Coal tar

Coal tar is a thick dark liquid, a by-product of the production of coke and coal gas from coal. It has both industrial uses, it may be applied to the affected area to treat seborrheic dermatitis. It may be used in combination with ultraviolet light therapy. Industrially it is a railway tie preservative and used in the surfacing of roads. Side effects include skin irritation, sun sensitivity, allergic reactions, skin discoloration, it is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe for the baby and use during breastfeeding is not recommended. The exact mechanism of action is unknown, it is a complex mixture of phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds. It demonstrates antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-itch, antiparasitic properties. Coal tar was used for medical purposes as early as the 1800s, it is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. Coal tar is available over the counter. In the United Kingdom 125 ml of 5% shampoo costs the NHS about £1.89.

In the United States a month's treatment costs less than $25 USD. Coal tar was one of the key starting materials for the early pharmaceutical industry. Coal tar is used in medicated shampoo and ointment, it demonstrates antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-itch, antiparasitic properties. It may be applied topically as a treatment for dandruff and psoriasis, to kill and repel head lice, it may be used in combination with ultraviolet light therapy. Pine tar has also been used for this purpose. Though it is cited online as having been banned as a medical product by the FDA due to a "lack of evidence having been submitted for proof of effectiveness", pine tar is included in the Code of Federal Regulations, subchapter D: Drugs for Human Use, as an OTC treatment for "Dandruff/seborrheic dermatitis/psoriasis". Coal tar may be used in two forms: crude coal tar or a coal tar solution known as liquor carbonis detergens. Named brands include Denorex, Psoriasin, Tegrin, T/Gel, Neutar; when used in the extemporaneous preparation of topical medications, it is supplied in the form of coal tar topical solution USP, which consists of a 20% w/v solution of coal tar in alcohol, with an additional 5% w/v of polysorbate 80 USP.

Coal tar was a component of the first sealed roads. In its original development by Edgar Purnell Hooley, tarmac was tar covered with granite chips; the filler used was industrial slag. Today, petroleum derived binders and sealers are more used; these sealers are used to extend the life and reduce maintenance cost associated with asphalt pavements in asphalt road paving, car parks and walkways. Coal tar is incorporated into some parking-lot sealcoat products used to protect the structural integrity of the underlying pavement. Sealcoat products that are coal-tar based contain 20 to 35 percent coal-tar pitch. Research shows it is used in United States states from Alaska to Florida, but several areas have banned its use in sealcoat products, including the District of Columbia. Being flammable, coal tar is sometimes used to fire boilers. Like most heavy oils, it must be heated. A large part of the binder used in the graphite industry for making "green blocks" is coke oven volatiles, a considerable portion of, coal tar.

During the baking process of the green blocks as a part of commercial graphite production, most of the coal tar binders are vaporised and are burned in an incinerator to prevent release into the atmosphere, as COV and coal tar can be injurious to health. Coal tar is used to manufacture paints, synthetic dyes, photographic materials. In the coal gas era, there were many companies in Britain whose business was to distill coal tar to separate the higher-value fractions, such as naphtha and pitch. A great many industrial chemicals were first isolated from coal tar during this time; these companies included: British Tar Products Lancashire Tar Distillers Midland Tar Distillers Newton, Chambers & Company Sadlers Chemicals Side effects of coal tar products include skin irritation, sun sensitivity, allergic reactions, skin discoloration. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe for the baby and use during breastfeeding is not recommended. According to the National Psoriasis Foundation, coal tar is a valuable and inexpensive treatment option for millions of people with psoriasis and other scalp or skin conditions.

According to the FDA, coal tar concentrations between 0.5% and 5% are considered safe and effective for psoriasis. Evidence is inconclusive whether the coal tar in the concentrations seen in non-prescription treatments causes cancer, because there is insufficient data to make a judgment. While coal tar causes cancer in animal studies, short-term treatments of humans have shown no significant increase in rates of cancer. It's possible that the skin can repair itself after short-term exposure to PAHs, but not after long-term exposure. Coal tar was one of the first chemical substances proven to cause cancer from occupational exposure, during research in 1775 on the cause of chimney sweeps' carcinoma. Modern studies have shown that working with coal tar pitch, such as during the paving of roads or when working on roofs, increases the risk of cancer. Coal tar contains many po


MediaFire is a file hosting, file synchronization, cloud storage service based in Shenandoah, United States. Founded in June 2006 by Derek Labian and Tom Langridge, the company provides client software for Microsoft Windows, macOS, Android, iOS, BlackBerry 10, web browsers. MediaFire has 43 million registered users and attracted 1.3 billion unique visitors to its domain in 2012. As of July 2012, features of MediaFire include up to 50 GB of storage. In April 2014, MediaFire responded to reduced pricing from Google Drive by increasing its professional storage plan from 100GB to 1TB and reducing its monthly price to US$2.50 per month. Business account storage is shared across all sub accounts allowing for single billing and management of multiple users at a single company. MediaFire's free account service does not require download activity in order to preserve files, is thus suitable as a backup only solution. MediaFire does not support free data warehousing. MediaFire offers downloadable clients for mobile devices and desktop computers which vary in terms of capabilities and types of usage.

