M62 is a Soviet-built diesel locomotive for heavy freight trains, exported to many Eastern Bloc countries as well as to Cuba, North Korea and Mongolia. Beside the single locomotive M62 twin versions 2M62 and triple versions 3M62 have been built. A total number of 7164 single sections have been produced, which have been used to build 5231 locomotives. According to the Comecon directives production of heavy diesel locomotives among Eastern Bloc countries was left to Romania and the Soviet Union; the first few prototypes of this heavy freight locomotive were ready in 1964 and their first destination outside the Soviet Union was Hungary. A total number of 723 units were produced in the Soviet Union. From 1970 till 1976 the former Soviet Union Railway received 723 engines M62, further 13 M62U have been delivered from 1989 till 1990; these engines were single 3M62U sections. For the Soviet military 154 locomotives named; these engines have been modified for pulling SS-24 Scalpel ballistic rocket launcher trains.
For industrial railroads 39 engines of the version M62UP have been built. These engines had larger fuel tanks and modified exhaust silencers. In the early 1960s an urgent need appeared in Poland for a heavy freight diesel locomotive; the Polish industry at the time was not able to produce such a locomotive, so a decision was made to import a large number of M62 locomotives from the Soviet Union, which were imported by Hungarian MÁV. In Poland those machines received ST44 designation During first-revision repairs all locomotives had front lights changed from small ones into standard, Polish large types; the decision is said to have been made after Poland had started to import ST43 locomotives from Romania and was influenced directly from the Soviet Union. For political reasons, the Soviet Union forced Poland to buy Soviet instead of Romanian locomotives, as it preferred satellite countries not to export their products; the first four locomotives, produced by the Voroshilovgrad Locomotive Factory, were delivered to Poland in September 1965.
Deliveries continued with 1,191 locomotives delivered in total. One of the locomotives had bogies and traction engines exchanged with newer types which allowed it to achieve a higher top speed; the series, with numbers between 2001 and 2068 was imported to run on the LHS broad gauge line. In addition to a different gauge, this series was equipped with an automatic coupling system. There were several reasons for importing M62 locomotives to Poland, today’s views on this decision are quite ambiguous; the locomotive was more powerful than the strongest of the Polish steam locomotives used for freight transport in those days, yet it could not haul passenger trains and caused huge damage to the railway tracks. Another important weakness of the M62 locomotive was with its vast fuel consumption; the advantages of this machine though are a simple construction coupled with a reliable diesel-electric transmission. Intensive electrification of Polish railways caused the new ST44 locomotives to be mothballed into reserve stock.
Many machines withdrawn from PKP found their place among industrial and private railways, where they only bore the producer’s M62 designation. Heavy fuel and oil consumption as well as heavy wear caused to the tracks has resulted in Polish State Railways reducing the use of the class. In 2007 many of them still remain in service with PKP for freight use, although most of them have now been stored; some routes forbid the running of the ST44 class because this class's excessive weight causes serious damage to lighter built Trackwork. The locomotives that are still in use in large numbers, are owned and operated by private railroad companies, as well as the LHS broad gauge lines. Today around 50 of the class are located at Zamość Engine Shed, it has been decided to mothball them for the moment. In 2005, two ST44 locomotives were rebuilt by Bumar-Fablok S. A. and delivered to the LHS line. Changes made included Primary Alternators; these locomotives were designated as 3001 and 3002. Because of its low maintenance requirements M62 locomotive is quite popular with the Korean State Railway of the North Korea, where they serve not only on non-electrified lines but on electrified ones as well.
