A domestic worker, domestic helper, domestic servant, manservant or menial, is a person who works within the employer's household. Domestic helpers perform a variety of household services for an individual or a family, from providing care for children and elderly dependents to housekeeping, including cleaning and household maintenance. Other responsibilities may include cooking and ironing, shopping for food and other household errands; such work has always needed to be done but before the Industrial Revolution and the advent of labour saving devices, it was physically much harder. Some domestic helpers live within their employer's household. In some cases, the contribution and skill of servants whose work encompassed complex management tasks in large households have been valued. However, for the most part, domestic work, while necessary, is undervalued. Although legislation protecting domestic workers is in place in many countries, it is not extensively enforced. In many jurisdictions, domestic work is poorly regulated and domestic workers are subject to serious abuses, including slavery.
Servant is an older English word for "domestic worker", though not all servants worked inside the home. Domestic service, or the employment of people for wages in their employer's residence, was sometimes called "service" and has been part of a hierarchical system. In Britain a developed system of domestic service peaked towards the close of the Victorian era reaching its most complicated and rigidly structured state during the Edwardian period, which reflected the limited social mobility before World War I; the United Kingdom's Master and Servant Act 1823 was the first of its kind. The Act influenced the creation of domestic service laws in other nations, although legislation tended to favour employers. However, before the passing of such Acts servants, workers in general, had no protection in law; the only real advantage that domestic service provided was the provision of meals and sometimes clothes, in addition to a modest wage. Service was an apprentice system with room for advancement through the ranks.
The conditions faced by domestic workers have varied throughout history and in the contemporary world. In the course of twentieth-century movements for labour rights, women's rights and immigrant rights, the conditions faced by domestic workers and the problems specific to their class of employment have come to the fore. In 2011, the International Labour Organization adopted the Convention Concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers. At its 301st Session, the International Labour Organization Governing Body agreed to place an item on decent work for domestic workers on the agenda of the 99th Session of the International Labour Conference with a view to the setting of labour standards. In July 2011, at the annual International Labour Conference, held by the ILO, conference delegates adopted the Convention on Domestic Workers by a vote of 396 to 16, with 63 abstentions; the Convention recognized domestic workers as workers with the same rights as other workers. On 26 April 2012, Uruguay was the first country to ratify the convention.
Many domestic workers are live-in domestics. Though they have their own quarters, their accommodations are not as comfortable as those reserved for the family members. In some cases, they sleep in the kitchen or small rooms, such as a box room, sometimes located in the basement or attic. Domestic workers may live in their own home, though more they are "live-in" domestics, meaning that they receive their room and board as part of their salaries. In some countries, because of the large gap between urban and rural incomes, the lack of employment opportunities in the countryside an ordinary middle class urban family can afford to employ a full-time live-in servant; the majority of domestic workers in China, Mexico and other populous developing countries, are people from the rural areas who are employed by urban families. Employers may require their domestic workers to wear a uniform, livery or other "domestic workers' clothes" when in their employers' residence; the uniform is simple, though aristocratic employers sometimes provided elaborate decorative liveries for use on formal occasions.
Female servants wore long, dark-coloured dresses or black skirts with white belts and white blouses, black shoes, male servants and butlers would wear something from a simple suit, or a white dress shirt with tie, knickers. In traditional portrayals, the attire of domestic workers was more formal and conservative than that of those whom they serve. For example, in films of the early 20th century, a butler might appear in a tailcoat, while male family members and guests appeared in lounge suits or sports jackets and trousers depending on the occasion. In portrayals, the employer and guests might wear casual slacks or jeans, while a male domestic worker wore a jacket and tie or a white dress shirt with black trousers, necktie or bowtie, maybe waistcoat, or a female domestic worker either a blouse and skirt or a uniform. On 30 March 2009, Peru adopted a law banning employers from requiring domestic workers to wear uniform at public places. However, it's not explained. Chile adopted a similar law in 2014 banning employers to require domestic workers to wear uniform at public places.
