Radio broadcasting is transmission by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both; the signal types can be digital audio. The earliest radio stations did not carry audio. For audio broadcasts to be possible, electronic detection and amplification devices had to be incorporated; the thermionic valve was invented in 1904 by the English physicist John Ambrose Fleming. He developed a device he called an "oscillation valve"; the heated filament, or cathode, was capable of thermionic emission of electrons that would flow to the plate when it was at a higher voltage. Electrons, could not pass in the reverse direction because the plate was not heated and thus not capable of thermionic emission of electrons. Known as the Fleming valve, it could be used as a rectifier of alternating current and as a radio wave detector; this improved the crystal set which rectified the radio signal using an early solid-state diode based on a crystal and a so-called cat's whisker.
However, what was still required was an amplifier. The triode was patented on March 4, 1906, by the Austrian Robert von Lieben independent from that, on October 25, 1906, Lee De Forest patented his three-element Audion, it wasn't put to practical use until 1912 when its amplifying ability became recognized by researchers. By about 1920, valve technology had matured to the point where radio broadcasting was becoming viable. However, an early audio transmission that could be termed a broadcast may have occurred on Christmas Eve in 1906 by Reginald Fessenden, although this is disputed. While many early experimenters attempted to create systems similar to radiotelephone devices by which only two parties were meant to communicate, there were others who intended to transmit to larger audiences. Charles Herrold started broadcasting in California in 1909 and was carrying audio by the next year.. In The Hague, the Netherlands, PCGG started broadcasting on November 6, 1919, making it, arguably the first commercial broadcasting station.
In 1916, Frank Conrad, an electrical engineer employed at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, began broadcasting from his Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania garage with the call letters 8XK. The station was moved to the top of the Westinghouse factory building in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Westinghouse relaunched the station as KDKA on November 2, 1920, as the first commercially licensed radio station in America; the commercial broadcasting designation came from the type of broadcast license. The first licensed broadcast in the United States came from KDKA itself: the results of the Harding/Cox Presidential Election; the Montreal station that became CFCF began broadcast programming on May 20, 1920, the Detroit station that became WWJ began program broadcasts beginning on August 20, 1920, although neither held a license at the time. In 1920, wireless broadcasts for entertainment began in the UK from the Marconi Research Centre 2MT at Writtle near Chelmsford, England. A famous broadcast from Marconi's New Street Works factory in Chelmsford was made by the famous soprano Dame Nellie Melba on 15 June 1920, where she sang two arias and her famous trill.
She was the first artist of international renown to participate in direct radio broadcasts. The 2MT station began to broadcast regular entertainment in 1922; the BBC was amalgamated in 1922 and received a Royal Charter in 1926, making it the first national broadcaster in the world, followed by Czech Radio and other European broadcasters in 1923. Radio Argentina began scheduled transmissions from the Teatro Coliseo in Buenos Aires on August 27, 1920, making its own priority claim; the station got its license on November 19, 1923. The delay was due to the lack of official Argentine licensing procedures before that date; this station continued regular broadcasting of entertainment and cultural fare for several decades. Radio in education soon followed and colleges across the U. S. began adding radio broadcasting courses to their curricula. Curry College in Milton, Massachusetts introduced one of the first broadcasting majors in 1932 when the college teamed up with WLOE in Boston to have students broadcast programs.
