Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
An environmental organization is an organization coming out of the conservation or environmental movements that seeks to protect, analyse or monitor the environment against misuse or degradation from human forces. In this sense the environment may refer to the biophysical environment, the natural environment or the built environment; the organization may be a charity, a trust, a non-governmental organization or a government organization. Environmental organizations can be global, regional or local. Founded on 28 May 1892 in San Francisco, Sierra Club was one of the first large-scale environmental preservation organizations in the world. Most organizations exert more influence through their involvement in policy making. Green politics is a political ideology which emphasizes the importance of achieving environmental goals; the Green parties have formed to implement environmental policies at a government level. Some environmental issues that environmental organizations focus on include pollution, resource depletion, human overpopulation and climate change.
Notable global environmental organizations are the United Nations Environment Programme, World Wide Fund for Nature, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, World Meteorological Organization, Atlantic Whale and Dolphin Foundation, Friends of the Earth. Many interest groups and associations have been formed industry supported, to counter the progressive - capitalism- and economy-skeptic attitude and influence of environmental organizations. However, these interest groups are pure in ideological nature. Environmentalism List of international environmental agreements United Nations Environment Program Greenpeace Johnson, Erik W.. "Ecological Threat and the Founding of U. S. National Environmental Movement Organizations, 1962–1998". Social Problems. 58: 305–29. Doi:10.1525/sp.2011.58.3.305. This study examines the role of "ecological threat" in shaping the U. S. environmental movement. … Declines in wildlife populations are associated with the foundings of wildlife and wilderness protection organizations while increases in air pollution are associated with the foundings of organizations focused on ecosystem well-being and public health
Conservation is an ethic of resource use and protection. Its primary focus is upon maintaining the health of the natural world, its fisheries and biological diversity. Secondary focus is on material conservation, including non-renewable resources such as metals and fossil fuels, energy conservation, important to protect the natural world; those who follow the conservation ethic and those who advocate or work toward conservation goals are termed conservationists. The terms conservation and preservation are conflated outside the academic and professional kinds of literature; the US National Park Service offers the following explanation of the important ways in which these two terms represent different conceptions of environmental protection ethics: ″Conservation and preservation are linked and may indeed seem to mean the same thing. Both terms involve a degree of protection, but how that protection is carried out is the key difference. Conservation is associated with the protection of natural resources, while preservation is associated with the protection of buildings and landscapes.
Put conservation seeks the proper use of nature, while preservation seeks protection of nature from use. During the environmental movement of the early 20th century, two opposing factions emerged: conservationists and preservationists. Conservationists sought to regulate human use while preservationists sought to eliminate human impact altogether.″ To conserve habitat in terrestrial ecoregions and to stop deforestation is a goal shared by many groups with a wide variety of motivations. To protect sea life from extinction due to overfishing or climate change is another stated goal of conservation – ensuring that "some will be available for future generations" to continue a way of life; the consumer conservation ethic is sometimes expressed by the four R's: " Rethink, Recycle, Repair" This social ethic relates to local purchasing, moral purchasing, the sustained, efficient use of renewable resources, the moderation of destructive use of finite resources, the prevention of harm to common resources such as air and water quality, the natural functions of a living earth, cultural values in a built environment.
The principal value underlying most expressions of the conservation ethic is that the natural world has intrinsic and intangible worth along with utilitarian value – a view carried forward by the scientific conservation movement and some of the older Romantic schools of ecology movement. More Utilitarian schools of conservation seek a proper valuation of local and global impacts of human activity upon nature in their effect upon human well being, now and to posterity. How such values are assessed and exchanged among people determines the social and personal restraints and imperatives by which conservation is practiced; this is a view common in the modern environmental movement. These movements have diverged but they have deep and common roots in the conservation movement. In the United States of America, the year 1864 saw the publication of two books which laid the foundation for Romantic and Utilitarian conservation traditions in America; the posthumous publication of Henry David Thoreau's Walden established the grandeur of unspoiled nature as a citadel to nourish the spirit of man.
From George Perkins Marsh a different book and Nature subtitled "The Earth as Modified by Human Action", catalogued his observations of man exhausting and altering the land from which his sustenance derives. In common usage, the term refers to the activity of systematically protecting natural resources such as forests, including biological diversity. Carl F. Jordan defines the term as: biological conservation as being a philosophy of managing the environment in a manner that does not despoil, exhaust or extinguish. While this usage is not new, the idea of biological conservation has been applied to the principles of ecology, bio geography, anthropology and sociology to maintain biodiversity; the term "conservation" itself may cover the concepts such as cultural diversity, genetic diversity and the concept of movements environmental conservation, seedbank. These are summarized as the priority to respect diversity by Greens. Much recent movement in conservation can be considered a resistance to commercialism and globalization.