64 locomotives of this type were imported from the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation between 1967 and 1995, numbered in the 내연6xx series. Between the years 1996 and 1998 31 locomotives were delivered from Deutsche Bahn. In 2000 six units were delivered from 13 units from Polish State Railways. None of the delivered locomotives was painted in standard North Korean livery and they still bear the same livery as in previous service, except the former German ones, which were given a different, green livery; those units acquired from Germany are numbered in the 내연7xx series, while those acquired from Poland and Slovakia are numbered in the 내연8xx series. Locomotive Naeyŏn 602 has a special red tablet mounted on it that states that this machine was inspected by Kim Il-sung. Two copies were built in North Korea, numbers 8001 and 8002, given the designation “Kŭmsŏng”. 8002 has been on display at the Museum of the Three Revolutions since its construction, while 8001 is in regular service. At least 15 North Korean M62 locomotives were converted to electric locomotives by Kim Chŏng-tae Electric Locomotive Works in 1998.
This is presumed to be quite easy, as the overhead voltage in Nort
The cab, crew compartment or driver's compartment of a locomotive, or a self-propelled rail vehicle, is the part housing the train driver or engineer, the fireman or driver's assistant, the controls necessary for the locomotive's, or self-propelled rail vehicle's, operation. On steam locomotives, the cab is located to the rear of the firebox, although steam locomotives have sometimes been constructed in a cab forward or camelback configuration; the cab, or crew or driver's compartment of a diesel or electric locomotive will be found either inside a cabin attached to a hood unit or cowl unit locomotive, or forming one of the structural elements of a cab unit locomotive. The former arrangement is now the norm in North America for all types of diesel or electric locomotives. In Europe, most modern locomotives are cab units with one at each end. However, the locomotives powering some high speed European trains are cab units with one cab, European shunting locomotives are hood units. On self-propelled rail vehicles, the cab may be at both ends.
In addition to the locomotive controls, a cab will be fitted with windshields, rectangular side windows, crew seats and sometimes radios, air conditioning and toilets. Different types of locomotive cabs are: Boxcab Steeplecab Turret Hood unit Cowl unit The earliest locomotives, such as Stephenson's Rocket, had no cab. However, to protect locomotive crews against adverse weather conditions, locomotives came to be equipped with a roof and protective walls, the expression "cab" refers to the cabin created by such an arrangement. By about 1850, high speed Crampton locomotives operating in Europe had a much needed windshield giving some protection to the footplate area; some other early locomotives were fitted with a cab as part of a rebuilding program, an example being the locomotive John Bull. In Germany, the locomotive cab was introduced by the Saxon railway director and writer Max Maria von Weber. However, until 1950 the railway directorates of the German-speaking countries continued to believe that a standing posture was essential to maximise crew vigilance.
Steam locomotive drivers, who had to lean out of their cabs for better visibility, therefore developed occupational diseases, along with rheumatism, electric locomotive drivers suffered from wear to the knees. This unsatisfactory situation changed—with few exceptions—only with the construction of the German standard electric locomotives, which for the first time were equipped with crew seats. Meanwhile, the maintenance of crew vigilance became possible by technical means through the use of Sifa devices. Cockpit Control car Control stand Driving Van Trailer Push–pull trainThis article is based upon a translation of the German-language version as at April 2010
Under the British and Imperial classification scheme of locomotive axle arrangements, related to the UIC classification, 1Co+Co1 is a classification code for a locomotive wheel arrangement of two eight-wheeled bogies with an articulated inter-bogie connection, each with three axles powered by a separate traction motor per axle and with the fourth non-powered axle in an integral leading pony truck to reduce the axle load. The similar 1Co-Co1 classification is in the same axle configuration, but without the inter-bogie connection. Other equivalent classifications are: AAR classification: 1-C+C-1 UIC classification: + The 1Co+Co1 wheel arrangement for electric and diesel-electric locomotives was a development of the Co+Co wheel arrangement to enable a heavy locomotive to work on light rail by reducing the axle load; this was accomplished by the addition of a non-powered axle in an integral pony truck to the three traction motored Co powered bogie. In the United States of America, the South African Class 32-000 is credited with being a major factor in the demise of the American Locomotive Company and the rise of General Electric in the locomotive building business.
