The Vietnam War known as the Second Indochina War, in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union and other communist allies; the war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U. S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975. American military advisors began arriving in what was French Indochina in 1950 to support the French in the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh. Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U. S. After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military responsibility for the South Vietnamese state.
The Việt Cộng known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF, a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, initiated a guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government in 1959. U. S. involvement escalated in 1960, continued in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963. By 1964, there were 23,000 U. S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U. S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U. S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000. Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam known as the North Vietnamese Army engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces; every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.
U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces and airstrikes. The U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Tet Offensive of 1968, proved to be the turning point of the war; the Tet Offensive showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war. The unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders. S. forces. Gradual withdrawal of U. S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.
S. Congress; the capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war, North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians, 20,000–62,000 Laotians, 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict, a further 1,626 remain missing in action. The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and confllict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War; the end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.
Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements, which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s. Various names have been applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most used name in English, it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this particular conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ, but less formally as'Cuộc chiến tranh Mỹ', it is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam. The primary military organizations involved in the war were as follows: One side consisted of th
Georgism called geoism and single tax, is an economic philosophy holding that, while people should own the value they produce themselves, economic value derived from land should belong to all members of society. Developed from the writings of the economist and social reformer Henry George, the Georgist paradigm seeks solutions to social and ecological problems, based on principles of land rights and public finance which attempt to integrate economic efficiency with social justice. Georgism is concerned with the distribution of economic rent caused by natural monopolies and the control of commons, including title of ownership for natural resources and other contrived privileges. Any natural resource, inherently limited in supply can generate economic rent, but the classical and most significant example of'land monopoly' involves the extraction of common ground rent from valuable urban locations. Georgists argue that taxing economic rent is efficient and equitable; the main Georgist policy recommendation is a tax assessed on land value.
Georgists argue that revenues from a land value tax can be used to reduce or eliminate existing taxes that are unfair and inefficient. Some Georgists advocate for the return of surplus public revenue to the people by means of a basic income or citizen's dividend. Economists since Adam Smith and David Ricardo have observed that, unlike other taxes, a public levy on land value does not cause economic inefficiency. A land value tax has progressive tax effects, in that it is paid by the wealthy, it cannot be passed on to tenants, workers, or users of land. Advocates of land value taxes argue that they would reduce economic inequality, increase economic efficiency, remove incentives to under-utilize urban land, reduce property speculation; the philosophical basis of Georgism dates back to several early thinkers such as John Locke, Baruch Spinoza, Thomas Paine, but the concept of gaining public revenues from land and natural resource privileges was popularized by Henry George and his first book and Poverty.
Georgist ideas were influential during the late 19th and early 20th century. Political parties and communities were founded based on Georgist principles during that time. Early devotees of Henry George's economic philosophy were termed Single Taxers for their political goal of raising public revenue from a land value tax, although Georgists endorsed multiple forms of rent capture as legitimate; the term Georgism was invented and some prefer the term geoism to distinguish their beliefs from those of Henry George. Henry George is best known for popularizing the argument that government should be funded by a tax on land rent rather than taxes on labor. George believed that although scientific experiments could not be performed in political economy, theories could be tested by comparing different societies with different conditions and by thought experiments about the effects of various factors. Applying this method, he concluded that many of the problems that beset society, such as poverty and economic booms and busts, could be attributed to the private ownership of the necessary resource, land.
In his most celebrated book and Poverty, George argues that the appropriation of land for private use contributes to persistent poverty in spite of technological progress, causes economies to exhibit a tendency toward boom and bust cycles. According to George, people justly own what they create, but that natural opportunities and land belong to all; the tax upon land values is, the most just and equal of all taxes. It falls only upon those who receive from society a peculiar and valuable benefit, upon them in proportion to the benefit they receive, it is the taking by the community, for the use of the community, of that value, the creation of the community. It is the application of the common property to common uses; when all rent is taken by taxation for the needs of the community will the equality ordained by Nature be attained. No citizen will have an advantage over any other citizen save as is given by his industry and intelligence, but not till will labor get its full reward, capital its natural return.
George believed there was an important distinction between collective property. Although equal rights to land might be achieved by nationalizing land and leasing it to private users, George preferred taxing unimproved land value and leaving the control of land in private hands. George's reasoning for leaving land in private control and shifting to land value tax was that it would not penalize existing owners who had improved land and would be less disruptive and controversial in a country where land titles have been granted. Georgists have observed that created wealth is socialized via the tax system, while created wealth in land values are privatized in the price of land titles and bank mortgages; the opposite would be the case if land rents replaced taxes on labor as the main source of public revenue. According to Georgists, a land value tax can be considered a user fee instead of a tax, since it is related to the market value of created locational advantage, the privilege to exclude others from locations.
