Swamp Thing is a fictional superhero in comic books published by American company DC Comics. A humanoid/plant elemental creature, created by writer Len Wein and artist Bernie Wrightson, the Swamp Thing has had several humanoid or monster incarnations in various different storylines; the character first appeared in House of Secrets #92 in a stand-alone horror story set in the early 20th century. The character returned in a solo series, set in the contemporary world and in the general DC continuity; the character is a swamp monster that resembles an anthropomorphic mound of vegetable matter, fights to protect his swamp home, the environment in general, humanity from various supernatural or terrorist threats. The character found its greatest popularity during the 1970s and early 1990s. Outside of an extensive comic book history, the Swamp Thing has inspired two theatrical films, a live-action television series, a five-part animated series, among other media. IGN ranked, he appeared in his first live adaptation in the 1982 film.
Dick Durock portrayed Swamp Thing. Durock reprised the role in the sequel film The Return of Swamp Thing along with playing Holland. Durock reprised the role again in the 1990 television series; the character will be played by Derek Mears with Andy Bean playing his human form Alec Holland in the television series for the DC streaming service. Len Wein came up with the idea for the character, he recalled, "I didn't have a title for it, so I kept referring to it as'that swamp thing I'm working on.' And that's how it got its name!" Bernie Wrightson designed the character's visual image. Len Wein was the writer for the first 13 issues, before David Michelinie and Gerry Conway finished up the series. Burgeoning horror artist Bernie Wrightson drew the first 10 issues of the series while Nestor Redondo drew a further 13 issues, the last issue being drawn by Fred Carrillo; the original creative team worked together. The Swamp Thing fought against evil as he sought the men who murdered his wife and caused his monstrous transformation, as well as searching for a means to transform back to human form.
The Swamp Thing has since fought many villains. Though they only met twice during the first series, the mad Dr. Anton Arcane became the Swamp Thing's nemesis as the Swamp Thing developed a close bond with Arcane's niece Abigail Arcane. Arcane was aided by his nightmarish army of Un-Men and the Patchwork Man, alias Arcane's brother Gregori Arcane, who after a land mine explosion was rebuilt as a Frankenstein's Monster-type creature by his brother. Involved in the conflict was the Swamp Thing's close friend-turned-enemy Matthew Cable, a federal agent who mistakenly believed the Swamp Thing to be responsible for the deaths of Alec and Linda Holland; as sales figures plummeted towards the end of the series, the writers attempted to revive interest by introducing fantastical creatures and Alec Holland's brother, into the picture. The last two issues saw the Swamp Thing transformed back into a human being and having to fight one last menace as an ordinary human; the series was cancelled and a blurb for an upcoming team-up with Hawkman led nowhere.
In 1982, DC Comics revived the Swamp Thing series, attempting to capitalize on the summer 1982 release of the Wes Craven film of the same name. A revival had been planned for 1978, but was a victim of the DC Implosion; the new series, called The Saga of the Swamp Thing, featured an adaptation of the Craven movie in its first annual. Now written by Martin Pasko, the book loosely picked up after the Swamp Thing's appearance in Challengers of the Unknown, with the character wandering around the swamps of Louisiana seen as an urban legend and feared by locals. Pasko's main arc depicted the Swamp Thing roaming the globe, trying to stop a young girl named Karen Clancy from destroying the world; when Pasko had to give up work on the title due to increasing television commitments, editor Len Wein assigned the title to British writer Alan Moore. When Karen Berger took over as editor, she gave Moore free rein to revamp the title and the character as he saw fit. Moore reconfigured the Swamp Thing's origin to make him a true monster as opposed to a human transformed into a monster.