MediaFire released Android and iOS clients based on the Appcelerator framework and updated them with native versions in 2014. The mobile apps provide importing of photos and video taken on the device, remote access to the contents of your MediaFire account; the MediaFire desktop clients launched in November 2013, are available for macOS and Microsoft Windows providing file and folder synchronization with any MediaFire account. Additional features include file and folder sharing, screen capture, selective syncing. MediaFire's desktop client software is available for the following devices: PCs running Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, or Mac OS X 10.7 or higher and require at least 1 GB of RAM and 600 MB of disk space. As MediaFire announced at 19 May MediaFire Desktop Sync will stop working at 30 July 2016 getting replaced with a new desktop app. Both public and private file sharing are supported through MediaFire. Private file sharing consists of a user sharing directly to another user or a group of users and is done through importing contacts or email.

The account holder is able to control write permissions on a per user basis. Public sharing consists of a user getting a public link, which allows anyone with the link to download the file. Public links are always read only. MediaFire supports sharing with one-time links, which are only valid for a single use. In 2013, MediaFire added support for both video streaming through its online file viewer. MediaFire supports a variety of file formats through its web based file viewer: Image files Video files Text files Markup/Code Microsoft Word Microsoft Excel Microsoft PowerPoint Adobe Portable Document Format MediaFire announced public access to its platform, API, Developer Center, in July 2014. Along with documentation on the API, they opened a public forum and released SDKs for Java, JavaScript, Objective-C. A C++ SDK has not yet been released. PC Magazine named MediaFire both one of the "Top 100 Undiscovered websites" in 2007 and a "Top Website of 2008", it has been reviewed favorably by CNET and Lifehacker.

Lifehacker praised the site not only for the usefulness of the service but for its use of an unlimited upload size for users in 2006. In 2014, MediaFire was ranked 10th in "The Fastest Growing Cloud Apps of 2014" by SkyHigh Networks. Mega Rapidshare Google Drive OneDrive Dropbox Official website MediaFire KnowledgeBase

7th Cavalry Brigade (United States)

The 7th Cavalry Brigade was a brigade of the United States Army, active from 1932 to 1940. Colonel Daniel Van Voorhis took a cadre of 175 officers and enlisted men from Fort Eustis to Fort Knox in February 1932, established a Provisional Armored Car Platoon; this was based on an earlier effort, but was predicated on a new Cavalry Regiment TO&E, published that year. Published, but never implemented, was a cavalry division TO&E which reflected the unnatural assimilation of machines into the Horse Cavalry. Van Voorhis's cadre and platoon became the kernel for the 7th Cavalry Brigade, which went active on 1 March 1932 at Fort Knox. At first, it was nothing more than the Armored Car Platoon. On 3 January 1933, the 1st Cavalry Regiment was relieved from assignment to the 1st Cavalry Division, was moved from Fort D. A. Russell to Fort Knox; the earlier Mechanized Platoon was incorporated into the new regimental TO&E, the result was the 1st Cavalry Regiment, which went active on 16 January 1933. The new regimental commander was Colonel Van Voorhis, late of the experimental Mechanized Force, while the executive officer was Adna Chaffee.

The Post Commander of Fort Knox was another cavalryman. To round out the cavalry nature of the unit, Major Robert W. Grow was on the regimental staff. Van Voorhis added the 13th Cavalry Regiment, the 68th Field Artillery Battalion, the 7th Reconnaissance Squadron, the 7th Signal Troop, the 4th Medical Troop, the 47th Engineer Troop and the 17th Quartermaster Battalion; the 7th Cavalry Brigade was formed. Van Voorhis remained in command until September 1938, when he was promoted to command the V Corps at Indianapolis, Indiana. Chaffee took over from Van Voorhis. On 7 May 1940, the 7th Cavalry Brigade took part in the Louisiana Maneuvers at Monroe, Louisiana that were instrumental in developing the armored division concept; the maneuvers concluded on 27 May 1940, the brigade returned to Fort Knox on 31 May 1940, preparations began to expand the brigade into a tank division. After the brutal trench warfare of World War I, the United States was looking for new ways to engage in armed conflict; as the German Army invaded France, Belgium and the Netherlands, the United States military hierarchy realized that an armored division was essential for a modern army.

While training outside of Alexandria, the commanders of the 7th Cavalry Brigade met in a high school basement to discuss the creation of an American armored division. Major General Frank M. Andrews, Generals Adna R. Chaffee and Bruce Magruder, Colonel George S. Patton Jr. agreed to recommend to Washington that the U. S. Army establish its first tank division. On 10 July 1940, in a conference with the Chief of Staff of the Army, the U. S. Army founded an Armored Force. Two weeks General Adna R. Chaffee was given the order to head the creation of America's first tank division. Soon afterwards the new 1st Armored Division absorbed the 7th Cavalry Brigade