Broadcasting service is – according to Article 1.38 of the International Telecommunication Union´s Radio Regulations – defined as «A radiocommunication service in which the transmission are intended for direct reception by the general public. This service may include sound transmissions, television transmissions or other types of transmission.» Definitions identical to those contained in the Annexes to the Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union are marked "" or "" respectively. A radio broadcasting station is associated with wireless transmission, though in practice broadcasting transmission take place using both wires and radio waves; the point of this is that anyone with the appropriate receiving technology can receive the broadcast. In line to ITU Radio Regulations each broadcasting station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily. Broadcasting by radio takes several forms; these include FM stations. There are several subtypes, namely commercial broadcasting, non-commercial educational public broadcasting and non-profit varieties as well as community radio, student-run campus radio stations, and
Jerry Gray (arranger)
Jerry Gray was an American violinist, arranger and leader of swing dance orchestras bearing his name. He is known for his work with popular music during the Swing era, his name is inextricably linked to two of the most famous bandleaders of the time, Artie Shaw and Glenn Miller. Gray, along with Bill Finegan, wrote many of Miller's arrangements during the late 1930s and early 1940s. In the latter part of Gray's career, his orchestra served as the house band at the Venetian Room of the Fairmont Hotel, Dallas. Jerry Gray was born Generoso Graziano in Massachusetts, his father, Albert Graziano, was a music teacher. As a teenager Graziano studied with Emanuel Ondříček and was a soloist with the Boston Junior Symphony. By age eighteen he was performing in Boston clubs. In 1936 Gray joined Artie Shaw, calling himself Art Shaw, his "New Music" orchestra as lead violinist, he became a staff arranger a year later. During the next two years he penned some of the band's most popular arrangements, including "Carioca", "Softly, As in a Morning Sunrise", "Any Old Time", the classic "Begin the Beguine."
Many of his up-tempo arrangements show early evidence of the style that would become his trademark: a melody broken into two- to four-measure phrases carried by brass section, repeated with increasing intensity until the climax. In November 1939, Shaw broke up his band and moved to Mexico. On the next day, Glenn Miller offered him a job arranging for his band, it was a difficult move because Shaw had allowed his arrangers great musical latitude, while Miller's commercial orientation led him to second-guess his staff. Gray found himself more in line with Miller's less–mercurial personality and was allowed more of the freedom that he appreciated; as Gray told author George T. Simon, "To me, Glenn's band didn't swing like Artie's... But after I made up my mind to accept things as they were, things started to click... He was a businessman who appreciated music... I may have been happier musically with Artie, but I was happier with Glenn."Gray's time with the Glenn Miller Orchestra produced many of the most recognizable and memorable recordings of the era.
He arranged "Elmer's Tune", "Moonlight Cocktail", "Perfidia", "Chattanooga Choo-Choo" among others, while his compositions included "Sun Valley Jump", "The Man in the Moon", "Caribbean Clipper", "Pennsylvania 6-5000", "I Dreamt I Dwelt in Harlem", "Introduction to a Waltz" with Glenn Miller and Harold Dickinson, "Flagwaver", "Solid As a Stonewall Jackson" with Chummy MacGregor, "Oh So Good", "Jeep Jockey Jump", "Enlisted Men's Mess", "Keep'Em Flying", "V Hop" or "V For Victory Hop", "Passage Interdit", "Snafu Jump", "A Love Song Hasn't Been Sung" with Bill Conway and Harold Dickinson, "Are You Rusty, Gate?", "Here We Go Again", "The Spirit is Willing" and his most famous song, "A String of Pearls". So many of Gray's pieces became best-sellers that he has been described as more responsible for the band's success than Miller himself, although publicly, Gray always described the relationship as mutually beneficial. Gray was again without a job when Miller broke up his band in September 1942 to enter the Army Air Forces.
Captain Miller used his connections to have Gray posted in his unit. Entrenched military bureaucracy halted Miller's initial plans to establish a group of service bands with Gray as coordinator of the arranging staffs. Instead, Gray became chief arranger for the Miller's "Band of the Training Command", better known today as the Glenn Miller Army Air Forces Orchestra. Gray's training as both a violinist and swing arranger served him well in the massive AAF orchestra composed of an enlarged dance band and a 21–member string section, he created new arrangements of several of Miller's civilian–band hits, added strings to the version of "Begin the Beguine" that he had written for Artie Shaw, wrote somewhat looser jazz pieces such as "Enlisted Men's Mess". He co-wrote the famous march version of "St. Louis Blues" along with Perry Burgett and Ray McKinley. Two arrangements in particular show the breadth of styles that he was able to contribute: a lush, string-heavy treatment of Fred Fisher's "Blue is the Night" gave that obscure tune a semi–classical cast, while his punching brass arrangement of "Everybody Loves My Baby" was the culmination of the repetitive short-phrasing style he developed with the Shaw band.