In his first issue, he swept aside most of the supporting cast Pasko had introduced in his year-and-a-half run as writer and brought the Sunderland Corporation to the forefront, as they hunted the Swamp Thing and "killed" him in a hail of bullets. The subsequent investigation revealed that the Swamp Thing was not Alec Holland transformed into a plant, but a wholly plant-based entity created upon the death of Alec Holland, having somehow absorbed Holland's memory and personality into himself, he is described as "a plant that thought it was Alec Holland, a plant, trying its level best to be Alec Holland." This is explained as a result of the plant matter of the swamp absorbing Holland's serum, with the Swamp Thing's appearance being the plants' attempt to duplicate Holland's human form. This revelation resulted in the Swamp Thing suffering a temporary mental breakdown and identity crisis, but he reasserted himself in time to stop the latest scheme of the Floronic Man. Issue #32 was a strange twist of comedy and tragedy, as the Swamp Thing encounters Pogo, Walt Kelly's character.
Moore would reveal, in an attempt to connect the original one-off Swamp Thing story from House of Secrets to
Gil Kane was a Latvian-born American comics artist whose career spanned the 1940s to the 1990s and every major comics company and character. Kane co-created the modern-day versions of the superheroes Green Lantern and the Atom for DC Comics, co-created Iron Fist with Roy Thomas for Marvel Comics, he was involved in such major storylines as that of The Amazing Spider-Man #96–98, which, at the behest of the U. S. Department of Health and Welfare, bucked the then-prevalent Comics Code Authority to depict drug abuse, spurred an update of the Code. Kane additionally pioneered an early graphic novel prototype, His Name Is... Savage, in 1968, a seminal graphic novel, Blackmark, in 1971. In 1997, he was inducted into both the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame and the Harvey Award Jack Kirby Hall of Fame. Gil Kane was born Eli Katz on April 6, 1926, in Latvia to a Jewish family that immigrated to the U. S. in 1929, settling in New York City. His father was a struggling poultry merchant. Kane attended high school at Manhattan's School of Industrial Art, but left in his senior year when he saw an opportunity to work at MLJ Comics.
He recalled in a 1996 interview, rom the time I was 15, I was going up to the comics offices.... My first job came the next year at 16. During my summer vacation, I went up and got a job working at MLJ in 1942... I was in my last year in high school. I was 16 and I'd started my last year but I'd gotten my job the summer before at MLJ, so I didn't want to give up my job. I quit school in the last grade; until being fired after three weeks, Kane worked in production, "putting borders on pages. The letterers would only put in the lettering, not the balloons, so I would put in the borders, I'd finish up artwork — whatever had to be done on a lesser scale." Within "a couple of days" of being let go, "I got a job with Jack Binder's agency. Jack Binder had a loft on Fifth Avenue and it just looked like an internment camp. There must have been 60 guys up there, all at drawing tables. You had to account for the paper that you took." Kane began penciling professionally there, but, "They weren't happy with what I was doing.
But when I was rehired by MLJ three weeks not only did they put me back into the production department and give me an increase, they gave me my first job, which was'Inspector Bentley of Scotland Yard' in Pep Comics, they gave me a whole issue of The Shield and Dusty, one of their leading books". He would do spot illustrations for other studios, his earliest known credit is inking Carl Hubbell on the six-page Scarlet Avenger superhero story "The Counterfeit Money Code" in MLJ's Zip Comics #14, on which he signed the name "Gil Kane". Other early credits include some issues of the company's Pep Comics, sometimes under pseudonyms including Stack Til and Stacktil, and, in conjunction with artist Pen Shumaker, Pen Star, he used his birth name on rare occasions, including on at least one story each in the Temerson / Helnit / Continental publishing group's Terrific Comics and Cat-Man Comics. In 1944 he did his first work for the future Marvel Comics, as one of two inkers on the 28-page "The Spawn of Death" in the wartime kid-gang comic Young Allies #11, the future DC Comics, as the uncredited ghost artist for Jack Kirby on the Sandman superhero story "Courage a la Carte" in Adventure Comics #91.