Assets consisting of commodified privilege can be considered as wealth si
The Labor Left is an organised Left faction of the Australian Labor Party. It competes with the more fiscally conservative Labor Right faction; the Labor Left operates autonomously in each State and Territory of Australia, organises as a broad alliance at the national level. Its policy positions include party democratisation, economic interventionism, progressive tax reform, refugee rights, gender equality and gay marriage. Most political parties contain informal factions of members; however the Australian Labor Party is noted for having structured and organised factions across the ideological spectrum. Labor Left is a membership-based organisation which has internal office bearers and policy positions; the faction coordinates political activity and policy development across different hierarchical levels and organisational components of the party, negotiates with other factions on political strategy and policy, uses party processes to try and defeat other groups if consensus cannot be reached.
Many members of parliament and trade union leaders are formally aligned with the Left and Right factions, party positions and ministerial allocations are negotiated and divided between the factions based on the proportion of Labor caucus aligned with that faction. The modern Labor Left emerged from the Labor Party split of 1955, in which anti-Communist activists associated with B. A. Santamaria and the Industrial Groups formed the Democratic Labor Party while left-wing parliamentarians and unions loyal to H. V. Evatt and Arthur Calwell remained in the Australian Labor Party; the split played out differently across the country, with anti-Communists leaving the party in Victoria and Queensland but remaining within in most other states. This created a power vacuum which allowed the Left to take control of the Federal Executive and Victorian state branch, while its opponents were preserved elsewhere. From 1965 organised internal groups emerged to challenge the control of the Left, supported by figures such as John Button and Gough Whitlam.
After the Victorian branch lost the 1970 state election in the midst of a public dispute with Whitlam over state aid for private schools, the South Australian Left, led by Clyde Cameron, New South Wales Left, led by Arthur Gietzelt, agreed to support an intervention which saw the Victorian state branch abolished and subsequently reconstructed without Left control. Barcan, The socialist left in Australia 1949–1959 Sydney: Australian Political Studies Association no. 2. Leigh, Andrew and Fractions: A Case Study of Power Politics in the Australian Labor Party Australian Journal of Political Science, 2000, volume 35, issue 3, pages 427–448 Bongiorno, Frank The New South Wales Left at 60 NSW Left Website http://www.challengemagazine.com.au Challenge website http://www.nswleft.com/ NSW Socialist Left website http://www.plus.org.au/ SA Socialist Left website http://theleft.org.au/ QLD Left website http://www.chifleyshill.com/ National Young Labor Left website
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
1949 Australian federal election
Federal elections were held in Australia on 10 December 1949. All 121 seats in the House of Representatives and 42 of the 60 seats in the Senate were up for election; the incumbent Labor Party, led by Prime Minister Ben Chifley, was defeated by the opposition Liberal–Country coalition under Robert Menzies. Menzies became prime minister for a second time, his first term having ended in 1941; the number of MPs in both houses had been increased at the election, single transferable vote under a proportional voting system had been introduced in the Senate. Though Labor lost government, Labor retained a Senate majority at the election. However, this ended at the 1951 election. With the Senate changes in place, Labor has not held a Senate majority since. Future Prime Ministers William McMahon and John Gorton both entered parliament at this election; the election hinged on the policies of the Federal Labor Government bank nationalisation. Prime Minister Chifley intended to bring all of the banks under Government control, a socialist policy which the Coalition argued was not in the country's interest.
The Coalition promised to end unpopular wartime rationing. The election took place against the background of the 1949 Australian coal strike, the developing Cold War and growing fears of communism. Robert Menzies broke new ground in using the radio as his primary method of reaching voters. Members in italics did not contest their seat at this election; as of this election, single transferrable vote with proportional representation became the method for electing the Senate. This was to try to prevent the Senate from being dominated by one party, which had occurred previously. For example, coming into this election the ALP held 33 of the 36 Senate seats, whilst the conservatives at the 1919 election held 35 of the 36 Senate seats. In addition, the House of Representatives was enlarged from 74 to 121 seats and the Senate from 36 members to 60 members. All 121 lower house seats, 42 of the 60 upper house seats, were up for election; the Chifley Government was defeated, ending the longest period of Labor Federal Government in Australian history up to that date.