Gray was the full orchestra's assistant conductor, while Ray McKinley and George Ockner served as seconds-in-command for the dance band and string section, respectively. It fell to Gray to conduct the orchestra's first concert in Paris after Miller's airplane disappeared over the English Channel; when the men returned to the U. S. in 1945 and McKinley left following his discharge, Gray assumed full leadership of the AAF Orchestra until its final performance on November 17 of that year. Gray was passed over for the job of leading the postwar "ghost" Glenn Miller Orchestra because the Miller Estate felt he did not have the pop-star qualities they wanted in a new leader. Instead, they approached Ray McKinley, not interested, hired Tex Beneke whose talents as vocalist and lead tenor sax player in Miller's civilian band provided a much more colorful front for the band. In 1945, Grey was an arranger for the Tex Beneke-Glenn Miller Orchestra when Henry Mancini was the pianist. In 1947, Gray served as Mancini's best man at his wedding.
For a while Gray, did radio and studio work in the Los Angeles area, including leading the band on a radio show called Club 15 that feat
Richard Benjamin Haymes, known as Dick Haymes, was an Argentinean-born actor and singer, active in the United States. He was one of the most popular male vocalists of early 1950s, he was the older brother of Bob Haymes, an actor, television host, songwriter. Haymes was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1916, his mother, whom Haymes predeceased, was Irish-born Marguerite Haymes, a well-known vocal coach and instructor. His father was of English descent; the Haymeses traveled extensively before settling in the United States. At the age of 17, Haymes moved to Los Angeles where he worked as a stunt man and film double. At the age of 19, he moved to New York City. On September 3, 1942, Frank Sinatra introduced Haymes on radio as Sinatra's replacement in the Tommy Dorsey band. Prior to joining Dorsey's group, Haymes sang with the Harry James orchestra. In 1945 Haymes co-starred with Jeanne Crain, Dana Andrews and Vivian Blaine in the musical State Fair, he teamed with female vocalist Helen Forrest for many hit duets during World War II, including "Together," "I'll Buy That Dream," and "Long Ago and Far Away".
From 1944 to 1948, he had his own radio program, The Dick Haymes Show, first on NBC and on CBS. He paired with the Andrews Sisters on a dozen or so Decca collaborations, including the Billboard hit "Teresa," "Great Day," "My Sin," and a 1952 rendering of the dramatic ballad "Here in My Heart," backed by the sisters and Nelson Riddle's lush strings, his duets with Patty Andrews were well received, both on Decca vinyl and on radio's Club Fifteen with the sisters, which he hosted in 1949 and 1950. He joined Bing Crosby and The Andrews Sisters for 1947 session that produced the Billboard hit "There's No Business Like Show Business," as well as "Anything You Can Do." His popular renditions of tender ballads such as "Little White Lies" and "Maybe It's Because" were recorded with celebrated arranger Gordon Jenkins and his orchestra and chorus. Haymes's birth in Argentina to non-U. S. Citizens meant. In order to avoid military service during World War II, Haymes asserted his nonbelligerent status as a citizen of Argentina, neutral at that time.