In the United States, slavery ended in 1865, the Freedmen’s Bureau informed the former slaves now classified as fr
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site consisting of buildings and machinery, or more a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another. Factories arose with the introduction of machinery during the Industrial Revolution when the capital and space requirements became too great for cottage industry or workshops. Early factories that contained small amounts of machinery, such as one or two spinning mules, fewer than a dozen workers have been called "glorified workshops". Most modern factories have large warehouses or warehouse-like facilities that contain heavy equipment used for assembly line production. Large factories tend to be located with access to multiple modes of transportation, with some having rail and water loading and unloading facilities. Factories may either make discrete products or some type of material continuously produced such as chemicals and paper, or refined oil products. Factories manufacturing chemicals are called plants and may have most of their equipment – tanks, pressure vessels, chemical reactors and piping – outdoors and operated from control rooms.
Oil refineries have most of their equipment outdoors. Discrete products may be final consumer goods, or parts and sub-assemblies which are made into final products elsewhere. Factories may make them from raw materials. Continuous production industries use heat or electricity to transform streams of raw materials into finished products; the term mill referred to the milling of grain, which used natural resources such as water or wind power until those were displaced by steam power in the 19th century. Because many processes like spinning and weaving, iron rolling, paper manufacturing were powered by water, the term survives as in steel mill, paper mill, etc. Max Weber considered production during ancient times as never warranting classification as factories, with methods of production and the contemporary economic situation incomparable to modern or pre-modern developments of industry. In ancient times, the earliest production limited to the household, developed into a separate endeavour independent to the place of inhabitation with production at that time only beginning to be characteristic of industry, termed as "unfree shop industry", a situation caused under the reign of the Egyptian pharaoh, with slave employment and no differentiation of skills within the slave group comparable to modern definitions as division of labour.
According to translations of Demosthenes and Herodotus, Naucratis was a, or the only, factory in the entirety of ancient Egypt. A source of 1983, states the largest factory production in ancient times was of 120 slaves within 4th century BC Athens. An article within the New York Times article dated 13 October 2011 states: "In African Cave, Signs of an Ancient Paint Factory" –... discovered at Blombos Cave, a cave on the south coast of South Africa where 100,000-year-old tools and ingredients were found with which early modern humans mixed an ochre-based paint. Although The Cambridge Online Dictionary definition of factory states: a building or set of buildings where large amounts of goods are made using machines elsewhere:... the utilization of machines presupposes social cooperation and the division of labour The first machine is stated by one source to have been traps used to assist with the capturing of animals, corresponding to the machine as a mechanism operating independently or with little force by interaction from a human, with a capacity for use with operation the same on every occasion of functioning.
The wheel was invented c. 3000 BC, the spoked wheel c. 2000 BC. The Iron Age began 1200–1000 BC. However, other sources define machinery as a means of production. Archaeology provides a date for the earliest city as 5000 BC as Tell Brak, therefore a date for cooperation and factors of demand, by an increased community size and population to make something like factory level production a conceivable necessity. According to one text the water-mill was first made in 555 A. D. by Belisarius, although according to another they were known to Pliny the Elder and Vitruvius in the first century B. C. By the time of the 4th century A. D. mills with a capacity to grind 3 tonnes of cereal an hour, a rate sufficient to meet the needs of 80,000 persons, were in use by the Roman Empire. The Venice Arsenal provides one of the first examples of a factory in the modern sense of the word. Founded in 1104 in Venice, Republic of Venice, several hundred years before the Industrial Revolution, it mass-produced ships on assembly lines using manufactured parts.
The Venice Arsenal produced nearly one ship every day and, at its height, employed 16,000 people. One of the earliest factories was John Lombe's water-powered silk mill at Derby, operational by 1721. By 1746, an integrated brass mill was working at Warmley near Bristol. Raw material went in at one end, was smelted into brass and was turned into pans, pins and other goods. Housing was provided for workers on site. Josiah Wedgwood in Staffordshire and Matthew Boulton at his Soho Manufactory were other prominent early industrialists, who employed the factory system; the factory system began widespread use somewhat when cotton spinning was mechanized. Richard Arkwright is the person credited with inventing the prototype of the modern factory. After he patented his water frame in 1769, he established Cromford Mill, in Derbyshire, England expanding the village of Cromford to accommodate the migrant workers new to the area; the factory system was a new way of organizing labour made necessary by the developm
A restaurant, or an eatery, is a business which prepares and serves food and drinks to customers in exchange for money. Meals are served and eaten on the premises, but many restaurants offer take-out and food delivery services, some offer only take-out and delivery. Restaurants vary in appearance and offerings, including a wide variety of cuisines and service models ranging from inexpensive fast food restaurants and cafeterias to mid-priced family restaurants, to high-priced luxury establishments. In Western countries, most mid- to high-range restaurants serve alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine; some restaurants serve all the major meals, such as breakfast and dinner. Other restaurants may only serve a single meal or they may serve two meals; the word derives from the French verb "restaurer" and, being the present participle of the verb, it means "that which restores". The term restaurant was defined in 1507 as a "restorative beverage", in correspondence in 1521 to mean "that which restores the strength, a fortifying food or remedy".
