A dolmen or cromlech is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table". Most date from the early Neolithic and were sometimes covered with earth or smaller stones to form a tumulus. Small pad-stones may be wedged between supporting stones to achieve a level appearance. In many instances, the covering has weathered away, leaving only the stone "skeleton" of the mound intact, it remains unclear. The oldest known are found in Western Europe. Archaeologists still do not know who erected these dolmens, which makes it difficult to know why they did it, they are all regarded as tombs or burial chambers, despite the absence of clear evidence for this. Human remains, sometimes accompanied by artefacts, have been found in or close to the dolmens which could be scientifically dated using radiocarbon dating. However, it has been impossible to prove that these remains date from the time when the stones were set in place.
The word dolmen has an unclear history. The word entered archaeology when Théophile Corret de la Tour d'Auvergne used it to describe megalithic tombs in his Origines gauloises using the spelling dolmin; the Oxford English Dictionary does not mention "dolmin" in English and gives its first citation for "dolmen" from a book on Brittany in 1859, describing the word as "The French term, used by some English authors, for a cromlech...". The name was derived from a Breton language term meaning "stone table" but doubt has been cast on this, the OED describes its origin as "Modern French". A book on Cornish antiquities from 1754 said that the current term in the Cornish language for a cromlech was tolmen and the OED says that "There is reason to think that this was the term inexactly reproduced by Latour d'Auvergne as dolmen, misapplied by him and succeeding French archaeologists to the cromlech". Nonetheless it has now replaced cromlech as the usual English term in archaeology, when the more technical and descriptive alternatives are not used.
Dolmens are known by a variety of names in other languages, including Irish: dolmain and Portuguese: anta, Bulgarian: Долмени Dolmeni, German: Hünengrab/Hünenbett and Dutch: hunebed, Basque: trikuharri, Abkhazian: Adamra, Adyghe Ispun, dysse, dös, Korean: 고인돌 goindol, "dol", "dolmaengi", Hebrew: גַלעֵד. Granja is used in Portugal and Spain; the rarer forms anta and ganda appear. In the Basque Country, they are attributed to a race of giants; the etymology of the German: Hünenbett, Hünengrab and Dutch: hunebed - with Hüne/hune meaning "giant" - all evoke the image of giants buried there. Of other Celtic languages, Welsh: cromlech was borrowed into English and quoit is used in English in Cornwall. Great dolmen Passage grave Polygonal dolmen Rectangular, enlarged or extended dolmen Simple dolmen Holcombe, Charles. A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-51595-5. Piccolo, Salvatore. Ancient Stones: The Prehistoric Dolmens of Sicily.
Thornham/Norfolk: Brazen Head Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9565106-2-4. Murphy, Cornelius; the Prehistoric Archaeology of the Beara Peninsula, Co. Cork. Department of Archaeology, University College Cork, 1997 Trifonov, V. 2006. Russia's megaliths: unearthing the lost prehistoric tombs of Caucasian warlords in the Zhane valley. St. Petersburg: The Institute for Study of Material Culture History, Russian Academy of Sciences. Available from Kudin, M. 2001. Dolmeni i ritual. Dolmen Path – Russian Megaliths. Available from Knight, Peter. Ancient Stones of Dorset, 1996. World heritage site of dolmen in Korea Piccolo, Salvatore. "Dolmen." Ancient History Encyclopedia. The Megalithic Portal and Megalith Map Dolmen Museum in Italian and English Goindol: Dolmen of Korea Research Centre of Dolmens in Northeast Asia Poulnabrone Dolmen in the Burren, County Clare, Ireland "Dolmen sites in Korea". on UNESCO's World Heritage List. Jersey Heritage Trust Dolmen Pictures by Robert Triest
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though villages are located in rural areas, the term urban village is applied to certain urban neighborhoods. Villages are permanent, with fixed dwellings. Further, the dwellings of a village are close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement. In the past, villages were a usual form of community for societies that practice subsistence agriculture, for some non-agricultural societies. In Great Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village. In many cultures and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living in them; the Industrial Revolution attracted people in larger numbers to work in factories. This enabled specialization of labor and crafts, development of many trades; the trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with industrialization.
Although many patterns of village life have existed, the typical village is small, consisting of 5 to 30 families. Homes were situated together for sociability and defence, land surrounding the living quarters was farmed. Traditional fishing villages were located adjacent to fishing grounds. "The soul of India lives in its villages," declared M. K. Gandhi at the beginning of 20th century. According to the 2011 census of India, 68.84% of Indians live in 640,867 different villages. The size of these villages varies considerably. 236,004 Indian villages have a population of fewer than 500, while 3,976 villages have a population of 10,000+. Most of the villages have their own temple, mosque, or church, depending on the local religious following. In Afghanistan, the village, or deh is the mid-size settlement type in Afghan society, trumping the hamlet or qala, though smaller than the town, or shār. In contrast to the qala, the deh is a bigger settlement which includes a commercial area, while the yet larger shār includes governmental buildings and services such as schools of higher education, basic health care, police stations etc.
Auyl is a Kazakh word meaning "village" in Kazakhstan. According to the 2009 census of Kazakhstan, 42.7% of Kazakhs live in 8172 different villages. To refer to this concept along with the word "auyl" used the Slavic word "selo" in Northern Kazakhstan. People's Republic of China In mainland China, villages 村 are divisions under township Zh:乡 or town Zh:镇. Republic of China In the Republic of China, villages are divisions under townships or county-controlled cities; the village is called a tsuen or cūn under a rural township and a li under an urban township or a county-controlled city. See Li. Japan South Korea In Brunei, villages are the third- and lowest-level subdivisions of Brunei below districts and mukims. A village is locally known by the Malay word kampung, they may be villages in the traditional or anthropological sense but may comprise delineated residential settlements, both rural and urban. The community of a village is headed by a village head. Communal infrastructure for the villagers may include a primary school, a religious school providing ugama or Islamic religious primary education, compulsory for the Muslim pupils in the country, a mosque, a community centre.
In Indonesia, depending on the principles they are administered, villages are called Kampung or Desa. A "Desa" is administered according to traditions and customary law, while a kelurahan is administered along more "modern" principles. Desa are located in rural areas while kelurahan are urban subdivisions. A village head is called kepala desa or lurah. Both are elected by the local community. A desa or kelurahan is the subdivision of a kecamatan, in turn the subdivision of a kabupaten or kota; the same general concept applies all over Indonesia. However, there is some variation among the vast numbers of Austronesian ethnic groups. For instance, in Bali villages have been created by grouping traditional hamlets or banjar, which constitute the basis of Balinese social life. In the Minangkabau area in West Sumatra province, traditional villages are called nagari. In some areas such as Tanah Toraja, elders take; as a general rule and kelurahan are groupings of hamlets. A kampung is defined today as a village in Indonesia.
Kampung is a term used in Malaysia, for "a Malay hamlet or village in a Malay-speaking country". In Malaysia, a kampung is determined as a locality with 10,000 or fewer people. Since historical times, every Malay village came under the leadership of a penghulu, who has the power to hear civil matters in his village. A Malay village contains a "masjid" or "surau", paddy fields and Malay houses on st
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, they emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than by good works, the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church. Protestantism is popularly considered to have begun in Germany in 1517 when Martin Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church, which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers.
However, the term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider and modern movement. In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, Latvia and Iceland. Reformed denominations spread in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, John Knox; the political separation of the Church of England from the pope under King Henry VIII began Anglicanism, bringing England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement. Protestants have developed their own culture, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, many other fields. Protestantism is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or Oriental Orthodoxy.
Without structural unity or central human authority, Protestants developed the concept of an invisible church, in contrast to the Roman Catholic view of the Catholic Church as the visible one true Church founded by Jesus Christ. Some denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of Protestant denominational families: Adventists, Anglicans, Reformed, Lutherans and Pentecostals. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Proponents of the branch theory consider Protestantism one of the three major divisions of Christendom, together with the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodoxy. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest against the edict of the Diet of Speyer, were the first individuals to be called Protestants; the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier.
The term protestant, though purely political in nature acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. However, it is misused to mean any church outside the Roman and Eastern Orthodox communions. Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i.e. Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. During the Reformation, the term protestant was hardly used outside of German politics. People who were involved in the religious movement used the word evangelical. For further details, see the section below. Protestant became a general term, meaning any adherent of the Reformation in the German-speaking area, it was somewhat taken up by Lutherans though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ. French and Swiss Protestants instead preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists.
The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was used for those involved in the religious movement in the German-speaking area beginning in 1517. Nowadays, evangelical is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and United Protestant traditions in Europe, those with strong ties to them. Above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany. In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Calvinist, or a United Protestant; the German word evangelisch means Protestant, is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical refers to evangelical Protestant churches, therefore to a certain part of Protestantism rather than to Protestantism as a whole; the English word traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, was brought to the United States. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term evangelical, derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "gospel".
The followers of
Ardboe is a small village and civil parish in the north east of County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. It lies within the Cookstown District Council area, it is the name of the local civil parish, which incorporates Moortown. Ardboe Development Association, which developed a small business park, Ardboe Community Group are based in the village; the name "Ard Boe" means "high cow" comes from a legend that the monastery of Ardboe was built from the milk of a magic cow which emerged from nearby Lough Neagh. During the Second World War, in 1941, an RAF station was built in the townland of Kinrush in Ardboe. RAF Cluntoe was used by the Royal Air Force, but handed over as a training station for the United States Army Air Forces, by 1943, over 3,500 troops were stationed there. By 1946 the war was over and the Americans had left; the RAF kept the airfield ticking over and it was reopened in 1952 as a training station for pilots going to the Korean War. By 1955 it closed for good. Remains of the Cluntoe Airfield around Ardboe can still be seen, with the area known as the Aerodrome among locals.
For more information see The Troubles in Ardboe, which includes a list of incidents in Ardboe during the Troubles resulting in two or more fatalities. One of the finest examples of the Irish High cross in Ulster, can be found in Ardboe and is located on a small hillock close to the shores of Ardboe Lough. Ardboe High Cross, which dates to the 9th/10th century, is all that now remains of a 6th-century monastery, established by Saint Colman mac Aed; the Cross, made of sandstone, stands about eighteen feet high. Although weathered and damaged, Ardboe High Cross is a superb example of figure carving, incorporating 22 panels of sculpture of biblical events; the adjoining graveyard was the site of a tree, known locally as the Ardboe Pin Tree, into which people had traditionally put coins or pins, believing it to cure them of ailments. The tree was blown down during the Boxing Day storms of 1998; the Battery Harbour, in the townland of Kinturk, with public access to Lough Neagh, is the base for Lough Neagh Rescue.
Coyle’s Cottage is a 300-year-old restored fisherman’s cottage in the townland of Aneeter Beg. It is the home of the Muintirevlin Historical Society and Gort Moss Walking Club and hosts music nights and traditional music classes. Arboe civil parish contains the following townlands: Provisional Irish Republican Army member Matt Devlin who took part in the 1981 Irish Hunger Strike and was a leading member of Sinn Féin in County Westmeath Tyrone Gaelic footballers Tommy McGuigan, Brian McGuigan and their father, Frank McGuigan, are from the area. Polly Devlin, journalist and film-maker. Diane McCormick, ceramics artist. Kyle Coney, Tyrone minor Gaelic player Screenwriter and member of the Horslips, Barry Devlin, whose My Mother and Other Strangers is set in Moybeg, a fictional village on Lough Neagh, based on Ardboe Telephone Numbers in the Ardboe area either begin with 867 Coagh or 877 Stewartstown. Most numbers begin with 867 however 877 applies to those around most of the Carnan area and some of the Killycoply area.
Ardboe O'Donnovan Rossa GAC is the local Gaelic Athletic Association club. Ardboe Is Classified A Small Village By The NI Statistics and Research Agency: there were 986 people living there in 2011. 69% of the population was from a *Roman Catholic* background 20% of the population was from a *Protestant* background 3% of the population had *no* religion 8% of the population was from a *foreign* country 63% of the population was aged 18 – 75 30% of the population was aged 0 – 18 7% of the population was aged 75+ 59% of the population were female 41% of the population were male 36% of the population were unemployed Abbeys and priories in Northern Ireland List of villages in Northern Ireland List of towns in Northern Ireland List of civil parishes of County Tyrone Information on the tree Fuel Poverty Scheme Parish website
Moneymore is the name of a farming district near Milton, New Zealand. Moneymore is the name of a large housing estate in Drogheda, Ireland. Moneymore is a townland in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland, it had a population of 1,369 in the 2001 Census. It is situated within Mid-Ulster District, it is an example of a plantation village in Mid-Ulster built by the Drapers' Company of London. It was the first town in Ulster to have piped water. Moneymore lies in a glen; the Ballymully River flows through the southern part of the village. The river rises on Slieve Gallion, which has a radio tower on top; the village is about 35 miles from the sea to the north. There was an important battle fought near Moneymore called the battle of Móin Daire Lothair in the year 563 between the Northern Uí Néill and the Cruithin tribe which the Northern Uí Néill won; this battle would have been a major event at the time. Much of Great Britain and Ireland would have descent from these two groups as there was notable mixing with Scotland over the years and the Uí Néill split to form the Southern Uí Néill in the Irish midlands around this time.
Built by the Worshipful Company of Drapers, the village was held in such esteem that they invested in a large scale reconstruction during 1817. During The Troubles, seven people were killed in or near Moneymore in violence related to the conflict, six of them by the Provisional IRA and one by the UDA. Richard William Enraght was religious controversialist, he was born in Moneymore on 23 February 1837, the son of the Reverend Matthew Enraght the Assistant Curate of the parish. John Harris, early settler of Australia, born Moneymore 1754 Author and musician Rodney Orpheus was born and raised in Moneymore; the most notable building in the town is the 17th century Plantation house, Springhill and owned by the Conyngham Lenox-Conyngham family but since 1957 in the ownership of the National Trust. Moneymore Model Village depicts life in rural Ulster at the time of the Plantation. Moneymore railway station opened on 10 November 1856 and shut on 2 May 1955. Moneymore has a surgery which serves villages such as the Loup and Desertmartin.
As well as that, Moneymore has Dalriada Emergency Surgery, 24/7 as well as a post office, pharmacy, a number of convenience stores, a owned bus service, a owned crane company, a vehicle detailing business and a owned bicycle shop. Until July 2006 there was a Police Service of Northern Ireland station; the village has a Go Kart track and a Recreation Centre. Moneymore GAC is the local Gaelic Athletic Association club. There are two primary schools in Moneymore: Moneymore Primary School and St. Patrick's Primary School. Most children of secondary school age attend one of the schools in nearby Magherafelt. St. John's Church Church of SS John & Trea Moneymore First Presbyterian Church Moneymore Second Presbyterian Church Moneymore Congregational Church Moneymore Gospel Hall Moneymore is classified as a village by the NI Statistics and Research Agency. On Census day there were 1,369 people living in Moneymore. Of these: 25.0% were aged under 16 years and 16.1% were aged 60 and over 45.29% of the population were male and 52.1% were female 47.8% were from a Catholic background and 51.0% were from a Protestant background.
For more details see: NI Neighbourhood Information Service Market Houses in Northern Ireland Moneymore and Draperstown: The Architecture and Planning of the Estates of the Drapers Company in Ulster Photos of the town taken around 1920
The Sperrins or Sperrin Mountains are a range of mountains in Northern Ireland and one of the largest upland areas in Ireland. The range stretches the counties of Tyrone and Londonderry from south of Strabane eastwards to Slieve Gallion in Desertmartin and north towards Limavady; the region is a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. It has a distinctive glaciated landscape; the Glenshane Pass, part of the A6 Belfast to Derry road, is in the mountains and has notoriously bad weather in winter. Sawel Mountain is the highest peak in the Sperrins, the seventh highest in Northern Ireland, its summit rises to 678 m. Another of the Sperrins, towers over the Glenshane Pass. Geologically, the Sperrins are formed from Precambrian metamorphic rocks, with some younger Ordovician igneous rocks in the southern flank of the range. List of mountains in Ireland Landscapes Unlocked - Aerial footage from the BBC Sky High series explaining the physical and economic geography of Northern Ireland
County Tyrone is one of the six counties of Northern Ireland and one of the thirty-two counties on the island of Ireland. It is no longer used as an administrative division for local government but retains a strong identity in popular culture. Adjoined to the south-west shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of 3,155 km2 and has a population of about 177,986; the county derives its name and general geographic location from Tyrone, a Gaelic kingdom under the O'Neill dynasty which existed until the 17th century. The name Tyrone is derived from Irish Tír Eoghain, meaning'land of Eoghan', the name given to the conquests made by the Cenél nEógain from the provinces of Airgíalla and Ulaid, it was anglicised as Tirowen or Tyrowen, which are closer to the Irish pronunciation. Tyrone stretched as far north as Lough Foyle, comprised part of modern-day County Londonderry east of the River Foyle; the majority of County Londonderry was carved out of Tyrone between 1610–1620 when that land went to the Guilds of London to set up profit making schemes based on natural resources located there.
Tyrone was the traditional stronghold of the various O'Neill clans and families, the strongest of the Gaelic Irish families in Ulster, surviving into the seventeenth century. The ancient principality of Tír Eoghain, the inheritance of the O'Neills, included the whole of the present counties of Tyrone and Londonderry, the four baronies of West Inishowen, East Inishowen, Raphoe North and Raphoe South in County Donegal. In 1608 during O'Doherty's Rebellion areas of the country were plundered and burnt by the forces of Sir Cahir O'Doherty following his destruction of Derry. However, O'Doherty's men avoided the estates of the fled Earl of Tyrone around Dungannon, fearing Tyrone's anger if he returned from his exile. With an area of 3,155 square kilometres, Tyrone is the largest county in Northern Ireland; the flat peatlands of East Tyrone border the shoreline of the largest lake in the British Isles, Lough Neagh, rising across to the more mountainous terrain in the west of the county, the area surrounding the Sperrin Mountains, the highest point being Sawel Mountain at a height of 678 m.
The length of the county, from the mouth of the River Blackwater at Lough Neagh to the western point near Carrickaduff hill is 55 miles. The breadth, from the southern corner, southeast of Fivemiletown, to the northeastern corner near Meenard Mountain is 37.5 miles. Annaghone lays claim to be the geographical centre of Northern Ireland. Tyrone is connected by land to the county of Fermanagh to the southwest. Across Lough Neagh to the east, it borders County Antrim, it is the eighth largest of Ireland's thirty-two counties by tenth largest by population. It is the second largest of Ulster's nine traditional counties by area and fourth largest by population, it is one of four counties in Northern Ireland which has a majority of the population from a Catholic community background, according to the 2011 census. In 1900 County Tyrone had a population of 197,719, while in 2011 it was 177,986. Omagh Cookstown Dungannon Strabane Coalisland Castlederg Ardboe Carrickmore Dromore Fintona Fivemiletown Killyclogher Moy Newtownstewart Sion Mills Baronies Clogher Dungannon Lower Dungannon Middle Dungannon Upper Omagh East Omagh West Strabane Lower Strabane UpperParishes Townlands There is the possibility of the line being reopened to Dungannon railway station from Portadown.
The major sports in Tyrone are association football, rugby union and cricket. Gaelic football is more played than hurling in Tyrone; the Tyrone GAA football side has had considerable success since 2000, winning three All Ireland titles. They have won fifteen Ulster titles and two National League titles. Association football has a large following in Tyrone. Omagh Town F. C. were members of the Irish Football League. Dungannon Swifts F. C. compete in the NIFL Premiership - the top division. Other teams include NIFL Championship side Dergview F. C.. Rugby union is popular in the county. Dungannon RFC plays in the All-Ireland League. Other teams include Omagh RFC, Clogher Valley RFC, Cookstown RFC and Strabane RFC. International Cricket is played on the Bready Cricket Club Ground, owned by Bready Cricket Club, it is Ireland's fourth venue for International Cricket hosting its first International Cricket match when Ireland played against Scotland in a series of T20I matches in June 2015. It was selected. Abbeys and priories in Northern Ireland High Sheriff of Tyrone List of civil parishes of County Tyrone List of places in County Tyrone List of townlands in County Tyrone Lord Lieutenant of Tyrone Ulster American Folk Park The Moorlough Shore Joost, Augusteijn.
The Memoirs of John M. Regan, a Catholic Officer in the RIC and RUC, 1909–48. Co. Tyrone. ISBN 978-1-84682-069-4. McNeill, I.. The Flora of County Tyrone. National Museums of