Labor would not return to office until 1972. Robert Menzies became Prime Minister for the second time, the Liberal Party of Australia won government federally for the first time. Candidates of the Australian federal election, 1949 Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1949-1951 Members of the Australian Senate, 1950–1951 "Commonwealth Parliament, House of Representatives election 1949". University of Western Australia Australian Politics and Elections Database. Retrieved 13 October 2010. University of WA election results in Australia since 1890 AEC 2PP vote Prior to 1984 the AEC did not undertake a full distribution of preferences for statistical purposes; the stored ballot papers for the 1983 election were put through this process prior to their destruction. Therefore, the figures from 1983 onwards show the actual result based on full distribution of preferences. Two-party-preferred vote since 1940
Division of Hindmarsh
The Division of Hindmarsh is an Australian Electoral Division in South Australia covering the western suburbs of Adelaide. The division was one of the seven established when the former Division of South Australia was split on 2 October 1903, was first contested at the 1903 election, though on vastly different boundaries; the Division is named after Sir John Hindmarsh, Governor of South Australia 1836-38. The 78 km² seat extends from the coast in the west to South Road in the east, covering the suburbs of Ascot Park, Brooklyn Park, Fulham, Grange, Henley Beach, Kidman Park, Kurralta Park, Plympton, Semaphore Park, West Beach and West Lakes; the international Adelaide Airport is centrally located in the electorate making noise pollution a prominent local issue, besides the aged care needs of the elderly population − the seat has one of the highest proportions of citizens over the age of 65 in Australia. Progressive boundary redistributions over many decades transformed Hindmarsh from a safe Labor seat in to a marginal seat won by the government of the day.
Though based on the greater Port Adelaide area to the north of the present boundary, now represented by the Division of Port Adelaide, Hindmarsh has long been dominated by working-class families and aged pensioners. Redistributions from the late 1940s onward have moved Hindmarsh clear of its initial boundaries over time to include wealthy seaside suburbs in and around Glenelg and the Holdfast Bay area to the south. With only the two additional seats of Adelaide and Boothby covering the metropolitan area until 1949, the south-east state border rural seat of Barker was considered a "hybrid urban-rural" seat, stretching all the way from the southern tip of South Australia at least as far as Glenelg and the Holdfast Bay area, at times stretched as far as the western metropolitan suburbs of Keswick and Henley Beach. After 1949 some of the area had variously been covered by Boothby and now-abolished Hawker; the present Hindmarsh has changed little geographically since neighbouring Hawker was abolished in 1993, though the north-western coastal strip was added from 2004.
Though now a marginal seat, for nearly a century it had been one of the safest Labor seats in the country, was in Labor hands for all but three years from the 1903 election to the 1993 election. As a measure of the strength of Labor support at the time, it was the only seat in the state won by Labor in the massive United Australia Party landslide of 1931. One of the few times that Labor's hold on the seat was threatened in this time came in 1966, when the Labor margin was pared down to 1.7 percent. Sitting member Clyde Cameron still won enough primary votes to retain the seat outright. Prominent members for the electorate have included Norman Makin, Speaker in the Scullin government, a cabinet minister in the Curtin and Chifley governments, Clyde Cameron, a cabinet minister in the Whitlam Government. A redistribution ahead of the 1984 election made Hindmarsh far less safe for Labor. From on, successive redistributions gave it a voting pattern similar to mortgage belt seats, which tend to be marginal.
Labor's hold on the seat became more tenuous in the redistribution prior to the 1993 election when it absorbed most of the area around Holdfast Bay, in abolished Hawker. This reduced Labor's two-party margin from an marginal 5.3 percent to a paper-thin one percent. Combined with state-level anger at the time stemming from the State Bank Collapse, this was enough for Liberal Christine Gallus the member for Hawker, to win the seat in 1993 with a one percent two-party margin from a two percent two-party swing, becoming only the second non-Labor MP to win it, she consolidated her hold on the seat at the 1996 election amid her party's large victory that year, increasing her margin to 8.1 percent – the strongest result for a non-Labor candidate in the seat's history. Gallus fended off spirited challenges from Labor's Steve Georganas at both the 1998 election and 2001 election, winning each time with a margin of less than two percent; when Gallus retired at the 2004 election, Georganas won the seat on a razor-thin 0.06 percent two-party margin from a one percent two-party swing, defeating Liberal candidate Simon Birmingham.
Georganas increased his two-party margin above five percent at both the 2007 election and the 2010 election. Though Georganas was thought to have built up a base with the substantial Greek community in Hindmarsh, he was defeated at the 2013 election when Liberal Matt Williams won the seat with a 1.89 percent margin from a 7.97 percent two-party-preferred swing. He became its third non-Labor member, the first to oust a sitting Labor MP in the seat; the only South Australian seat to change hands in 2013, Hindmarsh became the most marginal seat in South Australia, the only marginal Liberal seat in the state, only to be won back by Georganas for Labor at the 2016 election. Being the only South Australian seat changing hands and won by the incoming government in 2013, coupled with being the only South Australian seat changing hands in 2016 aside from Mayo, underscored the marginal seat volatility of present-day Hindmarsh. Not a "bellwether" electorate however, ABC psephologist Antony Green listed the nearby Division of Makin as one of eleven seats throughout Australia which he classed as bellwethers in his 2016 pre-election guide, was notably the only bellwether outside of New South Wales and Queensland.