The first use of the word to refer to a public venue where one can order food is believed to be in the 18th century. In 1765, a French chef by the name of A. Boulanger established a business selling soups and other "restaurants". Additionally, while not the first establishment where one could order food, or soups, it is thought to be the first to offer a menu of available choices The "first real restaurant" is considered to have been "La Grande Taverne de Londres" in Paris, founded by Antoine Beauviliers in either 1782 or 1786. According to Brillat-Savarin, this was "the first to combine the four essentials of an elegant room, smart waiters, a choice cellar, superior cooking". In 1802 the term was applied to an establishment where restorative foods, such as bouillon, a meat broth, were served. Restaurants are distinguished in many different ways; the primary factors are the food itself. Beyond this, restaurants may differentiate themselves on factors including speed, location, service, or novelty themes.
Restaurants range from inexpensive and informal lunching or dining places catering to people working nearby, with modest food served in simple settings at low prices, to expensive establishments serving refined food and fine wines in a formal setting. In the former case, customers wear casual clothing. In the latter case, depending on culture and local traditions, customers might wear semi-casual, semi-formal or formal wear. At mid- to high-priced restaurants, customers sit at tables, their orders are taken by a waiter, who brings the food when it is ready. After eating, the customers pay the bill. In some restaurants, such as workplace cafeterias, there are no waiters. Another restaurant approach which uses few waiters is the buffet restaurant. Customers serve food onto their own plates and pay at the end of the meal. Buffet restaurants still have waiters to serve drinks and alcoholic beverages. Fast food restaurants are considered a restaurant; the travelling public has long been catered for with ship's messes and railway restaurant cars which are, in effect, travelling restaurants.
Many railways, the world over cater for the needs of travellers by providing railway refreshment rooms, a form of restaurant, at railway stations. In the 2000s, a number of travelling restaurants designed for tourists, have been created; these can be found on trams, buses, etc. A restaurant's proprietor is called a restaurateur, this derives from the French verb restaurer, meaning "to restore". Professional cooks are called chefs, with there being various finer distinctions. Most restaurants will have various waiting staff to serve food and alcoholic drinks, including busboys who remove used dishes and cutlery. In finer restaurants, this may include a host or hostess, a maître d'hôtel to welcome customers and to seat them, a sommelier or wine waiter to help patrons select wines. A new route to becoming a restauranter, rather than working one's way up through the stages, is to operate a food truck. Once a sufficient following has been obtained, a permanent restaurant site can be opened; this trend has become common in the UK and the US.
A chef's table is a table located in the kitchen of a restaurant, reserved for VIPs and special guests. Patrons may be served a themed tasting menu served by the head chef. Restaurants can charge a higher flat fee; because of the demand on the kitchen's facilities, chef's tables are only available during off-peak times. In China, food catering establishments that may be described as restaurants have been known since the 11th century in Kaifeng, China's capital during the first half of the Song dynasty. Growing out of the tea houses and taverns that catered to travellers, Kaifeng's restaurants blossomed into an industry catering to locals as well as people from ot
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
A farm is an area of land, devoted to agricultural processes with the primary objective of producing food and other crops. The name is used for specialised units such as arable farms, vegetable farms, fruit farms, dairy and poultry farms, land used for the production of natural fibres and other commodities, it includes ranches, orchards and estates, smallholdings and hobby farms, includes the farmhouse and agricultural buildings as well as the land. In modern times the term has been extended so as to include such industrial operations as wind farms and fish farms, both of which can operate on land or sea. Farming originated independently in different parts of the world, as hunter gatherer societies transitioned to food production rather than, food capture, it may have started about 12,000 years ago with the domestication of livestock in the Fertile Crescent in western Asia, soon to be followed by the cultivation of crops. Modern units tend to specialise in the crops or livestock best suited to the region, with their finished products being sold for the retail market or for further processing, with farm products being traded around the world.