Slow Food is a consequence of rejecting these as moral priorities, embracing a slower and more locally focused lifestyle. Distinct trends exist regarding conservation development. While many countries' efforts to preserve species and their habitats have been government-led, those in the North Western Europe tended to arise out of the middle-class and aristocratic interest in natural history, expressed at the level of the individual and the national, regional or local learned society, thus countries like Britain, the Netherlands, etc. had what we would today term NGOs – in the shape of the RSPB, National Trust and County Naturalists' Trusts Natuurmonumenten, Provincial Conservation Trusts for each Dutch province, etc. – a long time before there were national parks and national nature reserves. This in part reflects the absence of wilderness areas in cultivated Europe, as well as a longstanding interest in laissez-faire government in some countries, like the UK, leaving it as no coincidence that John Muir, the Scottish-born founder of the National Park movement did his sterling work in the USA, where he was the motor force behind the establishment of such NPs as Yosemite and Yellowstone.
Nowadays more than 10 percent
Palm Desert, California
Palm Desert is a city in Riverside County, United States, in the Coachella Valley 14 miles east of Palm Springs, 121 miles northeast of San Diego and 122 miles east of Los Angeles. The population was 48,445 at the 2010 census, up from 41,155 at the 2000 census; the city was one of the state's fastest growing in the 1980s and 1990s, beginning with 11,801 residents in 1980, doubling to 23,650 in 1990, 35,000 in 1995, nearly double its 1990 population by 2000. A major center of growth in the Coachella Valley, Palm Desert is a popular retreat for "snowbirds" from colder climates, who swell its population by an estimated 31,000 each winter. In the past couple of years Palm Desert has seen more residents become "full-timers" from the coasts and urban centers of California, who have come for both affordable and high-valued home prices; the area was first known as the Old MacDonald Ranch, but the name changed to Palm Village in the 1920s when date palms were planted. Local historians said the main residents of pre-1950 Palm Desert were Cahuilla Indian farmers of the now extinct San Cayetano tribe, but a few members of the Montoya family of Cahuilla/Spanish descent were prominent leaders in civic life.
The first residential development occurred in 1943 in connection with an Army maintenance camp in the area. That site was developed into "El Paseo", an upscale shopping district not unlike Rodeo Drive. In 1948, the Palm Desert Corporation began to develop real estate, in 1951 the area was given its present name. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 27.0 square miles, of which, 26.8 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. The elevation is 224 feet above sea level. Elevations vary from the lower northern half once covered in sand dunes to the upper slope southern cove all the way to the ridgeline at 1,000 feet. Palm Desert is located in the north-western extension of the Sonoran Desert. Sun City Palm Desert, California lies on the northern side of Interstate 10 from Palm Desert itself, but is unincorporated and not part of the City of Palm Desert; the climate of the Coachella Valley is influenced by the surrounding geography. High mountain ranges on three sides and a south-sloping valley floor all contribute to its year-round warm climate, with the warmest winters in the western United States.
Palm Desert has a subtropical desert climate: Its average annual high temperature is 89 °F and average annual low is 62 °F, but summer highs above 108 °F are common and sometimes exceed 120 °F, while summer night lows stay above 82 °F. Winters are warm with daytime highs between 73–84 °F. Under 5 inches of annual precipitation are average, with over 348 days of sunshine per year; the mean annual temperature at 75.8 °F makes Palm Desert one of the warmest places in the United States. The hottest temperature recorded in Palm Desert was 125 °F on July 6, 1905; the surrounding mountains create a thermal belt in the southern foothills of Palm Desert, leading to a micro-climate with warmer night-time temperatures during the winter months. The University of California maintains weather stations located in this thermal belt as part of their ecological project in the Philip L. Boyd Deep Canyon Desert Research Center; the 2010 United States Census reported that Palm Desert had a population of 48,445. The population density was 1,793.3 people per square mile.
The racial makeup of Palm Desert was 39,957 White, 875 African American, 249 Native American, 1,647 Asian, 55 Pacific Islander, 4,427 from other races, 1,235 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11,038 persons; the Census reported that 48,137 people lived in households, 98 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 210 were institutionalized. There were 23,117 households, out of which 4,253 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 10,253 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,177 had a female householder with no husband present, 811 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,227 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 373 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 7,948 households were made up of individuals and 4,370 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.08. There were 13,241 families; the population was spread out with 7,534 people under the age of 18, 3,333 people aged 18 to 24, 8,731 people aged 25 to 44, 12,924 people aged 45 to 64, 15,923 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 53.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.4 males. There were 37,073 housing units at an average density of 1,372.4 per square mile, of which 15,171 were owner-occupied, 7,946 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 5.0%. 30,667 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 17,470 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Palm Desert had a median household income of $53,456, with 9.2% of the population living below the federal poverty line. Accordin
The Coachella Valley is a desert valley in Southern California which extends for 45 mi in Riverside County southeast from the San Bernardino Mountains to the northern shore of the Salton Sea. It is the northernmost extent of the vast trough which includes the Salton Sea, the Imperial Valley and the Gulf of California, it is 15 mi wide along most of its length, bounded on the west by the San Jacinto Mountains and the Santa Rosa Mountains and on the north and east by the Little San Bernardino Mountains. The San Andreas Fault crosses the valley from the Chocolate Mountains in the southeast corner and along the centerline of the Little San Bernardinos; the fault is visible along its northern length as a strip of greenery against an otherwise bare mountain. The Chocolate Mountains are home to a United States Navy live gunnery range and are off-limits to the public; the Coachella Valley is sometimes referred to as the "Desert Empire" to differentiate it from the neighboring urbanized Inland Empire and the Imperial Valley.
