The bronchioles or bronchioli are the passageways by which air passes through the nose or mouth to the alveoli of the lungs, in which branches no longer contain cartilage or glands in their submucosa. They are branches of the bronchi, are part of the conducting zone of the respiratory system; the bronchioles divide further into smaller terminal bronchioles which are still in the conducting zone and these divide into the smaller respiratory bronchioles which mark the beginning of the respiratory region. A pulmonary lobule is the portion of the lung ventilated by one bronchiole. Bronchioles are 1 mm or less in diameter and their walls consist of ciliated cuboidal epithelium and a layer of smooth muscle. Bronchioles divide into smaller bronchioles, called terminal, which are 0.5 mm or less in diameter. Terminal bronchioles in turn divide into smaller respiratory bronchioles which divide into alveolar ducts. Terminal bronchioles mark the end of the conducting division of air flow in the respiratory system while respiratory bronchioles are the beginning of the respiratory division where gas exchange takes place.
The diameter of the bronchioles plays an important role in air flow. The bronchioles change diameter to either reduce air flow. An increase in diameter is called bronchodilation and is stimulated by either epinephrine or sympathetic nerves to increase air flow. A decrease in diameter is called bronchoconstriction and is stimulated by histamine, parasympathetic nerves, cold air, chemical irritants and other factors to decrease air flow; the primary bronchi, in each lung, which are the left and right bronchus, give rise to secondary bronchi. These in turn give rise to tertiary bronchi; the tertiary bronchi subdivide into the bronchioles. These are histologically distinct from the tertiary bronchi in that their walls do not have hyaline cartilage and they have club cells in their epithelial lining; the epithelium starts as a simple ciliated columnar epithelium and changes to simple ciliated cuboidal epithelium as the bronchioles decreases in size. The diameter of the bronchioles is said to be less than 1 mm, though this value can range from 5 mm to 0.3 mm.
As stated, these bronchioles do not have hyaline cartilage to maintain their patency. Instead, they rely on elastic fibers attached to the surrounding lung tissue for support; the inner lining of these bronchioles is thin with no glands present, is surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle. As the bronchioles get smaller they divide into terminal bronchioles; these bronchioles mark the end of the conducting zone, which covers the first division through the sixteenth division of the respiratory tract. Alveoli only become present when the conducting zone changes to the respiratory zone, from the sixteenth through the twenty-third division of the tract; the terminal bronchiole is the most distal segment of the conducting zone. It branches off the lesser bronchioles; each of the terminal bronchioles divides to form respiratory bronchioles which contain a small number of alveoli. Terminal bronchioles are lined with simple cuboidal epithelium containing club cells. Terminal bronchioles contain a limited number of no goblet cells.
Club cells are rounded protein-secreting cells. Their secretions are a non-sticky, proteinaceous compound to maintain the airway in the smallest bronchioles; the secretion, called surfactant, reduces surface tension, allowing for bronchioles to expand during inspiration and keeping the bronchioles from collapsing during expiration. Club cells, a stem cell of the respiratory system, produce enzymes that detoxify substances dissolved in the respiratory fluid; the respiratory bronchioles are the narrowest airways of one fiftieth of an inch across. The bronchi divide many times before evolving into the bronchioles; the bronchioles deliver air to the exchange surfaces of the lungs. They are interrupted by alveoli. Alveolar ducts are distal continuations of the respiratory bronchioles. Bronchospasm, a life-threatening situation, occurs when the smooth muscular tissue of the bronchioles constricts narrowing their diameter; the most common cause of this is asthma. Bronchospasm is treated by oxygen therapy and bronchodilators such as albuterol.
Diseases of the bronchioles include asthma, bronchiolitis obliterans, respiratory syncytial virus infections, influenza. The medical condition of inflammation of the bronchioles is termed bronchiolitis. Saladin, Kenneth S. Anatomy & Physiology: the Unity of Form and Function. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2007. Dudek, Ronald W. High-Yield Histology, 3rd ed.. ISBN 0-7817-4763-5 Gartner, Leslie P. and James L. Hiatt. Color Atlas of Histology, 3rd ed.. ISBN 0-7817-3509-2 Gartner, Leslie P. and James L. Hiatt. Color Textbook of Histology. ISBN 0-7216-8806-3 Histology image: 13606loa – Histology Learning System at Boston University Histology image: 13607loa – Histology Learning System at Boston University Diagram at davidson.edu Histology at umdnj.edu
Cornell University Press
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage. It was first established in 1869 but inactive from 1884 to 1930, making it the first university publishing enterprise in the United States; the press was established in the College of the Mechanic Arts because engineers knew more about running steam-powered printing presses than literature professors. Since its inception, the press has offered work-study financial aid: students with previous training in the printing trades were paid for typesetting and running the presses that printed textbooks, pamphlets, a weekly student journal, official university publications. Today, the press is one of the country's largest university presses, it produces 150 nonfiction titles each year in various disciplines, including anthropology, Asian studies, biological sciences, history, industrial relations, literary criticism and theory, natural history, philosophy and international relations, veterinary science, women's studies.