In 1957, the South African Railways called for tenders with two options. 115 1,800 horsepower locomotives with a 1Co+Co1 wheel arrangement. 230 1,000 horsepower locomotives with a Co+Co wheel arrangement. The SAR was not enthusiastic about the General Motors Electro-Motive Division two-stroke cycle engines and had a strong preference for ALCO's Model 251 engine and GE's transmission systems; as a prior supplier of steam locomotives for the SAR, ALCO appeared to be assured of receiving the order. General Steel Castings had a design on paper for a 1Co bogie which could be utilised by either ALCO or GE and which would enable the SAR's specification to be met for the heavier 1,800 horsepower units; the SAR made it clear that, despite the two options afforded by the tender, its strong preference was for a 1Co+Co1 locomotive. However, the use of a bogie with an integral pony truck was not universally accepted by ALCO's engineering management; the result was that ALCO bid on only the Co+Co option and lost out to GE, who had bid on both options.
In South Africa, this opened the floodgates for GE, since more than half of the SAR's vast diesel-electric locomotive fleet which would be acquired between 1959 and 1981 were GE products. The 3 kV DC Class 4E electric locomotive was designed for the SAR by the General Electric Company and was built by the North British Locomotive Company between 1952 and 1953; the Class 4E was amongst the most powerful electric locomotives in the world at that time and at 157,488 kilograms, it was a heavy locomotive for 3 ft 6 in Cape gauge. The reasons for the leading pony truck were both to improve stability at speed and to reduce the axle load. Between 1959 and 1961, the SAR placed 115 high-nosed Class 32-000 GE type U18C1 diesel-electric locomotives in service in South West Africa, where light rail conditions necessitated lighter axle loadings which could not be achieved with conventional three-axle bogies under a heavy 96,520 kilograms locomotive. In June and July 1966, ten low-nosed Class 32-200 GE type U20C1 diesel-electric locomotives entered service on the SAR.
The Class 32-200 was a Class 33-000 locomotive on the 1Co bogies of the Class 32-000, which reduced its axle load from the 15,749 kilograms of the Class 33-000 to 12,700 kilograms. Apart from the bogies, which necessitated a smaller fuel tank, its physical dimensions and exterior appearance were identical to that of the Co+Co Class 33-000 and it used the same V12 prime mover
The term cab forward refers to various rail and road vehicle designs that place the driver's compartment farther towards the front than is common practice. In steam locomotive design, a cab forward design will have the driver's compartment placed forward of the boiler at the front of the engine. On a coal-fired locomotive, the fireman's station remains on the footplate behind the firebox so as to be next to the tender. On an oil-fired locomotive, the fireman's station could be in the forward cab; this type of design was though not used throughout Europe in the first half of the 20th century in conjunction with an enclosed body design and/or streamlining. Visibility is improved from the cab, fumes from the chimney do not fill a forward cab in tunnels. However, the crew's prospects in the event of a collision are worse, if the driver and fireman are in separate places it is difficult for them to communicate, just as in autotrains. In Germany, Borsig in Berlin built a one-off streamlined cab forward DRG Class 05 4-6-4 in 1937, with further development stopped by World War II.
The design speed was 175 km/h, but its conventional layout sister 05 002 set a new world speed record for steam locomotives on May 11, 1936, after reaching 200.4 km/h on the Berlin–Hamburg line hauling a 197 t train, a record it lost two years to the British LNER Class A4 4468 Mallard. In 1944, the streamlining was removed, but the 05 003 had by already lost its cab forward layout. After the war, it pulled express trains in West Germany until 1958, it was scrapped in 1960. The state-owned Italian Ferrovie dello Stato had several cab forward locomotives, Class 670, 671, 672; these 4-6-0 engines had a three-axle tender, were nicknamed "mucca". The engines were used to haul passenger trains on the Milan-Venice railway. Matthias N. Forney was issued a patent in the late 1860s for a new locomotive design, he had set out to improve the factor of adhesion by putting as much of the boiler’s weight as possible on the driving wheels, omitting the pilot wheels from beneath the front of the boiler. Such a design would not have been stable at high speeds on the rather uneven tracks which were common at the time.