Hollywood-based columnists Louella Parsons and Hedda Hopper questioned Haymes' patriotism, but the story had little effect on his career. About that time, he was classified 4-F by the draft board because of hypertension; as part of his draft examination, he was confined for a short period to a hospital on Ellis Island, which confirmed his hypertension. In 1953, Haymes went to Hawaii without first notifying immigration authorities. On returning to the mainland United States, he was nearly deported to Argentina, but won his battle to remain in the United States, he experienced serious financial problems in life, by the early 1960s declaring bankruptcy with $500,000 in debts. He appeared as unscrupulous doctor Elroy Gantman in a 1974 episode of the TV show Adam-12. Haymes was married six times, including to film actresses Joanne Dru, Rita Hayworth, Fran Jeffries, he was married to Nora Eddington, a former wife of Errol Flynn. Haymes had a total of six children—three with Joanne Dru, one with Fran Jeffries, two with his sixth and final wife, British model Wendy Smith.
On March 28, 1980, Haymes died from lung cancer in at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles. He was 63 years old. Dick Haymes Sings – Carmen Cavallaro at the Piano – Irving Berlin Songs Rain or Shine Moondreams Look at Me Now! Richard the Lion-Hearted - Dick Haymes that is! Dick Haymes Little White Lies Dick Haymes - Maury Laws Orchestra / Featuring Cy Coleman Love Letters Spotlight On – Dick Haymes Sings Romantic Ballads - Featuring Johnny Kay Easy Imagination Dick Haymes Comes Home! Dick Haymes You'll Never Know His 53 Finest 2 CDset Richard the Lion-Hearted – Dick Haymes that is! Re-issue of the vinyl album Imagination The Very Best of Dick Haymes, Vol. 1 The Very Best of Dick Haymes, Vol. 2 The Complete Columbia Recordings – with Harry James and Benny Goodman Little White Lies: 25 Original Mono Recordings 1942-1050. Living Era. ASV Mono. CD AJA 5387 Christmas Wishes Golden Years of Dick Haymes The Complete Capitol Collection Mutiny on the Bounty – Able-Bodied Seaman Dramatic School – Student Du Barry Was a Lady – Singer Girl Crazy – Member, The Pied Pipers Four Jills in a Jeep – Lt. Dick Ryan Irish Eyes Are Smiling – Ernest R. Ball I Am an American – Himself Diamond Horseshoe – Joe Davis Jr.
State Fair – Wayne Frake Fallen Angel – Himself – JukeBox Vocalist Do You Love Me – Jimmy Hale The Shocking Miss Pilgrim – John Pritchard Carnival in Costa Rica – Jeff Stephens Up in Central Park – John Matthews One Touch of Venus – Joe Grant Words and Music – Himself St. Benny the Dip – Benny Hollywood Fun Festival – Master of Ceremonies All Ashore – Joe Carter Let's Do It Again – Singer –'I Could Never Love Anyone But You' Cruisin' Down the River (
The Pied Pipers
The Pied Pipers is an American popular singing group formed in the late 1930s. They had several chart hits through the 1940s, both under their own name and in association with Tommy Dorsey and with Frank Sinatra, they consisted of eight members who had belonged to three separate groups: Jo Stafford from The Stafford Sisters, seven male singers: John Huddleston, Hal Hopper, Chuck Lowry, Bud Hervey, George Tait, Woody Newbury, Dick Whittinghill, who had belonged to two groups named The Four Esquires and The Three Rhythm Kings, all of whom were contributing to the 1938 movie Alexander's Ragtime Band. Multi-instrumentalist Spencer Clark was a member at one point. Paul Weston and Axel Stordahl, who were arrangers for Tommy Dorsey's big band, heard of the group through two of The King Sisters and Yvonne. Weston had a jam session at his home and a visiting advertising executive signed the octet for Dorsey's radio program, broadcast in New York City, they sang with Dorsey's orchestra for about six weeks before a British representative of the sponsor objected to some of the songs in their repertoire and fired them.