Although the press has been subsidized by the university for most of its history, it is now dependent on book sales to finance its operations. In 2010, the Mellon Foundation, whose President Don Michael Randel is a former Cornell Provost, awarded to the press a $50,000 grant to explore new business models for publishing scholarly works in low-demand humanities subject areas. With this grant, a book series was published titled "Signale: Modern German Letters and Thoughts." Only 500 hard copies of each book in the series will be printed, with extra copies manufactured on demand once the original supply is depleted. Category:Cornell University Press books Cornell University Press Online
Inflammation is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, molecular mediators. The function of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, initiate tissue repair; the five classical signs of inflammation are heat, redness and loss of function. Inflammation is a generic response, therefore it is considered as a mechanism of innate immunity, as compared to adaptive immunity, specific for each pathogen. Too little inflammation could lead to progressive tissue destruction by the harmful stimulus and compromise the survival of the organism. In contrast, chronic inflammation may lead to a host of diseases, such as hay fever, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer. Inflammation is therefore closely regulated by the body. Inflammation can be classified as either chronic.
Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and leukocytes from the blood into the injured tissues. A series of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatory response, involving the local vascular system, the immune system, various cells within the injured tissue. Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells present at the site of inflammation, such as mononuclear cells, is characterized by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process. Inflammation is not a synonym for infection. Infection describes the interaction between the action of microbial invasion and the reaction of the body's inflammatory response—the two components are considered together when discussing an infection, the word is used to imply a microbial invasive cause for the observed inflammatory reaction. Inflammation on the other hand describes purely the body's immunovascular response, whatever the cause may be.
But because of how the two are correlated, words ending in the suffix -itis are sometimes informally described as referring to infection. For example, the word urethritis means only "urethral inflammation", but clinical health care providers discuss urethritis as a urethral infection because urethral microbial invasion is the most common cause of urethritis, it is useful to differentiate inflammation and infection because there are typical situations in pathology and medical diagnosis where inflammation is not driven by microbial invasion – for example, trauma and autoimmune diseases including type III hypersensitivity. Conversely, there is pathology where microbial invasion does not cause the classic inflammatory response – for example, parasitosis or eosinophilia. Acute inflammation is a short-term process appearing within a few minutes or hours and begins to cease upon the removal of the injurious stimulus, it involves a coordinated and systemic mobilization response locally of various immune and neurological mediators of acute inflammation.
In a normal healthy response, it becomes activated, clears the pathogen and begins a repair process and ceases. It is characterized by five cardinal signs:An acronym that may be used to remember the key symptoms is "PRISH", for pain, immobility and heat; the traditional names for signs of inflammation come from Latin: Dolor Calor Rubor Tumor Functio laesa The first four were described by Celsus, while loss of function was added by Galen. However, the addition of this fifth sign has been ascribed to Thomas Sydenham and Virchow. Redness and heat are due to increased blood flow at body core temperature to the inflamed site. Loss of function has multiple causes. Acute inflammation of the lung does not cause pain unless the inflammation involves the parietal pleura, which does have pain-sensitive nerve endings; the process of acute inflammation is initiated by resident immune cells present in the involved tissue resident macrophages, dendritic cells, Kupffer cells and mast cells. These cells possess surface receptors known as pattern recognition receptors, which recognize two subclasses of molecules: pathogen-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular patterns.
PAMPs are compounds that are associated with various pathogens, but which are distinguishable from host molecules. DAMPs are compounds that are associated with host-related cell damage. At the onset of an infection, burn, or other injuries, these cells undergo activation and release inflammatory mediators responsible for the clinical signs of inflammation. Vasodilation and its resulting increased blood flow causes increased heat. Increased permeability of the blood vessels results in an exudation of plasma proteins and fluid into the tissue, which manifests itself as swelling; some of the released mediators such as bradykinin increase the sensitivity to pain. The mediator molecules alter the blood vessels to
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
Necrosis is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis. Necrosis is caused by factors external to the cell or tissue, such as infection, toxins, or trauma which result in the unregulated digestion of cell components. In contrast, apoptosis is a occurring programmed and targeted cause of cellular death. While apoptosis provides beneficial effects to the organism, necrosis is always detrimental and can be fatal. Cellular death due to necrosis does not follow the apoptotic signal transduction pathway, but rather various receptors are activated, result in the loss of cell membrane integrity and an uncontrolled release of products of cell death into the extracellular space; this initiates in the surrounding tissue an inflammatory response which attracts leukocytes and nearby phagocytes which eliminate the dead cells by phagocytosis. However, microbial damaging substances released by leukocytes would create collateral damage to surrounding tissues.
This excess collateral damage inhibits the healing process. Thus, untreated necrosis results in a build-up of decomposing dead tissue and cell debris at or near the site of the cell death. A classic example is gangrene. For this reason, it is necessary to remove necrotic tissue surgically, a procedure known as debridement. Structural signs that indicate irreversible cell injury and the progression of necrosis include dense clumping and progressive disruption of genetic material, disruption to membranes of cells and organelles. There are six distinctive morphological patterns of necrosis: Coagulative necrosis is characterized by the formation of a gelatinous substance in dead tissues in which the architecture of the tissue is maintained, can be observed by light microscopy. Coagulation occurs as a result of protein denaturation, causing albumin to transform into a firm and opaque state; this pattern of necrosis is seen in hypoxic environments, such as infarction. Coagulative necrosis occurs in tissues such as the kidney and adrenal glands.
Severe ischemia most causes necrosis of this form. Liquefactive necrosis, in contrast to coagulative necrosis, is characterized by the digestion of dead cells to form a viscous liquid mass; this is typical of bacterial, or sometimes fungal, infections because of their ability to stimulate an inflammatory response. The necrotic liquid mass is creamy yellow due to the presence of dead leukocytes and is known as pus. Hypoxic infarcts in the brain presents as this type of necrosis, because the brain contains little connective tissue but high amounts of digestive enzymes and lipids, cells therefore can be digested by their own enzymes. Gangrenous necrosis can be considered a type of coagulative necrosis that resembles mummified tissue, it is characteristic of ischemia of the gastrointestinal tracts. If superimposed infection of dead tissues occurs liquefactive necrosis ensues Caseous necrosis can be considered a combination of coagulative and liquefactive necrosis caused by mycobacteria and some foreign substances.
The necrotic tissue appears as friable, like clumped cheese. Dead cells disintegrate but are not digested, leaving granular particles. Microscopic examination shows amorphous granular debris enclosed within a distinctive inflammatory border. Granuloma has this characteristic. Fat necrosis is specialized necrosis of fat tissue, resulting from the action of activated lipases on fatty tissues such as the pancreas. In the pancreas it leads to acute pancreatitis, a condition where the pancreatic enzymes leak out into the peritoneal cavity, liquefy the membrane by splitting the triglyceride esters into fatty acids through fat saponification. Calcium, magnesium or sodium may bind to these lesions to produce a chalky-white substance; the calcium deposits are microscopically distinctive and may be large enough to be visible on radiographic examinations. To the naked eye, calcium deposits appear as gritty white flecks. Fibrinoid necrosis is a special form of necrosis caused by immune-mediated vascular damage.
It is marked by complexes of antigen and antibodies, sometimes referred to as "immune complexes" deposited within arterial walls together with fibrin. There are very specific forms of necrosis such as gangrene, gummatous necrosis and hemorrhagic necrosis; some spider bites may lead to necrosis. In the United States, only spider bites from the brown recluse spider reliably progress to necrosis. In other countries, spiders of the same genus, such as the Chilean recluse in South America, are known to cause necrosis. Claims that yellow sac spiders and hobo spiders possess necrotic venom have not been substantiated. In blind mole rats, the process of necrosis replaces the role of the systematic apoptosis used in many organisms. Low oxygen conditions, such as those common in blind mole rats' burrows cause cells to undergo apoptosis. In adaptation to higher tendency of cell death, blind mole rats evolved a mutation in the tumor suppressor protein p53 to prevent cells from undergoing apoptosis. Human cancer patients have similar mutations, blind mole rats were thought to be more susceptible to cancer because their cells cannot undergo apoptosis.
However, after a specific amount of time (within 3 days according to a study conducted at the University of
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams. Coal is carbon with variable amounts of other elements. Coal is formed if dead plant matter decays into peat and over millions of years the heat and pressure of deep burial converts the peat into coal. Vast deposits of coal originates in former wetlands—called coal forests—that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous and Permian times; as a fossil fuel burned for heat, coal supplies about a quarter of the world's primary energy and two-fifths of its electricity. Some iron and steel making and other industrial processes burn coal; the extraction and use of coal causes much illness. Coal damages the environment, including by climate change as it is the largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide, 14 Gt in 2016, 40% of the total fossil fuel emissions; as part of the worldwide energy transition many countries use less coal. The largest consumer and importer of coal is China.
China mines account for half the world's coal, followed by India with about a tenth. Australia accounts for about a third of world coal exports followed by Russia; the word took the form col in Old English, from Proto-Germanic *kula, which in turn is hypothesized to come from the Proto-Indo-European root *gu-lo- "live coal". Germanic cognates include the Old Frisian kole, Middle Dutch cole, Dutch kool, Old High German chol, German Kohle and Old Norse kol, the Irish word gual is a cognate via the Indo-European root. Coal is composed of macerals and water. Fossils and amber may be found in coal. At various times in the geologic past, the Earth had dense forests in low-lying wetland areas. Due to natural processes such as flooding, these forests were buried underneath soil; as more and more soil deposited over them, they were compressed. The temperature rose as they sank deeper and deeper; as the process continued the plant matter was protected from biodegradation and oxidation by mud or acidic water.
This trapped the carbon in immense peat bogs that were covered and buried by sediments. Under high pressure and high temperature, dead vegetation was converted to coal; the conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called coalification. Coalification starts with dead plant matter decaying into peat. Over millions of years the heat and pressure of deep burial causes the loss of water and carbon dioxide and an increase in the proportion of carbon, thus first lignite sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal, lastly anthracite may be formed. The wide, shallow seas of the Carboniferous Period provided ideal conditions for coal formation, although coal is known from most geological periods; the exception is the coal gap in the Permian -- Triassic extinction event. Coal is known from Precambrian strata, which predate land plants—this coal is presumed to have originated from residues of algae. Sometimes coal seams are interbedded with other sediments in a cyclothem; as geological processes apply pressure to dead biotic material over time, under suitable conditions, its metamorphic grade or rank increases successively into: Peat, a precursor of coal Lignite, or brown coal, the lowest rank of coal, most harmful to health, used exclusively as fuel for electric power generation Jet, a compact form of lignite, sometimes polished.
Bituminous coal, a dense sedimentary rock black, but sometimes dark brown with well-defined bands of bright and dull material It is used as fuel in steam-electric power generation and to make coke. Anthracite, the highest rank of coal is a harder, glossy black coal used for residential and commercial space heating. Graphite is difficult to ignite and not used as fuel. Cannel coal is a variety of fine-grained, high-rank coal with significant hydrogen content, which consists of liptinite. There are several international standards for coal; the classification of coal is based on the content of volatiles. However the most important distinction is between thermal coal, burnt to generate electricity via steam. Hilt's law is a geological observation, the higher its rank, it applies if the thermal gradient is vertical. The earliest recognized use is from the Shenyang area of China where by 4000 BC Neolithic inhabitants had begun carving ornaments from black lignite. Coal from the Fushun mine in northeastern China was used to smelt copper as early as 1000 BC.
Marco Polo, the Italian who traveled to China in the 13th century, described coal as "black stones... which burn like logs", said coal was so plentiful, people could take three hot baths a week. In Europe, the earliest reference to the use of coal as fuel is from the geological treatise On stones by the Greek scientist Theophrastus: Among the materials that are dug because they are useful, those known as anthrakes are made of earth, once set on fire, they burn like charcoa
John L. Lewis
John Llewellyn Lewis was an American leader of organized labor who served as president of the United Mine Workers of America from 1920 to 1960. A major player in the history of coal mining, he was the driving force behind the founding of the Congress of Industrial Organizations, which established the United Steel Workers of America and helped organize millions of other industrial workers in the 1930s. After resigning as head of the CIO in 1941, he took the Mine Workers out of the CIO in 1942 and in 1944 took the union into the American Federation of Labor. A leading liberal, he played a major role in helping Franklin D. Roosevelt win a landslide in 1936, but as an isolationist, broke with Roosevelt in 1940 on FDR's anti-Nazi foreign policy. Lewis was a brutally effective aggressive fighter and strike leader who gained high wages for his membership while steamrolling over his opponents, including the United States government. Lewis was one of the most controversial and innovative leaders in the history of labor, gaining credit for building the industrial unions of the CIO into a political and economic powerhouse to rival the AFL, yet was hated by calling for nationwide coal strikes which critics believed to be damaging to the American economy and war effort.
His massive leonine head, forest-like eyebrows set jaw, powerful voice and ever-present scowl thrilled his supporters, angered his enemies, delighted cartoonists. Coal miners for 40 years hailed him as their leader, whom they credited with bringing high wages and medical benefits. Lewis was born in or near Cleveland, Lucas County, Iowa, to Thomas H. Lewis and Ann Watkins Lewis, both of whom had immigrated from Llangurig, Wales. Cleveland was a company town built around a coal mine one mile east of Lucas, his mother and grandparents were members of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, the boy adopted the church's views regarding alcohol and sexual propriety, as well as its belief in a just social order that favored the poor. While his grandfather was an RLDS pastor and Lewis periodically donated to his local RLDS church for the rest of his life, there is no definite evidence that he formally joined the Midwestern Mormon denomination. Lewis attended three years of high school in Des Moines and at the age of 17 went to work in the Big Hill Mine at Lucas.
In 1906, Lewis was elected a delegate to the United Mine Workers national convention. In 1907, he launched a feed-and-grain distributorship. Both were Lewis returned to coal mining, he in 1909 was elected president of the UMW local. In 1911 Samuel Gompers, the head of the AFL, hired Lewis as a full-time union organizer. Lewis traveled throughout Pennsylvania and the Midwest as an organizer and trouble-shooter in coal and steel districts. After serving as statistician and as vice-president for the UMWA, Lewis became that union's acting president in 1919. On November 1, 1919, he called the first major coal union strike, as 400,000 miners walked off their jobs. President Wilson obtained an injunction, which Lewis obeyed, telling the rank and file, "We cannot fight the Government." In 1920, he was elected president of the UMWA. Lewis asserted himself as a dominant figure in what was the largest and most influential trade union in the country. Coal miners worldwide were sympathetic to socialism, in the 1920s, Communists systematically tried to seize control of UMWA locals.
William Z. Foster, the Communist leader, opposed dual unions in favor of organizing within the UMWA; the radicals were most successful in the bituminous coal regions of the Midwest, where they used local organizing drives to gain control of locals, sought a national labor political party, demanded federal nationalization of the industry. Lewis, committed to cooperation among labor and government, took tight control of the union, he placed the once-autonomous districts under centralized receivership, packed the union bureaucracy with men directly beholden to him, used UMWA conventions and publications to discredit his critics. The fight was bitter but Lewis used armed force, red-baiting, ballot-box stuffing and, in 1928, expelled the leftists; as Hudson shows, they started the National Miners' Union. In Southern Illinois, amidst widespread violence, the Progressive Mine Workers of America of America challenged Lewis but were beaten back. After 1935, Lewis invited the radical organizers to work for his CIO organizing drives, they soon gained powerful positions in CIO unions, including auto workers and electrical workers.
Lewis was denounced as a despotic leader. He expelled his political rivals from the UMWA, including John Walker, John Brophy, Alexander Howat and Adolph Germer. Communists in District 26, including Canadian labor legend J. B. McLachlan, were banned from running for the union executive after a strike in 1923. McLachlan described him as "a traitor" to the working class. Lewis nonetheless commanded great loyalty from many of his followers those he had exiled in the past. A powerful speaker and strategist, Lewis used the nation's dependence on coal to increase the wages and improve the safety of miners during several severe recessions, he masterminded a five-month strike, ensuring that the increase in wages gained during World War I would not be lost. Lewis challenged Samuel Gompers, who had led the AFL for nearly forty years, for the Presidency of the AFL in 1921. William Green, one of his subordinates within the Mine Workers at the time, nominated him. Gom