Instead, he extended the locomotive frame behind the cab, placing a four-wheel truck beneath the water tank and coal bunker. In conventional Whyte notation, this resulted in a 0-4-4T locomotive, but when run in reverse it was a 4-4-0 tank locomotive, with the track stability of that popular wheel arrangement, along with unobstructed visibility for the engineer, improved dispersal of smoke and steam. Forney's design proved ideal for the small quick locomotives for elevated and commuter railroads, he licensed the patent design to many manufacturers. Large numbers of Forneys served in New York City, Boston and elsewhere, but were superseded at the end of the nineteenth century by electrification and the development of subways. Ariel and Puck were two-foot gauge locomotives built to the Forney cab-forward design for the Billerica and Bedford Railroad in 1877 by Hinkley Locomotive Works of Boston; the best known example of the cab-forward design in the United States, the Southern Pacific Cab-Forward placed the cab at the front by the simple expedient of turning the entire locomotive, minus the tender, by 180 degrees.
This arrangement was made possible by burning fuel oil instead of coal. The cab forward design was used by the Southern Pacific Railroad; the design was able to deal with the peculiar problems of its routes. The 39 long tunnels and nearly 40 miles of snow sheds of the Sierra Nevada Mountains could funnel dangerous exhaust fumes back into the crew compartment of a conventional locomotive. After a number of crews nearly asphyxiated, the locomotive was run in reverse; this meant. The tender put crewmen on the wrong sides of the cab for seeing signals; the tenders were not designed to be pushed at the lead of the train. Southern Pacific commissioned Baldwin Locomotive Works to build a prototype cab-forward locomotive ordered more units before the prototype had arrived. All of the cab-forwards were oil-burning locomotives, which meant there was little trouble involved putting the tender at what would be the front of the locomotive; the oil and water tanks were pressurized so that both would flow even on uphill grades.
Visibility from the cab was superb, such that one crewman could survey both sides of the track. There were concerns about what would happen to the crew in the event of a collision, at least one fatal accident occurred on the Modoc Line in Herlong, California when a moving locomotive struck a flat car. Turning the normal locomotive arrangement around placed the crew well ahead of the exhaust fumes, insulating them from that hazard. One problematic aspect of the design, was the routing of the oil lines. A nuisance under most conditions, it resulted in at least one fatal accident; this occurred in 1941 when a cab-forward with leaking steam and oil lines entered the tunnel at Santa Susana Pass, near Los Angeles. The tunnel was on a grade, as the slow-moving train ascended the tunnel, oil on the rails caused the wheels to slip and spin; the train slipped backwards and a coupler knuckle broke, separating the air line, causing an emergency brake application and stal
A boxcab, in railroad terminology, is a locomotive in which the machinery and crew areas are enclosed in a box-like superstructure. It is a term used in North America while in Victoria, such locomotives have been nicknamed "butterboxes". Boxcabs may use any source of power but most are diesel or electric locomotives. Few steam locomotives are so described but the British SR Leader class was a possible exception. Most American boxcabs date from before World War II, when the earliest boxcabs were termed "oil-electrics" to avoid the use of the German name "Diesel" due to propaganda purposes. Boxcabs do not have styled ends, or a superstructure consisting of multiple boxy structures, although the prototype diesel/oil-electric, GE #8835, had one prominently-rounded nose and the second and following 100-ton ALCO boxcabs had semi-cylindrical ends; the construction of double-ended boxcab diesel locomotives was common in Australia from 1969 until the 1980s. These were GM-EMD derivatives built by Clyde Engineering with a smaller number of Alco derivatives built by A. E. Goodwin/Commonwealth Engineering and GE derivatives by A. Goninan & Co/UGL Rail.
