assigned for their guard, a couple of their best stopping Hurlers". Other references to scoring goals begin in English literature in the early 16th century. In a 1613 poem, Michael Drayton refers to "when the Ball to throw, And drive it to the Gole, in squadrons forth they goe", it seems inevitable that wherever a game has evolved goals, some form of goalkeeping must be developed. David Wedderburn refers to what has been translated from Latin as to "keep goal" in 1633, though this does not imply a fixed goalkeeper position; the word "goal-keeper" is used in the novel Tom Brown's School Days. The author is here referring to an early form of rugby football: You will see in the first place, that the sixth-form boy, who has the charge of goal, has spread his force so as to occupy the whole space behind the goal-posts, at distances of about five yards apart.
The word "goal-keeper" appeared in the Sheffield Rules of 1867, but the term did not refer to a designated player, but rather to "that player on the defending side who for the time being is nearest to his own goal". The goal-keeper, thus defined, did not enjoy any special handling privileges; the FA's first Laws of the Game of 1863 did not make any special provision for a goalkeeper, with any player being allowed to catch or knock-on the ball. Handling the ball was forbidden in 1870; the next year, 1871, the laws were amended to introduce the goalkeeper and specify that the keeper was allowed to handle the ball "for the protection of his goal". The restrictions on the ability of the goalkeeper to handle the ball were changed several times in subsequent revisions of the laws: 1871: the keeper may handle the ball only "for the protection of his goal". 1873: the keeper may not "carry" the ball. 1883: the keeper may not carry the ball for more than two steps. 1887: the keeper may not handle the ball in the opposition's half.
1901: the keeper may handle the ball for any purpose. 1912: the keeper may handle the ball only in the penalty area. 1931: the keeper may take up to four steps while carrying the ball. 1992: the keeper may not handle the ball after it has been deliberately kicked to him/her by a team-mate. 1997: the keeper may not handle the ball for more than six seconds. Goalkeepers played between the goalposts and had limited mobility, except when trying to save opposition shots. Throughout the years, the role of the goalkeeper has evolved, due to the changes in systems of play, to become more active; the goalkeeper is the only player in association football allowed to use their han
José Ingenieros, Buenos Aires
José Ingenieros is a town in Tres de Febrero Partido of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. It is located in the Greater Buenos Aires urban agglomeration; the settlement is named in honour of José Ingenieros, an Argentine physician, positivist philosopher and essayist. Estadio Tres de Febrero is located in the town, it is the home stadium of Club Almagro. Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina
Asociación Amateurs de Football
The Asociación Amateurs de Football was a dissident football association of Argentina that organised its own championships from 1919 to 1926. The Argentine Football Association did not recognised those championships until both associations were merged in 1926. All the championships organised by the AAmF are considered officials by the AFA. On 16 March 1919, the Primera División season started with 19 teams taking part of the competence. With the 1919 championship still disputing, the conflict began; the Argentine Association rejected representatives from the clubs Estudiantil Porteño, Platense, River Plate and Tigre. As those teams maintained their position, the Association disaffiliated them temporarily. Meanwhile, other seven clubs, Defensores de Belgrano, Gimnasia y Esgrima, San Isidro, San Lorenzo and Sportivo Barracas expressed their solidarity with the suspended clubs therefore the association directly expelled them from the body. With only 10 fixtures played, the championship was suspended and all the matches played until were annulled.
The breakage was related with the brown amateurism, an undercover way of professionalism where the clubs informally paid salaries and special prizes to their players. The 13 clubs, disaffiliated or expelled from the AFA joined forces to form a new association with the purpose to organise their own championships; the "Asociación Amateurs de Football" was established on 22 September 1919, with an assembly held in the Jockey Club on 6 December. On the other hand, Boca Juniors, Eureka, Huracán, Porteño and Sportivo Almagro remained affiliated to the official body. On 28 September, both competitions started, the official with only those six teams and the dissident with 14 teams; because of the conflict that made the official championship take longer than expected, The AFA tournament was ended up. As a result, Boca Juniors was crowned; the AAmF championship was won by Racing Club. After seven years of championships held that including the trespassing of clubs from a body to another, on 19 November 1926, President of Argentina Marcelo T. de Alvear called both associations to a reconciliation meeting that laid the foundations for a reunification.
As a condition to reach an agreement, the AAmF required that all the teams that had played the 1926 AAmF championship remained in Primera División. It was conceded and both associations merged on 28 December 1926; the AAmF organised its own national cup, the Copa de Competencia, with four editions between 1920 and 1926. Copa de Competencia Copa Presidente de la Nación Federación Argentina de Football Liga Argentina de Football Argentine División Intermedia Argentine Primera División Football in Argentina
FIFA eligibility rules
As the governing body of association football, FIFA is responsible for maintaining and implementing the rules that determine whether an association football player is eligible to represent a particular country in recognised international competitions and friendly matches. In the 20th century, FIFA allowed a player to represent any national team, as long as the player held citizenship of that country. In 2004, in reaction to the growing trend towards naturalisation of foreign players in some countries, FIFA implemented a significant new ruling that requires a player to demonstrate a "clear connection" to any country they wish to represent. FIFA has used its authority to overturn results of competitive international matches that feature ineligible players. FIFA's eligibility rules demand that in men's competitions, only men are eligible to play, that in women's competitions, only women are eligible to play, it was possible for players to play for different national teams. For example, Alfredo Di Stéfano played for Spain.