Modern farms in developed countries are mechanized. In the United States, livestock may be raised on rangeland and finished in feedlots and the mechanization of crop production has brought about a great decrease in the number of agricultural workers needed. In Europe, traditional family farms are giving way to larger production units. In Australia, some farms are large because the land is unable to support a high stocking density of livestock because of climatic conditions. In less developed countries, small farms are the norm, the majority of rural residents are subsistence farmers, feeding their families and selling any surplus products in the local market; the word in the sense of an agricultural land-holding derives from the verb "to farm" a revenue source, whether taxes, rents of a group of manors or to hold an individual manor by the feudal land tenure of "fee farm". The word is from the medieval Latin noun firma the source of the French word ferme, meaning a fixed agreement, from the classical Latin adjective firmus meaning strong, firm.
As in the medieval age all manors were engaged in the business of agriculture, their principal revenue source, so to hold a manor by the tenure of "fee farm" became synonymous with the practice of agriculture itself. Farming has been innovated at multiple different places in human history; the transition from hunter-gatherer to settled, agricultural societies is called the Neolithic Revolution and first began around 12,000 years ago, near the beginning of the geological epoch of the Holocene around 12,000 years ago. It was the world's first verifiable revolution in agriculture. Subsequent step-changes in human farming practices were provoked by the British Agricultural Revolution in the 18th century, the Green Revolution of the second half of the 20th century. Farming spread from the Middle East to Europe and by 4,000 BC people that lived in the central part of Europe were using oxen to pull plows and wagons. A farm may be owned and operated by a single individual, community, corporation or a company, may produce one or many types of produce, can be a holding of any size from a fraction of a hectare to several thousand hectares.
A farm may operate under a monoculture system or with a variety of cereal or arable crops, which may be separate from or combined with raising livestock. Specialist farms are denoted as such, thus a dairy farm, fish farm, poultry farm or mink farm; some farms may not use the word at all, hence vineyard, market garden or "truck farm". Some farms may be denoted by their topographical location, such as a hill farm, while large estates growing cash crops such as cotton or coffee may be called plantations. Many other terms are used to describe farms to denote their methods of production, as in collective, intensive, organic or vertical. Other farms may exist for research or education, such as an ant farm, since farming is synonymous with mass production, the word "farm" may be used to describe wind power generation or puppy farm. Dairy farming is a class of agriculture, where female cattle, goats, or other mammals are raised for their milk, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy for processing and eventual retail sale There are many breeds of cattle that can be milked some of the best producing ones include Holstein, Norwegian Red, Brown Swiss, more.
In most Western countries, a centralized dairy facility processes milk and dairy products, such as cream and cheese. In the United States, these dairies are local companies, while in the southern hemisphere facilities may be run by large nationwide or trans-national corporations. Dairy farms sell male calves for veal meat, as dairy breeds are not satisfactory for commercial beef production. Many dairy farms grow their own feed including corn and hay; this is stored as silage for use during the winter season. Additional dietary supplements are added to the feed to improve milk production. Poultry farms are devoted to raising chickens, turkeys and other fowl for meat or eggs. A pig farm is one that specializes in raising pigs or hogs for bacon and other pork products and may be free range, intensive, or both. Farm control and ownership has traditionally been a key indicator of status and power in Medieval European agrarian
Not for Sale (organization)
Not for Sale is an international 501 non-profit organization based out of San Francisco, California that works to protect people and communities around the world from human trafficking and modern-day slavery. The organization equips and empowers survivors of human trafficking and those at risk of exploitation by providing shelter and legal services. Not for Sale began in 2001 when organization president, David Batstone, discovered his favorite Bay Area restaurant had been the center of a local human trafficking ring that forcefully brought hundreds of teenagers from India into the United States, he realized this was part of a growing international issue affecting every industry and corner of the earth. From there, Batstone wrote the book Not For Sale in 2007 and along with executive director Mark Wexler and Kique Bazan, founded the Not For Sale organization. David Batstone is co-founder and president of the global anti-slavery organization Not For Sale, co-founder and managing partner of Just Business, an international investment group that incubates social enterprises.