South Australian Senator Nick Xenophon confirmed in December 2014 that by mid-2015 the Nick Xenophon Team party would announce candid
Australian Security Intelligence Organisation
The Australian Security Intelligence Organisation is Australia's national security agency responsible for the protection of the country and its citizens from espionage, acts of foreign interference, politically motivated violence, attacks on the Australian defence system, terrorism. ASIO is comparable with the British Security Service and the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation. ASIO is part of the Australian Intelligence Community. ASIO has a wide range of surveillance powers to collect human and signals intelligence. ASIO operations requiring police powers of arrest and detention under warrant are co-ordinated with the Australian Federal Police and/or with state and territory police forces. ASIO Central Office is in Canberra, with a local office being located in each mainland state and territory capital. A new A$630 million Central Office, Ben Chifley Building, named after Ben Chifley, prime minister when ASIO was created, was opened by Prime Minister Kevin Rudd on 23 July 2013. ASIO is a statutory body under the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979 responsible to the Parliament of Australia through the Department of Home Affairs.
ASIO reports to the Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security, Senate’s Legal and Constitutional Affairs Committee and is subject to independent review by the Inspector-General of Intelligence and Security. The head of ASIO is the Director-General of Security, who oversees the strategic management of ASIO within guidelines issued by the Attorney-General; the current Director-General of Security is Duncan Lewis, who assumed office on 15 September 2014. There are two Deputy Directors-General. In 2013, ASIO had a staff of around 1,740; the identity of ASIO officers, apart from the Director-General, remains an official secret. While ASIO is an equal opportunity employer, there has been some media comment of its apparent difficulty in attracting people from a Muslim or Middle Eastern background. Furthermore, ASIO has undergone a period of rapid growth with some 70% of its officers having joined since 2002, leading to what Paul O'Sullivan, Director-General of Security from 2005 to 2009, called'an experience gap'.
The special investigative powers available to ASIO officers under warrant signed by the Attorney-General include: interception of telecommunications, examination of postal and delivery articles, use of clandestine surveillance and tracking devices, remote access to computers, including alteration of data to conceal that access, covert entry to and search of premises, including the removal or copying of any record or thing found therein, conduct of an ordinary or frisk search of a person if they are at or near a premises specified in the warrant. The Director-General has the power to independently issue a warrant should a serious security situation arise and a warrant requested of the Attorney-General has not yet been granted. An ASIO officer may, without warrant, ask an operator of an aircraft or vessel questions about the aircraft or vessel, its cargo, passengers, stores or voyage; when investigating terrorism, the Director-General may seek a warrant from an independent judicial authority to allow: the compulsory questioning of suspects, the detention of suspects by the Australian Federal Police, their subsequent interrogation by ASIO officers, frisk or strip search of suspects by AFP officers upon their detainment, the seizure of passports, the prevention of suspects leaving Australia.
The Director-General is not empowered to independently issue a warrant in relation to the investigation of terrorism. While the Act does not define any activities to be legal, that is, to grant immunity for any specific crime, it does provide exceptions that will not be granted immunity. Section 35k defines these activities as not being immune from liability for special intelligence conduct during special intelligence operations; that is to say, an ASIO operative would be deemed to have committed a crime if they were to participate in any of the following activities under any circumstances: an activity that causes death or serious injury, torture, if the activity involves the commission of a sexual offence against any person, or if the activity causes significant loss of, or serious damage to property. ASIO has the power to collect foreign intelligence within Australia at the request of the Minister for Foreign Affairs or the Minister for Defence. Known as Joint Intelligence Operations, conducted in concert with the Australian Secret Intelligence Service the purpose of these operations is the gathering of security intelligence on and from foreign officials, organisations or companies.
Because of the nature of its work, ASIO does not make details of its activities public and law prevents the identities of ASIO officers from being disclosed. ASIO and the Australian Government say that operational measures ensuring the legality of ASIO operations have been established. ASIO briefs the Attorney-General on all major issues affecting security and he/she is informed of operations when considering granting warrants enabling the special investigative powers of ASIO. Furthermore, the Attorney-General issues guidelines with respect to the conduct of ASIO investigations relating to politically motivated violence and its functions of obtaining intelligence relevant to security. ASIO reports to several governmental and parliamentary committees dealing with security and financial matters; this includes the Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security and the Senate’s Legal and Constitutional Affairs Committee. A classified annual report is provided to the government, an unclassified edited version of, t