Geographers and geologists sometimes call the area, along with the Imperial Valley to the south, the "Cahuilla Basin" or the "Salton Trough". The valley contains the resort cities of Palm Springs and Palm Desert, Rancho Mirage, Indio, La Quinta, Indian Wells and Cathedral City as well, altogether with a population of 500,000 in April, declining to around 200,000 in July and rising to around 800,000 by January, it is sometimes included in the Inland Empire region. Separate from the Inland Empire, it is a small to medium-sized metropolitan area consisting of Palm Springs and other smaller incoporated cities, consolidated into the Coachella Valley. Coachella Valley connects with the core of the Greater Los Angeles area to the west via the San Gorgonio Pass, a major transportation corridor that includes Interstate 10 and the Union Pacific Railroad. There is a large population of seasonal residents in the winter months, known as snowbirds, which at peak times may surpass 100,000 with another 3.5 million annual conventioneers and tourists.
There is some contention as to the origin of the name. Early maps show the area as "Conchilla," the Spanish word for "seashell." Since the area was once a part of a vast inland sea, tiny fossilized mollusk shells can be found in just about every remote area. Local lore explains the change in the name from Conchilla to Coachella as a mistake made by the map-makers contracted to transcribe the data supplied by the Southern Pacific Railroad's survey party. Rather than redraw the expensive maps, the railroad chose to instead begin calling the area by the misspelled name "Coachella" rather than its traditional name "Conchilla." Some believe that the name Coachella was made up, but that theory is rather unlikely. Though the area had been surveyed by Edward Fitzgerald Beale in 1857, whose survey party used camels to cross the desert along the path of the historic Bradshaw Trail, it wasn't until the coming of the Southern Pacific Railroad and the discovery of abundant artesian wells in the 19th Century that the area began to expand.
Cindarella Courtney was the first non-Indian child born in Indio in 1898. The first boy, David Elgin, was born in 1899; the coming in 1926 of U. S. Route 99 northward through Coachella and Indio and westward toward Los Angeles more or less along the present route of Interstate 10 helped further open both agriculture and tourism to the rest of the country. So too did the coming of State Highway 111 in the early 1930s, which cut a diagonal swath through the valley and connected all of its major settlements. Dr. June McCarroll a nurse with the Southern Pacific whose office fronted U. S. 99 in Indio, is credited with being the first person to delineate a divided highway by painting a stripe down the middle of the roadbed in response to frequent head-on collisions. The standard was adopted worldwide. Doctor McCarroll is memorialized by a stretch of I-10 through Indio named in her honor; the Coachella Valley was popular among celebrities from Frank Sinatra to Dakota Fanning who came and continue to come to enjoy vacations and winter homes in the desert resort community.
It became a major real estate destination in the 1980s and 1990s, no longer limited to senior citizens, winter residents and retirees. Families with young children and young adults became interested in Palm Springs and surrounding communities for lower cost housing and apartment rents. Palm Springs has become a world-famous tourist attraction; as a tourist destination, the Coachella Valley can be considered a Southwest attraction like Las Vegas, Phoenix, or Santa Fe, or as a part of Southern California along with San Diego, Orange County, Los Angeles. In a 2003 Condé Nast publication review, Palm Springs was ranked one of the top 10 global vacation destinations, the smallest one in population; the area is surrounded on the southwest by the Santa Rosa Mountains, by the San Jacinto Mountains to the west, the Little San Bernardino Mountains to the east and San Gorgonio Mountain to the north. These tend to average between 5,000 and 7,000 feet. Elevations on the Valley floor range from 1,600 feet above sea level at the north end of the Valley to 250 feet below sea level around Mecca.
In the summer months daytime temperatures range from 104 °F to 112 °F and nighttime lows from 75 °F to 86 °F. During winter, the daytime temperatures range from 68 °F to 88 °F and corresponding nights range from 46 °F to 65 °F making it a popular winter resort destination; the surrounding mountains create T