Most British diesel and electric locomotives are boxcabs but the term "boxcab" is not used in Britain. Instead, locomotives are referred to by their class numbers, e.g. British Rail Class 47 and British Rail Class 92. British diesel and electric locomotives are nearly always double-ended. Other double cab designs, where the cab is wider than a narrow engine compartment, include the British Rail Class 58 and British Rail Class 70, however these do not classify as boxcabs. In post-Soviet Eastern Europe and electric locomotives with a boxcab configuration are common. Notable examples are the diesel TE10 and 2TE25A, the electric VL23. In Sweden, the electric SJ Rb and Rc locomotives have a near-perfect box shape which would inspire derivatives such as the American EMD AEM-7. In historic East and West Germany, the first electric locomotives such as the DRG Class E 77 and the E 91 has this configuration, although there are more recent locomotives such as the DB Class 151 and 155 which have the same shape.
Several locomotives of this configuration can be found in Asia. In China, there are many diesel locomotives that use this classification such as the first generation DF8, ND2 and the NJ2. In Japan, most of its earlier electric locomotives have this body type such as the JNR Classes EF60 to EF65. In Thailand every diesel locomotive classifies as a "boxcab", with the exception of the Hitachi 8FA-36C. An example of this configuration used by the State Railway of Thailand would be GE UM12C and Alsthom AD42C. Pakistan Railways ran boxcab electric locomotives until 2011 with the BCU30. In South Africa, while diesel locomotives follow the hood unit style since their inception, electric locomotives has followed this configuration since 1947 with the introduction of the South African Class 3E; the first electrics had a steeplecab shape while locomotives had a pentagonal shape. The electrics feature a door in front of the locomotive with the exception of the 12E, similar to the Japanese JNR-era ones. Older locos have their doors at the center while newer ones starting with 14E feature a door at the left-hand side of the train.
ALCO boxcab Box motor GE boxcab GE three-power boxcab GE 57-ton gas-electric boxcab
A cowl unit is a body style of diesel locomotive. The terminology is a North American one. A cowl unit is one with full-width enclosing bodywork, similar to the cab unit style of earlier locomotives, but unlike the cab unit style, the bodywork is a casing and is not load-bearing. All the strength is in the locomotive's frame, beneath the floor, rather than the bridge-truss load-bearing carbody of the earlier type. Cowl units were produced at the request of the Santa Fe, had a full-width'cowl' body built on a hood unit frame which provided all the structural strength. Most cowl units have been passenger-hauling locomotives. In this service, the cowl unit's full width bodywork and sleek sides match the passenger cars, do not allow unwanted riders, allow the decorative, advertising paintwork desired by passenger operators. An additional benefit is that the locomotive can be more cleaned by going through the passenger-car washers; the cowl unit allows the basic structure of the locomotive to be identical to a freight-oriented hood unit type.
The main disadvantage of the cowl unit is low rear visibility from the cab of the locomotive. The EMD SD50F and SD60F, GE C40-8M and BBD HR-616 were given a Draper Taper where the body is narrower behind the cab, widens further aft, although the roof remains full-width the length of the locomotive; this improves rear visibility somewhat, but the locomotives still cannot lead a train in reverse as a hood unit can. EMD FP45 EMD SDP40F EMD GP40FH-2 EMD F40C EMD F40PH EMD F40PHR EMD F40PH-2 EMD F40PH-2CAT EMD F40PH-2M EMD F125 EMD F59PH EMD F59PHI EMD F69PHAC EMD DE30AC EMD DM30AC GE U30CG GE P30CH GE P40DC GE P42DC GE P32AC-DM MPI MP36PH-3C MPI MP36PH-3S MPI F40PHL-2 MPI F40PH-2C MPI F40PH-3C Siemens Charger EMD F45 EMD SDF40-2 GMD SD40-2F GMD SD50F GMD SD60F GE C40-8M BBD HR-616 EMD AT42C The LMS Diesels 10000 & 10001 classified as British Rail Class D16/1, were introduced in 1947; these were Great Britain's first mainline diesel locomotives, coming about a decade after America's first cab units.