Di Stefano's Real Madrid teammate Ferenc Puskás played for Spain after amassing 85 caps for Hungary earlier in his career. A third high-profile instance of a player switching international football nationalities is Jose Altafini, who played for Brazil in the 1958 FIFA World Cup and for Italy in the subsequent 1962 FIFA World Cup. Other 20th-century examples of players representing two or three separate countries are: Joe Gaetjens – László Kubala – Raimundo Orsi – Luis Monti – Michel Platini – José Santamaría – Alberto Spencer – This does not include the hundreds of players whose teams were affected by changes to geopolitical borders e.g. East Germany/Germany, Soviet Union/Ukraine, Yugoslavia/Croatia. Furthermore, some international players have played for another FIFA-recognised country in unofficial international matches, i.e. fixtures not recognised by FIFA as full internationals. This category includes Daniel Brailovsky who played for Uruguay youth teams, was featured in camps for Argentina and years officially represented Israel.
These caps are not recognised due to a dispute between FIFA and the Colombian Football Federation at the time. In January 2004, a new ruling came into effect that permitted a player to represent one country at youth international level and another at senior international level, provided that the player applied before their 21st birthday; the first player to do so was Antar Yahia, who played for the France under-18s before representing Algeria in qualifiers for the 2004 Olympic Games. More recent examples include Sone Aluko, who has caps for the England under-19s and Nigeria, Andrew Driver, a former England under-21 representative, committed to the Scotland national team. In March 2004, FIFA amended its wider policy on international eligibility; this was reported to be in response to a growing trend in some countries, such as Qatar and Togo, to naturalise players born and raised in Brazil that have no apparent ancestral links to their new country of citizenship. An emergency FIFA committee ruling judged that players must be able to demonstrate a "clear connection" to a country that they had not been born in but wished to represent.
This ruling explicitly stated that, in such scenarios, the player must have at least one parent or grandparent, born in that country, or the player must have been resident in that country for at least two years. In November 2007, FIFA President Sepp Blatter told the BBC: "If we don't stop this farce, if we don't take care about the invaders from Brazil towards Europe and Africa in the 2014 or the 2018 World Cup, out of the 32 teams you will have 16 full of Brazilian players."The residency requirement for players lacking birth or ancestral connections with a specific country was extended from two to five years in May 2008 at FIFA's Congress as part of Blatter's efforts to preserve the integrity of competitions involving national teams. The relevant current FIFA statute, Article 7: Acquisition of a new nationality, states: Any player... who assumes a new nationality and who has not played international football shall be eligible to play for the new representative team only if he fulfils one of the following conditions: a) He was born on the territory of the relevant association.
Under the criteria it is possible for a player to have a choice of representing several national teams. It is not uncommon for national team managers and scouts to attempt to persuade players to change their FIFA nationality. Gareth Bale was asked about a possibility to play for England, being of English descent through his grandmother, but opted to represent Wales, his country of birth. In June 2009, FIFA Congress passed a motion that removed the age limit for players who had alre
Columbian Football Club
Columbian Football Club was an Argentine football team that played in the Primera División. The club is a predecessor of the present-day Club Almagro. Around 1911, a group of young immigrants from Galicia who owned a store in Buenos Aires established a club under the name "Pontevedra Sporting Club". In 1913 the club joined the formed Federación Argentina de Football under the name "Club Hispano Argentino". In its first year of official competition, the team finished 6th out of 10; that same year the club took on some members from Argentino de Quilmes who were in disagreement with the executives of that club. In 1914 the team finished 6th again, out of 8 participating teams; the club's player Norberto Carabelli was the top scorer of the tournament, with 11 goals. In 1915 when the two associations merged into one, the number of teams participating in the league increased to 25. Hispano Argentino finished 16th; the next year the club changed its name to "Columbian Football Club". The team did not have much success during the succeeding years, was about to be relegated to a lower division in 1918 when it finished 18th out of 20.
In 1919 there was a new split in Argentine football, so both leagues played at the same time: the official Asociación Argentina and dissident "Asociación Amateurs de Football". During that season, the club was going through a severe economic crisis, playing its last game as "Columbian" vs. Boca Juniors in the 6th match; some executives of promoted Club Almagro, led by Miguel de Zárate, made Club Columbian a merger proposal, accepted. Almagro was renamed "Sportivo Almagro" and continued playing in the Primera División (debuting in the 7th match vs Platense under its new denomination, which saved the club from being disaffiliated. Notes: The stadium was located between Vélez Sársfield and Iriarte streets in Buenos Aires, it had been inaugurated on May 28, 1911 in a match vs. Estudiantes de Buenos Aires