They went back to California, but in the time they had been in New York had recorded two records for RCA Victor Records. While in Los Angeles, the group was reduced to a quartet: Jo Stafford, her then-husband John Huddleston, Chuck Lowry from the original eight, Billy Wilson, they were getting little work and were on the threshold of disbanding when they received a call from Tommy Dorsey. Dorsey said he could not afford to hire eight Pipers but would be happy to have them join him if they could cut the number down to a quartet; as they had done that, with only one unemployment check remaining, they were happy to comply. In 1939, they moved to Chicago, with Clark Yocum, who had played guitar and sung for Dorsey, replacing Wilson. Although Paul Weston left Dorsey to become Dinah Shore's music director about that time, he was to figure in the fortunes of the group again. In 1940, Dorsey hired another vocalist, Frank Sinatra, who had sung in a quartet, The Hoboken Four, with Harry James' orchestra.
Sinatra and the Pipers teamed to record a major hit, in that year. The group had twelve more chart hits with ten of them with Sinatra. Jo Stafford herself had a solo hit, "Yes Indeed", in 1941. Around Thanksgiving 1942, Tommy Dorsey became angry at one of the Pipers for sending him in the wrong direction at a railroad station in Portland and fired him; the Pipers, out of "team loyalty," resigned en masse. At that moment, the #1 record on the charts was "There Are Such Things" sung by Frank Sinatra and the Pied Pipers, the last RCA record they did with Dorsey, they returned to Los Angeles and signed with Capitol Records, where Paul Weston was now working, he became the arranger and orchestra leader for most of the Pipers' recordings. Huddleston left to join the war effort, Hal Hopper rejoined the group to replace him; the group backed Johnny Mercer on a number of sides. And in 1944 Jo Stafford had a hit on her own, ahead of the Pipers, after a couple more hits, she left for good to pursue a solo career.
She was replaced in May by June Hutton, singing with the Stardusters. The Pipers had twelve charted hit singles on Capitol, including "Dream" and ending with "My Happiness" in 1948, they continued a relationship with Frank Sinatra, doing several tours with him starting in 1945 and becoming a regular on his radio program from 1945 to 1947. In 1944, The Pied Pipers were regulars on Johnny Mercer's Chesterfield Music Shop on NBC Monday through Friday nights. Beginning March 30, 1948, the group became a part of Club Fifteen on CBS, they sang on the program's Tuesday and Thursday episodes, alternating with The Andrews Sisters, who sang on Mondays and Fridays. In 1950, June Hutton left the group and was replaced by Sue Allen and by Virginia Marcy. Hutton married the other half of Dorsey's original arranging team. Just as Jo Stafford had her husband's orchestra accompany her on her solo hits, June Hutton's solo hits on Capitol in the 1950s featured Stordahl's orchestra as backing group. Louanne Hogan, the dubbed singing voice behind several movie stars, was a member of The Pied Pipers in 1951.
Lee Gotch, who had sung in the 1940's with the swing group Six Hits and a Miss, joined the Pied Pipers from 1954 to 1967, during which time he recorded an LP by Lee Gotch's Ivy Barflies. The Pied Pipers sang on a few tracks of Frank Sinatra's 1950's studio albums, backed up Sam Cooke on his #1 hit, "You Send Me", made a guest appearance on I Love Lucy; the current Pied Pipers are Don Lucas, Kevin Kennard, Chris Sanders and David Zack. The group performs with the Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra. In both 1944 and 1945, The Pied Pipers won awards from Down Beat magazine as the best and most popular group of the year; the group was inducted into the Vocal Group Hall of Fame in 2001. Pied Pipers Homepage Tribute to The Pied Pipers'The Pied Pipers' Vocal Group Hall of Fame Page
The Andrews Sisters
The Andrews Sisters were an American close harmony singing group of the swing and boogie-woogie eras. The group consisted of three sisters: contralto LaVerne Sophia, soprano Maxene Anglyn, mezzo-soprano Patricia Marie "Patty". Throughout their career, the sisters sold over 75 million records, their 1941 hit "Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy" can be considered an early example of rhythm and blues or jump blues. Other songs associated with the Andrews Sisters include their first major hit, "Bei Mir Bist Du Schön", "Beer Barrel Polka", "Beat Me Daddy, Eight to the Bar", "Don't Sit Under the Apple Tree", "Rum and Coca Cola", which helped introduce American audiences to calypso; the Andrews Sisters' harmonies and songs are still influential today, have been copied and recorded by entertainers such as Bette Midler, Christina Aguilera and others. The group was among the inaugural inductees to the Vocal Group Hall of Fame upon its opening in 1998. Writing for Bloomberg, Mark Schoifet said the sisters became the most popular female vocal group of the first half of the 20th century.