Despite their streamlined exterior, they are cowl units rather than cab units. It is easy to misinterpret this as in North America, cowl designs are more angular, while cab designs have a similar curved streamlining. Pinkepank, Jerry A. and Marre, Louis A.. Diesel Spotter’s Guide Update, pp. 70–79. Kalmbach Publishing Co. ISBN 0-89024-029-9
The Whyte notation for classifying steam locomotives by wheel arrangement was devised by Frederick Methvan Whyte, came into use in the early twentieth century following a December 1900 editorial in American Engineer and Railroad Journal. The notation counts the number of leading wheels the number of driving wheels, the number of trailing wheels, numbers being separated by dashes. Other classification schemes, like UIC classification and the French and Swiss systems for steam locomotives, count axles rather than wheels. In the notation a locomotive with two leading axles in front three driving axles and one trailing axle is classified as 4-6-2, is known as a Pacific. Articulated locomotives such as Garratts, which are two locomotives joined by a common boiler, have a + between the arrangements of each engine, thus a "double Pacific" type Garratt is a 4-6-2+2-6-4. For Garratt locomotives the + sign is used when there are no intermediate unpowered wheels, e.g. the LMS Garratt 2-6-0+0-6-2. This is because the two engine units are more than just power bogies.
They are complete engines, carrying fuel and water tanks. The + sign represents the bridge that links the two engines. Simpler articulated types such as Mallets have a jointed frame under a common boiler where there are no unpowered wheels between the sets of powered wheels; the forward frame is free to swing, whereas the rear frame is rigid with the boiler. Thus a Union Pacific Big Boy is a 4-8-8-4; this numbering system is shared by duplex locomotives, which have powered wheel sets sharing a rigid frame. No suffix means a tender locomotive. T indicates a tank locomotive: in European practice, this is sometimes extended to indicate the type of tank locomotive: T means side tank, PT pannier tank, ST saddle tank, WT well tank. T+T means a tank locomotive that has a tender. In Europe, the suffix R can signify rack or reversible, the latter being Bi-cabine locomotives used in France; the suffix F indicates a fireless locomotive. This locomotive has no tender. Other suffixes have been used, including ng for narrow-gauge and CA or ca for compressed air.
In Britain, small diesel and petrol locomotives are classified in the same way as steam locomotives, e.g. 0-4-0, 0-6-0, 0-8-0. This may be followed by D for diesel or P for petrol, another letter describing the transmission: E for electric, H hydraulic, M mechanical. Thus, 0-6-0DE denotes a six-wheel diesel locomotive with electric transmission. Where the axles are coupled by chains or shafts or are individually driven, the terms 4w, 6w or 8w are used. Thus, 4wPE indicates a four-wheel petrol locomotive with electric transmission. For large diesel locomotives the UIC classification is used; the main limitation of Whyte Notation is that it does not cover non-standard types such as Shay locomotives, which use geared trucks rather than driving wheels. The most used system in Europe outside the United Kingdom is UIC classification, based on German practice, which can define the exact layout of a locomotive. In American practice, most wheel arrangements in common use were given names, sometimes from the name of the first such locomotive built.
For example, the 2-2-0 type arrangement is named Planet, after the 1830 locomotive on which it was first used. The most common wheel arrangements are listed below. In the diagrams, the front of the locomotive is to the left. AAR wheel arrangement Swiss locomotive and railcar classification UIC classification Wheel arrangement Boylan, Richard. "American Steam Locomotive Wheel Arrangements". SteamLocomotive.com. Retrieved 2008-02-08. Media related to Whyte notation at Wikimedia Commons