That same year Kane either was drafted or enlisted in the Army and served in the World War II Pacific theater of operations. After 19 months in the service, he returned to in December 1945. All-American Publications editor Sheldon Mayer hired him in 1947, for a stint that lasted six months, he contributed again to the "Sandman" feature in Adventure Comics and, as penciler Gil Stack and inker Phil Martel, to the "Wildcat" feature in Sensation Comics. Around this time, he said, he "worked with director Garson Kanin when he was involved in TV," drawing storyboards. In 1949, Kane began a longtime professional relationship with Julius Schwartz, an editor at National Comics, the future DC Comics. Kane drew stories for several DC series in the 1950s including All-Star Western and The Adventures of Rex the Wonder Dog. In the late 1950s, freelancing for DC Comics precursor National Comics, Kane illustrated works in what fans and historians call the Silver Age of Comic Books, creating character designs for the modern-day version of the 1940s superhero Green Lantern, for which he pencilled most of the first 75 issues of the reimagined character's comic.
Comics historian Les Daniels praised Kane's work on the character, stating "The design was part of an approach that emphasized grace as well as strength, an approach notable in Kane's flying scenes... Green Lantern appeared to soar effortlessly across the cosmos." DC Comics writer and executive Paul Levitz noted in 2010 that Kane "modeled the Guardians on Israeli founding father David Ben-Gurion as the human figures in the cast tended to mimic Kane's own tall, elongated build." Kane and writer John Broome's stories for the Green Lantern series included transforming Hal Jordan's love interest, Carol Ferris, into the Star Sapphire in issue #16. Black Hand, a character featured prominently in the "Blackest Night" storyline in 2009-2010, debuted in issue #29 by Broome and Kane; the creative team created Guy Gardner in the story "Earth's Other Green Lantern!" in issue #59. Kane co-created an updated version of the Atom with writer Gardner Fox. Kane — who by 1960 was living in Jericho, New York, on Long Island — drew the youthful superhero team the Teen Titans, a revival of Plastic Man, and, in
The New 52
The New 52 was the 2011 revamp and relaunch by DC Comics of its entire line of ongoing monthly superhero comic books. Following the conclusion of the "Flashpoint" crossover storyline, DC cancelled all of its existing titles and debuted 52 new series in September 2011 with new first issues. Among the renumbered series were Action Comics and Detective Comics, which had retained their original numbering since the 1930s; the relaunch included changes to the publishing format. New titles were released to bring the number of ongoing monthly series to fifty-two. Various changes were made to DC's fictional universe to entice new readers, including changes to DC's internal continuity to make characters more modern and accessible. In addition, characters from the Wildstorm and Vertigo imprints were absorbed into the DC Universe; the New 52 branding ended after the completion of the "Convergence" storyline in May 2015, although the continuity of The New 52 continued. In June 2015, 24 new titles were launched, alongside 25 returning titles, with several of those receiving new creative teams.
In February 2016, DC announced their Rebirth initiative with the release of an 80-page one-shot on May 25, 2016, continuing through late 2016. Following the conclusion of the Flashpoint limited series, all titles set in the DC Universe were cancelled and relaunched with new #1 issues; the new continuity features new outfits and backstories for many of DC's long-established heroes and villains. An interview with DC Comics executive editor Eddie Berganza and editor-in-chief Bob Harras revealed that the new continuity did not constitute a full reboot of the DC Universe but rather a "soft reboot". While many characters underwent a reboot or revamp, much of the DC Universe's history remained intact. Many major storylines such as "War of the Green Lanterns", "Batman: A Death in the Family" and Batman: The Killing Joke remained part of the new continuity, while others have been lost in part or in whole. DC editorial constructed a timeline that details the new history and which storylines to keep or ignore.
On August 31, 2011, Midtown Comics Times Square held a midnight event at which they began selling Justice League #1 and Flashpoint #5. On hand to sign the books were DC Chief Creative Officer Geoff Johns, the writer of both titles, Co-publisher and writer/artist Jim Lee, who illustrated Justice League. On January 12, 2012, DC announced that after their eighth issues, Blackhawks and Dove, Men of War, Mister Terrific, O. M. A. C. and Static Shock would be cancelled and replaced with six new titles, which would reveal more of The New 52 DC Universe. The new titles were dubbed the Second Wave: Dial H, Earth 2, G. I. Combat, World's Finest and Batman Incorporated, absent from the initial line of Batman titles, would continue Grant Morrison's storyline from before The New 52 involving the conflict between Batman and Talia al Ghul. On June 8, 2012, DC announced that in September 2012, the first anniversary of The New 52 launch, all titles would get a zero issue, dubbed "Zero Month". In addition, the Third Wave of titles was announced: Talon, Sword of Sorcery, Phantom Stranger, Team 7.
With these additions to the line, Justice League International, Captain Atom, Resurrection Man, Voodoo were cancelled. In October and November 2012, DC announced new titles Threshold, Justice League of America, Justice League of America's Vibe, Constantine. Threshold would be published in January 2013, Constantine in March 2013, while the others would be published in February 2013. DC consolidated these new titles as the Fourth Wave of The New 52. G. I. Combat, Agent of S. H. A. D. E. Grifter, Blue Beetle, Legion Lost were cancelled as a result. Young Romance: A New 52 Valentine's Day Special #1 was published as the 52nd title in February 2013. In January 2013, DC Comics announced the cancellation of I, Vampire and DC Universe Presents in April 2013. To celebrate the 60th birthday of Mad Magazine mascot Alfred E. Neuman, DC solicited variants drawn by Mad artists for 13 titles being published in April 2013. Starting with titles released on January 28, 2013, all printed New 52 publications featured advertisements for fictional news channel, Channel 52.
The two page back-ups, titled Channel 52, appear in all books, starting in February 2013, replaced the previous "DC Comics: All Access" features. This news feature stars Bethany Snow, Ambush Bug and Calendar Man as reporters and anchors on the fictional in-universe news show; the art is provided by Freddie E. Williams II; each week brings new content regarding the future goings-on in the DC universe. Channel 52 and Bethany Snow make an appearance in the second season of Arrow. On January 30, 2013, DC announced that all titles released in April 2013 would be "WTF Certified"; each title would feature a gatefold cover and story lines and moments that will leave readers in a state of shock, including the return of Booster Gold. However, DC dropped the "WTF Certified" branding and did not feature it on any of The New 52 books. In February 2013, it was announced that DC Comics would launch two new politically motivated books as parts of the Fifth Wave: The Green Team: Teen Trillionaires and The Movement.
These would explore concepts similar to the Occupy Movement and the role money has in a world of superheroes. A wave of cancellations was announced for May 2013 including: The Savage Hawkman, The Fury of Firestorm: The Nuclear Man, Sword of Sorcery, Team 7, The Ravagers. In March 2013, DC announced that it would launch four new titles in June 2013, making up the rest of the Fifth Wave: Superman Unchained, Batman/Superman and Trinity of Sin: Pandora. In April 2013, the cancellation of Bat
DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. since 1967. DC Comics is one of the largest and oldest American comic book companies, produces material featuring numerous culturally iconic heroic characters including: Superman, Wonder Woman, The Flash, Green Lantern,Aquaman,Martian Manhunter, Green Arrow, Hawkman and Supergirl. Most of their material takes place in the fictional DC Universe, which features teams such as the Justice League, the Justice Society of America, the Suicide Squad, the Teen Titans, well-known villains such as The Joker, Lex Luthor, Darkseid, Brainiac, Black Adam, Ra's al Ghul and Deathstroke; the company has published non-DC Universe-related material, including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, many titles under their alternative imprint Vertigo. The initials "DC" came from the company's popular series Detective Comics, which featured Batman's debut and subsequently became part of the company's name.
In Manhattan at 432 Fourth Avenue, the DC Comics offices have been located at 480 and 575 Lexington Avenue. DC had its headquarters at 1700 Broadway, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but it was announced in October 2013 that DC Entertainment would relocate its headquarters from New York to Burbank, California in April 2015. Random House distributes DC Comics' books to the bookstore market, while Diamond Comic Distributors supplies the comics shop specialty market. DC Comics and its longtime major competitor Marvel Comics together shared 70% of the American comic book market in 2017. Entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson founded National Allied Publications in autumn 1934; the company debuted with the tabloid-sized New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1 with a cover date of February 1935. The company's second title, New Comics #1, appeared in a size close to what would become comic books' standard during the period fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books, with larger dimensions than today's.
That title evolved into Adventure Comics, which continued through issue #503 in 1983, becoming one of the longest-running comic-book series. In 2009 DC revived Adventure Comics with its original numbering. In 1935, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, the future creators of Superman, created Doctor Occult, the earliest DC Comics character to still be in the DC Universe. Wheeler-Nicholson's third and final title, Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936 premiered three months late with a March 1937 cover date; the themed anthology series would become a sensation with the introduction of Batman in issue #27. By however, Wheeler-Nicholson had gone. In 1937, in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld—who published pulp magazines and operated as a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News—Wheeler-Nicholson had to take Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1. Detective Comics, Inc. was formed, with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners.
Major Wheeler-Nicholson remained for a year, but cash-flow problems continued, he was forced out. Shortly afterwards, Detective Comics, Inc. purchased the remains of National Allied known as Nicholson Publishing, at a bankruptcy auction. Detective Comics, Inc. soon launched a fourth title, Action Comics, the premiere of which introduced Superman. Action Comics #1, the first comic book to feature the new character archetype—soon known as "superheroes"—proved a sales hit; the company introduced such other popular characters as the Sandman and Batman. On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 sold at an auction from an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer for $1 million, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year. National Allied Publications soon merged with Detective Comics, Inc. forming National Comics Publications on September 30, 1946. National Comics Publications absorbed an affiliated concern, Max Gaines' and Liebowitz' All-American Publications.
In the same year Gaines let Liebowitz buy him out, kept only Picture Stories from the Bible as the foundation of his own new company, EC Comics. At that point, "Liebowitz promptly orchestrated the merger of All-American and Detective Comics into National Comics... Next he took charge of organizing National Comics, Independent News, their affiliated firms into a single corporate entity, National Periodical Publications". National Periodical Publications became publicly traded on the stock market in 1961. Despite the official names "National Comics" and "National Periodical Publications", the company began branding itself as "Superman-DC" as early as 1940, the company became known colloquially as DC Comics for years before the official adoption of that name in 1977; the company began to move aggressively against what it saw as copyright-violating imitations from other companies, such as Fox Comics' Wonder Man, which Fox started as a copy of Superman. This extended to DC suing Fawcett Comics over Captain Marvel, at the time comics' top-selling character.
Faced with declining sales and the prospect of bankruptcy if it lost, Fawcett capitulated in 1953 and ceased publishing comics. Years Fawcett sold the rights for Captain Marvel to DC—which in 1972 revived Captain Marvel in the new title Shazam
Hector Hammond is a fictional character, a supervillain appearing in comic books published by DC Comics, an enemy of Green Lantern. Unlike many supervillains, Hammond does not use an alias. Peter Sarsgaard played the role of Hammond in the 2011 film Green Lantern. Hector Hammond appeared in Green Lantern #5 and was created by John Broome and Gil Kane. Hammond is a petty criminal on the run from the law when he discovers the fragments of a strange meteor in the woods. Observing that radiation from the meteor has caused the nearby plants to evolve Hammond decides to kidnap four scientists and expose them to the meteor on a remote island; the radiation causes their intellects to evolve, but has the side effect of sapping their wills. Hammond is able to force the scientists to use their heightened intellect to create amazing new inventions, which Hammond sells for his own profit. Hammond becomes a rich celebrity due to the wealth he has acquired. Green Lantern Hal Jordan asks his friend and mechanic, Thomas Kalmaku, to take on the role of the Green Lantern while Jordan investigates Hammond.
Jordan creates a duplicate power ring and costume for Kalmaku to fool Hammond, tells him to fly above Coast City so it would be thought Green Lantern was there. The scientists tried to use a device to bring this Green Lantern to them, but the ring was first pulled off his finger and fell on the island, where Hammond found it. Unaware of the impersonation, Hammond turns Kalmaku into a chimpanzee. Jordan confronts Hammond in a battle of power rings that ends only when the charge of Hammond's ring runs out, allowing Jordan to capture him and restore Kalmaku and the scientists, he removed the scientist's memory of their knowledge, got rid of the inventions as well, feeling humanity should advance more steadily. Hammond returns in Justice League of America #14, where he has managed to escape from prison and deliberately exposes himself to the meteorite; the radiation causes his brain to grow to enormous size, granting him psionic powers as well as immortality in the process. He captures Green Lantern using a "de-memorizer" invented by Amos Fortune, but he is captured.
His body becomes immobilized, he loses the power to speak. Trapped in a motionless state, Hammond is still able to use his psionic powers to control the minds of others, he attempts to steal the Green Lantern's ring, but Jordan manages to command his ring to drain itself of power when it leaves his finger, after which Jordan renders Hammond unconscious. Hammond is responsible for the creation of the second Royal Flush Gang in Justice League of America #203. Hammond and the Gang are defeated when Dr. Martin Stein, one half of the superhero Firestorm, subdues Hammond on the astral plane, he was involved with erasing the world's memories of the JLA in Justice Leagues. In addition to battling Hal Jordan, Hammond has fought Green Lanterns Alan Scott and Kyle Rayner. Following the 2004-2005 miniseries Green Lantern: Rebirth, in which Hal Jordan was resurrected, vindicated for his past crimes and returned as the star of the Green Lantern core series, Hammond reappeared as one of his adversaries. After his capture and further experimentation by the Kroloteans, the aliens who sent the meteor that gave him his powers, he seems to have recovered the ability to speak without using telepathy.
Hammond appears in Infinite Crisis: Villains United special, in which he is broken out of prison along with several other supervillains and was seen as a member of Alexander Luthor, Jr.'s Secret Society of Super Villains. Hammond appears in the 2008 storyline Green Lantern: Secret Origin, a re-telling of Hal Jordan's first days as a Green Lantern. In that storyline, Hammond aspires to be Carol Ferris' boyfriend, feelings that are not reciprocated by Ferris, who went out to one dinner with him for business purposes, as he is a private consultant for Ferris Aircraft. While inspecting Abin Sur's crashed spacecraft, Hammond is affected by the meteorite fragment used as a power source in its reactor, which results in an increase in his brain size and telepathic abilities, with which he learns Jordan is a Green Lantern, he is thwarted by Sinestro. It is revealed that Hammond wants the power of a god in order to gain revenge on Hal Jordan/Green Lantern. Hammond's telepathic thoughts are shown from Belle Reve Prison, stating "It has Parallax", after an unknown force pulled Parallax away.
Afterwards, Krona helps Hammond get out of prison, to pursue the entity trapped inside Larfleeze's lantern. Hammond attacks Larfleeze and Hal Jordan, during the fight manages to swallow Larfleeze's battery, allowing the entity, Ophidian, to possess his body just as Parallax possessed Hal's; the battle with Ophidian does not go well for Hal or Larfleeze. While fleeing Ophidian, Larfleeze admits that he was not honest about his ownership of the orange lantern and that he and Ophidian have a rather antagonistic relationship, however he is quick to blame Ophidian for starting whatever it was that came between them. Ophidian states that Larfleeze was the only being in the universe capable of resisting his temptations, thereby allowing Larfleeze to subdue him and become Agent Orange, now it is Larfleeze's turn to be subdued and used by Ophidian, Ophidian attempts to devour Larfleeze but he is saved by Hal. After that the desires of Hector begin to override those of Ophidian and he leaves to search for his ultimate desire: "Carol Ferris".
Ophidian would apparently reassert its hold on Hect
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
A beach is a landform alongside a body of water which consists of loose particles. The particles composing a beach are made from rock, such as sand, shingle, pebbles; the particles can be biological in origin, such as mollusc shells or coralline algae. Some beaches have man-made infrastructure, such as lifeguard posts, changing rooms, showers and bars, they may have hospitality venues nearby. Wild beaches known as undeveloped or undiscovered beaches, are not developed in this manner. Wild beaches can be preserved nature. Beaches occur in areas along the coast where wave or current action deposits and reworks sediments. Although the seashore is most associated with the word beach, beaches are found by lakes and alongside large rivers. Beach may refer to: small systems where rock material moves onshore, offshore, or alongshore by the forces of waves and currents; the former are described in detail below. There are several conspicuous parts to a beach that relate to the processes that shape it; the part above water, more or less influenced by the waves at some point in the tide, is termed the beach berm.
The berm is the deposit of material comprising the active shoreline. The berm has a crest and a face—the latter being the slope leading down towards the water from the crest. At the bottom of the face, there may be a trough, further seaward one or more long shore bars: raised, underwater embankments formed where the waves first start to break; the sand deposit may extend well inland from the berm crest, where there may be evidence of one or more older crests resulting from large storm waves and beyond the influence of the normal waves. At some point the influence of the waves on the material comprising the beach stops, if the particles are small enough, winds shape the feature. Where wind is the force distributing the grains inland, the deposit behind the beach becomes a dune; these geomorphic features compose. The beach profile changes seasonally due to the change in wave energy experienced during summer and winter months. In temperate areas where summer is characterised by calmer seas and longer periods between breaking wave crests, the beach profile is higher in summer.
The gentle wave action during this season tends to transport sediment up the beach towards the berm where it is deposited and remains while the water recedes. Onshore winds carry it further inland enhancing dunes. Conversely, the beach profile is lower in the storm season due to the increased wave energy, the shorter periods between breaking wave crests. Higher energy waves breaking in quick succession tend to mobilise sediment from the shallows, keeping it in suspension where it is prone to be carried along the beach by longshore currents, or carried out to sea to form longshore bars if the longshore current meets an outflow from a river or flooding stream; the removal of sediment from the beach berm and dune thus decreases the beach profile. In tropical areas, the storm season tends to be during the summer months, with calmer weather associated with the winter season. If storms coincide with unusually high tides, or with a freak wave event such as a tidal surge or tsunami which causes significant coastal flooding, substantial quantities of material may be eroded from the coastal plain or dunes behind the berm by receding water.
This flow may alter the shape of the coastline, enlarge the mouths of rivers and create new deltas at the mouths of streams that had not been powerful enough to overcome longshore movement of sediment. The line between beach and dune is difficult to define in the field. Over any significant period of time, sediment is always being exchanged between them; the drift line is one potential demarcation. This would be the point at which significant wind movement of sand could occur, since the normal waves do not wet the sand beyond this area. However, the drift line is to move inland under assault by storm waves; the development of the beach as a popular leisure resort from the mid-19th century was the first manifestation of what is now the global tourist industry. The first seaside resorts were opened in the 18th century for the aristocracy, who began to frequent the seaside as well as the fashionable spa towns, for recreation and health. One of the earliest such seaside resorts, was Scarborough in Yorkshire during the 1720s.
The first rolling bathing machines were introduced by 1735. The opening of the resort in Brighton and its reception of royal patronage from King George IV, extended the seaside as a resort for health and pleasure to the much larger London market, the beach became a centre for upper-class pleasure and frivolity; this trend was praised and artistically elevated by the new romantic ideal of the picturesque landscape. Queen Victoria's long-standing patronage of the Isle of Wight and Ramsgate in Kent ensured that a seaside residence was considered as a fashionable possession for those wealthy enough to afford more than one home; the extension of this form of leisure to the middle and working classes began with the development of the railways in the 1840s, which offered cheap fares to fast