They are still acclaimed today for their famous close harmonies. They were inducted into the Minnesota Rock/Country Hall of Fame in May 2006; the sisters were born to Peter Olga. Patty, the youngest and the lead singer of the group, was 7 when the group was formed, 12 when they won first prize at a talent contest at the local Orpheum Theatre in Minneapolis, where LaVerne played piano accompaniment for the silent film showings in exchange for free dancing lessons for herself and her sisters. Following the collapse of their father's Minneapolis restaurant, the sisters went on the road to support the family, they started their career as imitators of an earlier successful singing group, the Boswell Sisters, who were popular in the 1930s. After singing with various dance bands and touring in vaudeville with the likes of Leon Belasco, comic bandleader Larry Rich, they first came to national attention with their recordings and radio broadcasts in 1937, most notably via their major Decca record hit, "Bei Mir Bist Du Schön" a Yiddish tune, the lyrics of which Sammy Cahn had translated to English and "which the girls harmonized to perfection."
They followed this success with a string of best-selling records over the next two years and they became a household name by the 1940s. Instrumental to the sisters' success over the years were their parents and Peter, their orchestra leader and musical arranger, Vic Schoen, Jack and David Kapp, who founded Decca Records. In the years just before and during World War II, the Andrews Sisters were at the height of their popularity, the group still tends to be associated in the public's mind with the war years, they had numerous hit records during these years, both on their own and in collaboration with Bing Crosby. Some of these hits had service or military related themes, including "Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy", "Three Little Sisters", "Don't Sit Under the Apple Tree", "A Hot Time In the Town of Berlin" and "Rum and Coca Cola"; the sisters performed their hits in service comedy films like Private Buckaroo. During the war, they entertained the Allied forces extensively in Africa, Italy, as well as in the U.
S. visiting Army, Navy and Coast Guard bases, war zones and munitions factories. They encouraged U. S. citizens to purchase war bonds with their rendition of Irving Berlin's song "Any Bonds Today?". They helped actress Bette Davis and actor John Garfield found California's famous Hollywood Canteen, a welcome retreat for servicemen where the trio performed, volunteering their personal time to sing and dance for the soldiers and marines. While touring, they treated three random servicemen to dinner when they were dining out, they recorded a series of Victory Discs for distribution to Allied fighting forces only, again volunteering their time for studio sessions for the Music Branch, Special Service Division, of the Army Service Forces, they were dubbed the "Sweethearts of the Armed Forces Radio Service" for their many appearances on shows such as "Command Performance", "Mail Call", "G. I. Journal."The sisters' 1945 hit "Rum and Coca Cola" became one of their most popular and best-known recordings, but inspired some controversy.
Some radio stations were reluctant to play the record because it mentioned a commercial product by name, because the lyrics were subtly suggestive of local women prostituting themselves to U. S. servicemen serving at the naval base on Trinidad. The song was based on a Trinidadian calypso, a dispute over its provenance led to a well-publicized court case; the sisters told biographers that they were asked to record the tune on short notice and were unaware either of the copyright issue or of the implications of the lyrics. An ad in the 1951'Radio Annual' showed photos of the Andrews as children, as contemporary singers, as old women in the then-future year of 1975, although the act would not make it that long. In the 1950s, Patty Andrews decided to break away from the act to be a soloist, she had married the trio's pianist, Walter Weschler, who became the group's manager and demanded more mo
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa