One of the basic pieces of furniture, a chair is a type of seat. Its primary features are two pieces of a durable material, attached as back and seat to one another at a 90° or greater angle, with the four corners of the horizontal seat attached in turn to four legs—or other parts of the seat's underside attached to three legs or to a shaft about which a four-arm turnstile on rollers can turn—strong enough to support the weight of a person who sits on the seat and leans against the vertical back; the legs are high enough for the seated person's thighs and knees to form a 90° or lesser angle. Used in a number of rooms in homes, in schools and offices, in various other workplaces, chairs may be made of wood, metal, or synthetic materials, either the seat alone or the entire chair may be padded or upholstered in various colors and fabrics. Chairs vary in design. An armchair has armrests fixed to the seat. Chair comes from the early 13th-century English word chaere, from Old French chaiere, from Latin cathedra.
The chair has been used since antiquity, although for many centuries it was a symbolic article of state and dignity rather than an article for ordinary use. "The chair" is still used as the emblem of authority in the House of Commons in the United Kingdom and Canada, in many other settings. In keeping with this historical connotation of the "chair" as the symbol of authority, boards of directors, academic departments all have a'chairman' or'chair'. Endowed professorships are referred to as chairs, it was not until the 16th century. Until people sat on chests and stools, which were the ordinary seats of everyday life; the number of chairs which have survived from an earlier date is exceedingly limited. Chairs were in existence since at least the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt, they were covered with cloth or leather, were made of carved wood, were much lower than today’s chairs – chair seats were sometimes only 25 cm high. In ancient Egypt chairs appear to have been of great splendor. Fashioned of ebony and ivory, or of carved and gilded wood, they were covered with costly materials, magnificent patterns and supported upon representations of the legs of beasts or the figures of captives.
Speaking, the higher ranked an individual was, the taller and more sumptuous was the chair he sat on and the greater the honor. On state occasions the pharaoh sat on a throne with a little footstool in front of it; the average Egyptian family had chairs, if they did, it was only the master of the household who sat on a chair. Among the better off, the chairs might be painted to look like the ornate inlaid and carved chairs of the rich, but the craftsmanship was poor; the earliest images of chairs in China are from sixth-century Buddhist murals and stele, but the practice of sitting in chairs at that time was rare. It wasn't until the twelfth century. Scholars disagree on the reasons for the adoption of the chair; the most common theories are that the chair was an outgrowth of indigenous Chinese furniture, that it evolved from a camp stool imported from Central Asia, that it was introduced to China by Christian missionaries in the seventh century, that the chair came to China from India as a form of Buddhist monastic furniture.
In modern China, unlike Korea or Japan, it is no longer common to sit at floor level. In Europe, it was owing in great measure to the Renaissance that the chair ceased to be a privilege of state and became a standard item of furniture for anyone who could afford to buy it. Once the idea of privilege faded the chair speedily came into general use. At once the chair began to change every few years to reflect the fashions of the day. In the 1880s, chairs became more common in American households and there was a chair provided for every family member to sit down to dinner. By the 1830s, factory-manufactured “fancy chairs” like those by Sears. Roebuck, Co. allowed families to purchase machined sets. With the Industrial Revolution, chairs became much more available; the 20th century saw an increasing use of technology in chair construction with such things as all-metal folding chairs, metal-legged chairs, the Slumber Chair, moulded plastic chairs and ergonomic chairs. The recliner became a popular form, at least in part due to television.
The modern movement of the 1960s produced new forms of chairs: the butterfly chair, bean bags, the egg-shaped pod chair that turns. It introduced the first mass-produced plastic chairs such as the Bofinger chair in 1966. Technological advances led to molded plywood and wood laminate chairs, as well as chairs made of leather or polymers. Mechanical technology incorporated into the chair enabled adjustable chairs for office use. Motors embedded in the chair resulted in massage chairs. Chairs can be made like stone or acrylic. In some cases, multiple materials are used to construct a chair. Chairs may have hard surfaces of wood, plas
A chemical toilet collects human excreta in a holding tank and uses chemicals to minimize odors. These toilets are but not always, self-contained and movable. A chemical toilet is structured around a small tank, which needs to be emptied frequently, it is not connected to a hole in the ground, nor to a septic tank, nor is it plumbed into a municipal system leading to a sewage treatment plant. When the tank is emptied, the contents are pumped into a sanitary sewer or directly to a treatment plant; the portable toilets used on construction sites and at large gatherings such as music festivals are well-known types of chemical toilet. As they are used for short periods and because of their high prices, they are rented rather than bought including servicing and cleaning. Aircraft lavatories and passenger train toilets were in the past designed as chemical toilets but are nowadays more to be vacuum toilets. A simpler type of chemical toilet may be used on small boats. Many chemical toilets use a blue dye in the bowl water.
In the past, disinfection was carried out by mixing formaldehyde, bleach, or similar chemicals with the toilet water when flushed. Modern formulations work biologically. Chemical toilets are a type of portable toilet and are known by various tradenames, such as Port-a-John and Porta-Potty, Portaloo, or honey bucket; the last two are the names of companies and "Portaloo" is a British and European Community registered trade mark. Chemical toilets are used as a temporary solution, for example on construction sites or large gatherings, because of their durability and convenience. Most chemical toilets have open-front U-shaped toilet seats with a cover, they are constructed out of lightweight molded plastic. Chemical toilets are large enough for a single occupant about 110 cm square by 210 cm high. While the units are free-standing structures, their stability is augmented by the weight of the waste tank, which contains an empty liquid disinfectant dispenser and deodorizer; some include both a urinal.
Most include lockable doors, ventilation near the top, a vent pipe for the holding tank. When wind is blowing over the vent pipe it creates a low pressure area sucking the odor out. Leaving the toilet lid open will reverse the flow of the venting of the tank. Typical specifications: Total Weight: 90 kg - 110 kg Total Width: 1,166 mm Total Depth: 1,215 mm Total Height: 2,316 mm Door Height: 1,975 mm Door Width: 639 mm Portable chemical toilets use a smell-reducing chemical in the holding tank; this chemical is blue so that when it interacts with enough urine and feces, it turns green. This green colour is an indication. A formaldehyde based chemical is used to neutralize odors. Since the chemical solution can splash back onto the buttocks of the user when their excrement drops in, because formaldehyde is irritating to the eyes, skin and throat, it is being replaced by other proprietary blends such as glutaraldehyde and quaternary ammonium compounds, with non-staining dyes and nature-identical perfume oils.
Additionally, enzyme hybrids are sometimes used. A much older form of portable toilet chemical is lye. Lye was used during the old "wooden outhouse days". After a person is done using the portable toilet they would sprinkle a bit of lye into the holding tank. Lye can be dangerously corrosive to skin, is used today, they are seen at outdoor work sites construction sites, ranches, camp sites and large banks of dozens of portable toilets allow for ready sanitation at large gatherings such as outdoor music festivals. Several portable toilets arranged in these large banks are referred to as a'sitting' of portable toilets. In the United States, the chemical toilet industry is a $2 billion a year business with the standard model renting for $225 per day and luxury restroom trailer units with flushing toilets going for a few thousand each day. Newer models include toilet paper and antibacterial hand sanitizer dispensers, it has become common for portable toilets to be paired with an internal hand washing station.
These sink stations provide a foot pump to dispense non-potable water to wash one's hands with provided soap dispensers or hand sanitizer stations after using the toilet, along with paper toweling. Another common pairing are portable toilets on trailers known as a "toilet trailer"; these trailers are found in 1–2 toilet configurations with a hand wash ability using either a hand washing station or a plastic barrel full of water. These trailers are seen on agricultural fields or at road construction sites; these restrooms are ideal for situations where the workers are mobile. However, this configuration has proven problematic; when being towed, the high winds blow in from the vents, creating a hurricane effect inside and ejecting any toilet paper rolls from the portable toilet if not secured.'Luxury' portable toilets exist. They are mounted on large "office-like" trailers or made from converted shipping containers, they contain every amenity that a public toilet would have such as running water, flushing toilet, urinals, mirrors and air conditioning and hot water in some cases.
However, these lux
A transit bus is a type of bus used on shorter-distance public transport bus services. Several configurations are used, including low-floor buses, high-floor buses, double-decker buses, articulated buses and midibuses; these are distinct from all-seated coaches used for longer distance journeys and smaller minibuses, for more flexible services. A transit bus will have: large and sometimes multiple doors for ease of boarding and exiting minimal or no luggage space bench or bucket seats, with no coachlike head-rests destination blinds / displays such as headsigns or rollsigns or electronic dot matrix/LED signs legal standing-passenger capacity fare taking/verification equipment pull cord or bus stop request buttonModern transit buses are increasingly being equipped with passenger information systems, multimedia, WiFi, USB charging points, entertainment/advertising, passenger comforts such as heating and air-conditioning; some industry members and commentators promote the idea of making the interior of a transit bus as inviting as a private car, recognising the chief competitor to the transit bus in most markets.
As they are used in a public transport role, transit buses can be operated by publicly run transit authorities or municipal bus companies, as well as private transport companies on a public contract or independent basis. Due to the local authority use, transit buses are built to a third-party specification put to the manufacturer by the authority. Early examples of such specification include the Greater Manchester Leyland Atlantean, DMS-class London Daimler Fleetline. New transit buses may be purchased each time a route/area is contracted, such as in the London Buses tendering system; the operating area of a transit bus may be defined as a geographic metropolitan area, with the buses used outside of this area being more varied with buses purchased with other factors in mind. Some regional-size operators for capital cost reasons may use transit buses interchangeably on short urban routes as well as longer rural routes, sometimes up to 2 or 3 hours. Transit bus operators have a selection of'dual-purpose' fitted buses, standard transit buses fitted with coach-type seating, for longer-distance routes.
Sometimes transit buses may be used as express buses on a limited-stopping or non-stop service at peak times, but over the same distance as the regular route. Fare payment is done via Smart card single or multi-ride coupon/ticket cash and is done upon Pre-payment, done at ticket machines located at the bus stops or at other locations, before getting on the bus. Boarding departing both, e.g. after crossing fare zone boundaries in transit, via an attendant or bus conductor Depending on payment systems in different municipalities, there are different rules with regard to which door, front or rear, one must use when boarding/exiting. For rear doors, most buses have doors opened by patron. Most doors on buses use air-assist technology, the driver controlled doors, use air pressure to force them open, patron-operated doors, can push them open, the doors are heavy, so the touch-to-open or push bar mechanism, sends pressurized air to open the doors. Most doors will signify that they are unlocked and open with lights, this gives guide to those who are going up or down the door steps to not trip and fall.
Unlocked or open doors, will trigger a brake locking mechanism on the bus to prevent it from moving while someone could be entering or exiting the bus, when the door is closed, the lock will release, this is implemented on rear doors, not on front doors, since the driver will be paying attention to the front door. Transit buses can be double-decker, rigid or articulated. Selection of type has traditionally been made on a regional as well as operational basis. Depending on local policies, transit buses will usually have two, three or four doors to facilitate rapid boarding and alighting. In cases of low-demand routes, or to navigate small local streets, some models of minibus and small midibuses have been used as transit type buses; the development of the midibus has given many operators a low-cost way of operating a transit bus service, with some midibuses such as the Plaxton SPD Super Pointer Dart resembling full size transit type vehicles. Due to their public transport role, transit buses were the first type of bus to benefit from low-floor technology, in response to a demand for equal access public service provision.
Transit buses are now subject to various disability discrimination acts in several jurisdictions which dictate various design features applied to other vehicles in some cases. Due to the high number of high-profile urban operations, transit buses are at the forefront of bus electrification, with hybrid electric bus, all-electric bus and fuel cell bus development and testing aimed at reducing fuel usage, shift to green electricity and decreasing environmental impact. Developments of the transit bus towards higher capacity bus transport include tram-like vehicles such as guided buses, longer bi-articulated buses and tram-like buses such as the Wright StreetCar as part of Bus Rapid Transit schemes. Fare collection is seeing a shift to off-bus payment, with either the driver or an inspector verifying fare payments. A commuter or express bus service is a fixed-route bus characterized by service predominantly in on
Scania AB is a major Swedish manufacturer of commercial vehicles – heavy trucks and buses. It manufactures diesel engines for heavy vehicles as well as marine and general industrial applications. Scania AB was formed in 1911 through the merger of Södertälje-based Vabis and Malmö-based Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania; the company's head office has been in Södertälje since 1912. Today, Scania has production facilities in Sweden, Netherlands, Argentina, Brazil and Russia. In addition, there are assembly plants in ten countries in Africa and Europe. Scania's sales and service organisation and finance companies are worldwide. In 2012, the company employed 42,100 people around the world. Scania was listed on the NASDAQ OMX Stockholm stock exchange from 1996 to 2014. Scania's logo shows a griffin, from the coat of arms of the province of Scania. AB Scania-Vabis was established in 1911 as the result of a merger between Södertälje-based Vabis and Malmö-based Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania. Vagnfabriks Aktiebolaget i Södertelge was established as a railway car manufacturer in 1891, while Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania was established as a bicycle manufacturer in 1900.
Both companies had tried their luck at building automobiles and engines, but with varied success. In 1910, Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania had succeeded in constructing reliable vehicles, while Vabis was at the brink of closing down. An offer from Per Alfred Nordeman, managing director of Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania, to steel manufacturer Surahammars Bruk, owner of Vabis, led to an agreement in November 1910, in 1911 the merger was a reality. Development and production of engines and light vehicles were set to Södertälje, while trucks were manufactured in Malmö; the company's logo was redesigned from Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania's original logo with the head of a griffin, the coat of arms of the Swedish region Scania, centered on a three-spoke bicycle chainset. The headquarters were located in Malmö, but in 1912 they were moved to Södertälje; because there were many inexpensive, imported cars in Sweden at the time, Scania-Vabis decided to build high-class, luxury cars, for instance the type III limousine from 1920 that had a top hat holder in the roof.
Prince Carl of Sweden owned a 1913 Scania-Vabis 3S, a type, fitted with in-car buttons so the passenger could communicate with the driver. Scania-Vabis built two-seat sports cars. For the next few years the company's profits stagnated, with around a third of their orders coming from abroad; the outbreak of the First World War, changed the company, with all output being diverted to the Swedish Army. By 1916, Scania-Vabis was making enough profit to invest in redeveloping both of their production facilities. Following the war, in 1919, Scania decided to focus on building trucks, abandoning other outputs including cars and buses. However, they were hurt by the swamping of the market with decommissioned military vehicles from the war, by 1921 the company was bankrupt. After some economic difficulties in 1921, new capital came from Stockholms Enskilda Bank owned by the Wallenberg family, Scania-Vabis became a solid and technically, high standing, company. DenmarkTowards the end of 1913, the company established a subsidiary in Denmark.
The following year the first Danish-built car, a four-seater Phaeton, was built at the company's Frederiksberg factory in Copenhagen. In 1914, the factory produced Denmark's first Scania-Vabis truck, following this developed a V8 engine, one of the first in the world. In 1921, having sold around 175 trucks, 75 cars, the Danish operation was closed down. NorwayIn 1917 an agreement was established with the newly formed Norwegian company Norsk Automobilfabrik A/S about production under license of Scania-Vabis cars and lorries. Production began in 1919, but was ended in 1921 after production of only 77 lorries built from Swedish produced parts. During the Second World War Scania produced a variety of military vehicles for the Swedish Army, including Stridsvagn m/41 light tanks produced under licence. During the 1950s, the company expanded its operations into new customer segments, becoming agents for the Willys Jeep and the Volkswagen Beetle, the latter being profitable for Scania-Vabis, it started to become a genuine competitor to Volvo with their new L71 Regent truck, introduced in 1954.
During this period, Scania-Vabis expanded its dealer network and country-wide specialist workshop facilities. By the end of the 1950s, their market-share in Sweden was between 40 and 50%, was achieving 70% in the heaviest truck sector – helped by the entrepreneurial efforts of their dealers into the haulier market, their largest impact was in export markets. Before 1950, exports accounted for only 10 percent of production output, but a decade exports were now at 50% of output. Beers in the Netherlands became a important partner. Beers became official importers for Scania-Vabis in the Netherlands, established a dealer network, along with training programmes for both mechanics and drivers. Beers offered free twice-yearly overhauls of their customers vehicles, offered a mobile service throughout the Netherlands with their custom-equipped service trucks. Due to Beers concerted efforts, Scania-Vabis market share in the country remained at a consistent 20% throughout this period. Scania-Vabis were to adopt the business model of Beers in their own overseas sales operations.
The 1960s saw Scania-Vabis expanding its production operations into overseas locations. Until now, all Scania-Vabis production had been carried out at Södertälje, but the 1960s saw the need to expand production overseas. Brazil wa
Baggage or luggage consists of bags and containers which hold a traveller's articles while the traveler is in transit. The modern traveller can be expected to have packages containing clothing, small possessions, trip necessities, on the return-trip, souvenirs. For some people and the style thereof is representative of the owner's wealth. Baggage, or baggage train, can refer to the train of people and goods, both military and of a personal nature, which followed pre-modern armies on campaign. Luggage has changed over time; the most common types of luggage were chests or trunks made of wood or other heavy materials. These would be shipped by professional movers. Since the Second World War smaller and more lightweight suitcases and bags that can be carried by an individual have become the main form of luggage. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word baggage comes from Old French bagage or from bagues, it may be related to the word bag. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word luggage meant inconveniently heavy baggage and comes from the verb lug and the suffix -age.
Trunk - A wooden box much larger than other kinds of luggage. Trunks come in smaller sizes as in the case of footlockers and larger ones called steamers; these days trunks are more used for storage than transportation. Items large enough to require a trunk are now shipped in transport cases; some of the better known trunk makers are Louis Vuitton, Moynat, M. M. Secor and Leatheroid. Suitcase - A wheeled or non-wheeled luggage, as well as soft or hard side luggage. Garment bag - A style of luggage that folds over on itself to allow long garments such as suits or dresses to be packed flat to avoid creasing. Garment bags come in both wheeled and non-wheeled models, are one of the largest pieces in any set of luggage Tote - A small bag worn on the shoulder Duffle bag - A barrel-shaped bag exclusively soft side, is well suited to casual travel, with little organization inside. Carpet bag - travel luggage traditionally made from carpets. Packing Cubes - Small rectangular bags of different sizes and different colors created to keep the baggage organized and save space Gate Check Bags - Bags specially designed to protect frequent gate checking items, such as strollers and car seats Locks - locks serve multiple purposes.
Since 2003 most locks integrated into luggage use the TSA Lock standard developed by Travel Sentry to allow opening by the US Transportation Security Administration. Expandable Luggage - suitcases that can be unzipped to expand for more packing space. Luggage carriers – light-weight wheeled carts or harnesses on which luggage could be temporarily place or that can be temporarily attached to luggage – date at least to the 1930s, such as in US patent 2,132,316 "Luggage carrier" by Anne W. Newton; these were refined over the following decades, as reflected in patents such as US patent 2,650,105 A "Luggage carriage" and US patent 2,670,969 "Luggage carriage harness, both by Kent R. Costikyan. However, the wheels were external to the suitcases. Patents were published for wheeled luggage – a wheeled trunk in 1887, a wheeled suitcase in 1945 – but these were not commercialized; the first commercially successful rolling suitcases was invented in 1970, when Bernard D. Sadow applied for a patent, granted in 1972 as United States patent 3,653,474 for "Rolling Luggage".
The patent application cited the increase in air travel, "baggage handling become the single biggest difficulty encountered by an air passenger", as background of the invention. Sadow's four-wheeled suitcases, pulled using a loose strap, were surpassed in popularity by suitcases that feature two wheels and are pulled in an upright position using a long handle; these were invented in 1987 by US pilot Robert Plath, sold to crew members. Plath commercialized them, after travelers became interested after seeing them in use by crew members, founded the Travelpro company, which marketing the suitcases under the trademark "Rollaboard"; the terms rollaboard and roll-aboard are used generically, however. While designed for carry-on use, as implied by the analogous name, similar designs are used for checked baggage. More four-wheeled luggage with casters has become popular, notably since their use by Samsonite in the 2004 version of their signature Silhouette line; these are otherwise similar in design to two-wheel roll-aboards, with a vertical orientation and a retracting handle, but are designed to be pushed beside or in front of the traveler, rather than pulled behind them.
These are referred to as "spinner" luggage, since they can spin about their vertical axis. Sadow attributes the late invention of luggage on wheels to a "macho thing" where "men would not accept suitcases with wheels". Others attribute the late invention to "the abundance of luggage porters with carts in the 1960s, the ease of curbside drop-offs at much smaller airports and the heavy iron casters available." Some vehicles have an area for luggage to be held, called the automobile "trunk" in the United States. Items stored in the hold are known as hold luggage. A typical example would be a suitcase. If travelling by coach passengers will be expected to place their own luggage in the hold, before boarding. Aeroplanes in contrast are loaded by professional baggage handlers. Passengers are allowed to carry a limited number of smaller bags with them in the vehicle, these
Intercity bus service
An intercity bus service or intercity coach service called a long-distance, over-the-road, long-haul, or highway bus or coach service, is a public transport service using coaches to carry passengers significant distances between different cities, towns, or other populated areas. Unlike a transit bus service, which has frequent stops throughout a city or town, an intercity bus service has a single stop at one location in or near a city, travels long distances without stopping at all. Intercity bus services may be operated by government agencies or private industry, for profit and not for profit. Intercity coach travel can serve areas or countries with no train services, or may be set up to compete with trains by providing a more flexible or cheaper alternative. Intercity bus services are of prime importance in populated rural areas that have little or no public transportation. Intercity bus services are one of four common transport methods between cities, not all of which are available in all places.
The others are by airliner and private automobile. The first intercity scheduled transport service was called the stagecoach and originated in the 17th century. Crude coaches were being built from the 16th century in England, but without suspension, these coaches achieved low speeds on the poor quality rutted roads of the time. By the mid 17th century, a basic stagecoach infrastructure was being put in place; the first stagecoach route ran from Edinburgh to Leith. This was followed by a steady proliferation of other routes around the country. A string of coaching inns operated as stopping points for travellers on the route between London and Liverpool by the mid 17th century; the coach would depart every Monday and Thursday and took ten days to make the journey during the summer months. They became adopted for travel in and around London by mid-century and travelled at a few miles per hour. Shakespeare's first plays were staged at coaching inns such as Southwark; the speed of travel remained constant until the mid-18th century.
Reforms of the turnpike trusts, new methods of road building and the improved construction of coaches all led to a sustained rise in the comfort and speed of the average journey—from an average journey length of 2 days for the Cambridge-London route in 1750 to a length of under 7 hours in 1820. Robert Hooke helped in the construction of some of the first spring-suspended coaches in the 1660s and spoked wheels with iron rim brakes were introduced, improving the characteristics of the coach. In 1754, a Manchester-based company began a new service called the "Flying Coach", it was advertised with the following announcement: "However incredible it may appear, this coach will arrive in London in four days and a half after leaving Manchester." A similar service was begun from Liverpool three years using coaches with steel spring suspension. This coach took an unprecedented three days to reach London with an average speed of eight miles per hour. More dramatic improvements to coach speed were made by John Palmer at the British Post Office, who commissioned a fleet of mail coaches to deliver the post across the country.
His experimental coach left Bristol at 4 pm on 2 August 1784 and arrived in London just 16 hours later. The golden age of the stagecoach was during the Regency period, from 1800 to 1830; the era saw great improvements in the design of the coaches, notably by John Besant in 1792 and 1795. His coach had a improved turning capacity and braking system, a novel feature that prevented the wheels from falling off while the coach was in motion. Obadiah Elliott registered the first patent for a spring-suspension vehicle; each wheel had two durable steel leaf springs on each side and the body of the carriage was fixed directly to the springs attached to the axles. Steady improvements in road construction were made at this time, most the widespread implementation of Macadam roads up and down the country. Coaches in this period travelled at around 12 miles per hour and increased the level of mobility in the country, both for people and for mail; each route had an average of four coaches operating on it at one time - two for both directions and a further two spares in case of a breakdown en route.
The development of railways in the 1830s spelt the end for the stagecoaches across Europe and America, with only a few companies surviving to provide services for short journeys and excursions until the early years of the 20th century. The first motor coaches were acquired by operators of those horse-drawn vehicles. W. C. Standerwick of Blackpool, England acquired its first motor charabanc in 1911, Royal Blue from Bournemouth acquired its first motor charabanc in 1913. Motor coaches were used only for excursions. In 1919, Royal Blue took advantage of a rail strike to run a coach service from Bournemouth to London; the service was so successful. In 1920 the Minister of Transport Eric Campbell Geddes was quoted in Punch magazine as saying "I think it would be a calamity if we did anything to prevent the economic use of charabancs" and expressed concern at the problems caused to small charabanc and omnibus operators in parliament. In America, Carl Eric Wickman began providing the first service in 1913.
Frustrated about being unable to sell a seven-passenger automobile on the showroom floor of the dealership where he worked, he purchased the vehicle himself and started using it to transport miners between Hibbing and Alice, Minnesota. He began providing this service in what would start a new company and industry; the company would one day be known as Greyhound. In 1914
A coach is a large closed, four-wheeled carriage with two or more horses harnessed as a team, controlled by a coachman and/or one or more postilions. It had doors in the sides, with a front and a back seat inside and, for the driver, a small elevated seat in front called a box, box seat or coach box; the term "coach" first came into use in the 15th century, spread across Europe. There are a number of types of coaches, with differentiations based on use and size. Special breeds of horses, such as the now-extinct Yorkshire Coach Horse, were developed to pull the vehicles. Kocs was the Hungarian post town in the 15th century onwards, which gave its name to a fast light vehicle, which spread across Europe. Therefore, the English word coach, the Spanish and Portuguese coche, the German Kutsche, the Slovak koč and Czech kočár all derive from the Hungarian word "kocsi" meaning "of Kocs", it was not until about the middle of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, that coaches were introduced to England. Coaches were reputedly introduced into England from France by Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel.
A coach with four horses is a coach-and-four. A coach together with the horses and attendants is a turnout; the bodies of early coaches were hung on leather straps. In the eighteenth century steel springs were substituted, an improvement in suspension. An advertisement in the Edinburgh Courant for 1754 reads: The Edinburgh stage-coach, for the better accommodation of passengers, will be altered to a new genteel two-end glass coach-machine, hung on steel springs, exceedingly light and easy... In the mid 19th century American Concord stagecoaches used leather straps in a similar way. A coach might have a built-in compartment called a boot, used as a seat for the coachman and for storage. A luggage case for the top of a coach was called an imperial; the front and rear axles were connected by a main shaft called the reach. A crossbar known as a splinter bar supported the springs. Coaches were decorated by painters using a sable brush called a liner. In the 19th century the name coach was used for U. S. railway carriages, in the 20th century to motor coaches.
See John Taylor for a adverse opinion of the arrival of horsedrawn coaches in England. There are a number of coach types, including but not limited to: Coach: a large heavy vehicle designed to carry passengers State coach: A coach of state is used to carry important persons, like a visiting president of China and high nobility such as princes and dukes on state occasions. Private coach: a expensive cumbersome 17th century luxury replaced as they were developed by light fast carriages except on formal occasions. Road coach: a private coach kept for pleasure. See Driving club Drag or Park drag: a gentleman's coach kept for pleasure. See Driving clubThe principal ceremonial coaches in the United Kingdom are the Gold State Coach, Irish State Coach and Scottish State Coach. Funeral coach: not a coach but a U. S. name for a hearse, a wagon adapted to carry a coffin hackney coach a hired coach Stagecoach: heavy four-in-hand, closed. Stage wagon or mud wagon: lighter and smaller than a stagecoach, flat sides, simpler joinery The business of a coachman, like the pilot of an aircraft, was to expertly direct and take all responsibility for a coach or carriage and its horses, their stabling and maintenance and the associated staff.
He was called a jarvey or jarvie in Ireland. If he drove dangerously fast or recklessly he was a jehu (from Jehu, king of Israel, noted for his furious attacks in a chariot, or a Phaeton. A postilion or postillion sometimes rode as a guide on the near horse of a pair or of one of the pairs attached to a coach when there was no coachman. A guard on a horse-drawn coach was called a shooter. Traveling by coach, or pleasure driving in a coach, as in a tally-ho, was called coaching. In driving a coach, the coachman used a coachwhip provided with a long lash. Experienced coachmen never used the lash on their horses, they used the whip to flick the ear of the leader to give them the office to move on, or cracked it next to their heads to request increased speed. Box coat: a heavy overcoat with or without shoulder capes used by coachmen exposed to all kinds of weather. Hammercloth: ornamented and fringed was hung over the coachman's seat on a ceremonial coach. Cockhorse: An extra horse led behind a coach to be hitched when passing over steep or difficult terrain.
Stable was a building to shelter horses close to the owner's house. Staff accommodation would be close within the same building. Coach house was a special building for sheltering a coach or coaches but coaches were more kept within the stable building. Coaching inn or coaching house provided accommodation for travellers and provided a change of horses and offered stabling. Coach dog or carriage dog was trained to run in attendance on a coach Dalmatians. A coach horse