He is a business professor at the University of San Francisco, was an investment banker in the technology industry. David has authored five books, is the recipient of two national journalist awards, was named National Endowment for the Humanities Chair at the University of San Francisco for his work in technology and ethics. Mark Wexler, who serves as Not For Sale's executive director, found his vocational direction while working on the streets of Durban, South Africa with street children, he returned to the San Francisco Bay Area in 2006 to co-found Not For Sale. Wexler manages Not For Sale's senior staff, operationalizes strategic relationships with partner institutions, along with Batstone provides overall organizational direction, he is a co-founder and senior partner in Just Business, which specializes in social enterprise incubation and consultation. Kique Bazan is no longer working with the organization. Not For Sale works with survivors of human trafficking and those at risk of exploitation in Thailand, the Netherlands, Romania and the United States.
It collaborates with sister organization, Just Business, to grow social enterprises. These businesses aim to provide survivors and at-risk communities in these five countries with safety and stability and economic opportunities. In 2014, Not For Sale launched Reinvent, a program based in San Francisco, to prepare disconnected youth affected by trafficking and related traumas for work in the Bay Area's booming industries. After four weeks of intensive work-readiness training and life-skills coaching, graduates of the program are placed in paid traineeships within Not For Sale's network of Bay Area businesses. Starting in 2007, Not For Sale constructed and has since expanded a children's home, which offers shelter and long-term housing for youth rescued from exploitation; the organization provides these children with safety, nutritious meals, medical care as well as primary, secondary, or university education through a home learning program. Once these children are equipped with the life skills necessary to become self-sufficient, contributing members of the community, Not For Sale strives to create a sustainable environment of economic opportunities and works within the community to arrange internships and jobs for working age youth in local restaurants and more.
In the Netherlands, Not For Sale offers professional culinary training to survivors of human trafficking on top of basic computer and job-readiness skills. During their culinary internships, trainees are taught to prepare soup, sold to women working in the brothels of the surrounding Red Light District. Not only does selling soup to these women enable Not For Sale to help build credible and lasting relationships, but it gives survivors valuable job and life skills that will help them find dignified employment in their home countries. After the women graduate from the culinary training, Not For Sale works to place them in jobs or paid internships throughout Amsterdam. In 2015, Not For Sale opened Dignita Amsterdam, an outpost in the heart of the Red Light District that sells a variety of humanely and sustainably produced items. Proceeds from the shop benefit Not For Sale's work with survivors of exploitation, those at risk, in the Netherlands; this year, Not For Sale will open a public cafe in Amsterdam to provide stable employment to survivors of human trafficking and increase awareness of the organization's work.
In Romania, Not For Sale rehabilitates and repatriates survivors trafficked from dozens of countries, providing short and long-term housing, extensive medical care, counseling. Not For Sale's children home prevents up to 100 children from poor, at-risk communities from being recruited and trafficked. Children are provided with shelter, education and support for up to three years and are given extensive opportunities to enroll in school or basic life skills training. Not For Sale operates an organic farm where survivors of human trafficking can grow fruits, produce, milk and jams which are sold to local restaurants and catering companies; this program creates immediate opportunities for survivors to earn an income in a supportive environment. Not For Sale offers technical and vocational training courses and works with the local community to find dignified employment opportunities for survivors. Not For Sale hosts awareness trainings throughout the Amazon, educating communities a
Carlson is an American held international corporation in the travel industries. Headquartered in Minnetonka, Minnesota, a Minneapolis suburb, Carlson brands and services, including franchised operations, employ more than 175,000 people in more than 160 countries and territories; the company's 2012 sales, including those from franchised operations, totaled $37.6 billion. It is one of the largest family-held corporations in the United States. Carlson was founded in 1938 as the Gold Bond Stamp Company by Curt Carlson, who used a $55 loan to start his venture. Founded during the Great Depression, he used "Gold Bond Stamps", a consumer loyalty program based on trading stamps, to provide consumer incentive for grocery stores. Gold Bond stamps were used as customer incentives in many supermarkets and gas stations and they could be redeemed for a large array of merchandise, from a set of steak knives up to a mink coat. During the 1950s, Carlson was the largest supplier of mink coats in the United States.
Sales were brisk until the late 1960s. The company was renamed Carlson Companies, Inc. in 1973 as they diversified into the hospitality, corporate incentive and travel industries. In 1962, Carlson purchased their first Radisson Hotel in Minneapolis. CCI went on to purchase T. G. I. Friday's in 1975 and Country Kitchen International in 1977. In 1987, Carlson founded Country Suites By Carlson. In 2000, Carlson acquired the Park Park Inn brands; the original Radisson acquisition was a vintage Minneapolis hotel, named for French explorer Pierre Radisson. Mr. Carlson and nine local businessmen each holding ten percent; the other owners dropped out one by one, Curt Carlson buying up each person's share until he owned the entire hotel. It was considered as being too old and deteriorated to renovate profitably. However, Carlson had built an associated hotel a few years earlier, the Radisson South in south suburban Bloomington, thriving. That, the success of a Radisson Inn built near the company headquarters, motivated Carlson to construct a new Radisson on the downtown site of the demolished hotel.
Thereafter, the chain grew by franchising the name and taking management contracts for new hotels throughout the USA. By the early 1980s, Curt Carlson had acquired over 50 diverse businesses, most of them small and some not running profitably. Under the administration of president Edwin C. "Skip" Gage, husband of Curt's younger daughter, the majority of those small enterprises were sold. The company purchased the MacDonald Plaid Stamp business and merged it with the Gold Bond Stamp business to become the largest trading stamp company in the world. In 1994, Carlson Travel Group and Paris-based Wagonlit Travel signed an alliance to form Carlson Wagonlit Travel — one of the world's largest business travel management companies. In a return to their roots, the Carlson Companies started an electronic consumer incentive program named GoldPoints.com in 1997. The program was modified and became goldpoints plus, the incentive program of Carlson Hotels. In 1998, Curtis L. Carlson named his daughter Marilyn Carlson Nelson as his successor.
Hubert Joly became Carlson's president and chief executive officer in 2008 and served in this capacity until August 2012, when he was succeeded by Trudy Rautio. Rautio most served as the company's CFO. In May 2013, Diana Nelson assumed the chairmanship of the board of directors, succeeding her mother, Marilyn Carlson Nelson, who continues to serve as chairman emeritus. Rautio retired in 2015, leading to the company having separate CEOs for the hotel and travel businesses until the hotel business was sold to HNA. In 2016, Carlson sold Inc. to HNA Tourism Group. In 2018, Carlson Hotels became Radisson Hotel Group. Carlson Hotels was a wholly owned division of Carlson Companies. Carlson Companies sold the whole hotel division in 2016. In 1962, Carlson bought into his first Radisson Hotel in Minneapolis, a vintage property named after French explorer Pierre-Esprit Radisson. Two years he bought complete control of the hotel, which, by 1982, was deemed too old to renovate profitably and demolished. By this time, Carlson had built the thriving Radisson South Bloomington and the Radisson in Minneapolis – successes that convinced the company to construct a contemporary new Radisson on the site of their original hotel.
In 1986, the company established the Country Inns & Suites brand. In 1997, Carlson acquired the brand Regent Hotels Carlson bought Park Inn and Park Plaza in 2000. In 2005, Carlson acquired 25% stake of Rezidor Hotel Group, a business partner of the hotel division in the Europe, the Middle East and Africa markets. Rezidor became a subsidiary of the Carlson hotel group in 2010, despite retaining its listing status; the hotel group rebraned as Carlson Rezidor Hotel Group in January 2012. In 2016, Carlson Hotels and their subsidiaries were sold from Carlson Companies to Chinese conglomerate HNA Group; the former division was renamed to Radisson Hotel Group in 2018. Carlson Restaurants was a division of Carlson Companies. Carlson acquired TGI Fridays, a restaurant chain in 1975. In 1976, Carlson acquired a chain of family-style restaurants. Carlson sold TGI Fridays in 2014 and Country Kitchen in 1997. Carlson