United States Secretary of Homeland Security
The United States Secretary of Homeland Security is the head of the United States Department of Homeland Security, the body concerned with protecting the U. S. and the safety of U. S. citizens. The secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet; the position was created by the Homeland Security Act following the attacks of September 11, 2001. The new department consisted of components transferred from other cabinet departments because of their role in homeland security, such as the Coast Guard, the Federal Protective Service, U. S. Customs and Border Protection, U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the Secret Service, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, it did not include either the Federal Bureau of the Central Intelligence Agency. Kevin McAleenan is the Acting Secretary of Homeland Security, upon the resignation of Kirstjen Nielsen. Traditionally, the order of the presidential line of succession is determined by the order of the creation of the cabinet positions, the list as mandated under 3 U.
S. C. § 19 follows this tradition. On March 7, 2006, 43rd President George W. Bush signed H. R. 3199 as Pub. L. 109–177, which renewed the Patriot Act of 2001 and amended the Presidential Succession Act of 1947 to include the newly created Presidential Cabinet position of Secretary of Homeland Security in the line of succession after the authorized Secretary of Veterans Affairs. In the 109th Congress, legislation was introduced to place the Secretary of Homeland Security into the line of succession after the Attorney General but that bill expired at the end of the 109th Congress and was not re-introduced. Prior to the establishment of the U. S. Department of Homeland Security, there existed an Assistant to the President for the Office of Homeland Security, created following the September 11 attacks in 2001. Parties Republican Democratic Independent Status Denotes Acting Homeland Security Secretary 1 James Loy served as acting secretary in his capacity as Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security from February 1, 2005, to February 15, 2005.
2 Rand Beers served as acting secretary in his capacity as confirmed Undersecretary of Homeland Security for National Protection and Programs and Acting Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security. 3 Elaine Duke served as acting secretary in her capacity as Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security from July 31, 2017, to December 6, 2017. 4 Kevin McAleenan serves as acting secretary in his capacity as Commissioner of the Customs and Border Protection upon his appointment by President Trump. As of April 2019, all six former Secretaries of Homeland Security are still living, as are all three former acting Secretaries of Homeland Security; the oldest being former acting Secretary James Loy. The order of succession for the Secretary of Homeland Security is as follows: Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security Under Secretary of Homeland Security for National Protection and Programs Under Secretary of Homeland Security for Management Under Secretary, Office of Strategy and Plans Under Secretary of Homeland Security for Science and Technology General Counsel of the Department of Homeland Security Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency Commissioner of U.
S. Customs and Border Protection Director of U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Director of U. S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Chief Financial Officer Regional Administrator, Region V, Federal Emergency Management Agency Regional Administrator, Region VI, Federal Emergency Management Agency Regional Administrator, Region VII, Federal Emergency Management Agency Regional Administrator, Region IX, Federal Emergency Management Agency Regional Administrator, Region I, Federal Emergency Management Agency George W. Bush nominated Bernard Kerik for the position in 2004; however a week Kerik withdrew his nomination, explaining that he had employed an illegal immigrant as a nanny. By July 2013, Raymond Kelly had served as Commissioner of the New York City Police Department for nearly 12 straight years. Within days of Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano's announcement that she was resigning, Kelly was soon cited as an obvious potential successor by New York Senator Charles Schumer and others.
During a July 16, 2013, President Obama referred to the "bunch of strong candidates" for nomination to head the Department of Homeland Security, but singled out Kelly as "one of the best there is" and "very well qualified for the job". In July 2013, the online internet news website/magazine Huffington Post detailed "a growing campaign to quash the potential nomination of New York City Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly as the next secretary of the Department of Homeland Security" amid claims of "divisive and ineffective policing that promotes stereotypes and profiling". Days after that article, Kelly penned a statistics-heavy Wall Street Journal opinion article defending the NYPD's programs, stating "the average number of stops we conduct is less than one per officer per week" and that this and other practices have led to "7,383 lives saved—and... they are the lives of young men of color."Kelly was featured because of his NYPD retirement and unusually long tenure there in a long segment on the CBS News program Sunday Morning in December 2013 raising the question of the cont
United States Lighthouse Service
The United States Lighthouse Service known as the Bureau of Lighthouses, was the agency of the United States Government and the general lighthouse authority for the United States from the time of its creation in 1910 as the successor of the United States Lighthouse Board until 1939 when it was merged into the United States Coast Guard. It was responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of all lighthouses and lightvessels in the United States. In 1789, the United States Lighthouse Establishment was created and operated under the Department of the Treasury. All U. S. lighthouse ownership was transferred to the government which became the general lighthouse authority. In 1792, the Cape Henry Lighthouse was the first lighthouse built by the USLHE. In 1822, French physicist, Augustin Fresnel designed the Fresnel lens. In 1841 the Fresnel lens was first used in the United States and installed on the Navesink Lighthouse. In 1852 the Lighthouse Board was created. In 1871, the Duxbury Pier Light became the first caisson lighthouse built in the United States.
In 1877, kerosene became the primary fuel for lighthouses. Prior to this varies fuels included sperm oil, Colza oil, rapeseed oil, lard oil. In 1884, uniforms came into use by all members of the Lighthouse Board. In 1886, the Statue of Liberty was the first lighthouse to use electricity. In 1898, all coastal lighthouses were extinguished, for the first time in U. S. history, as a precaution during the Spanish–American War. In 1904, the Lightship Nantucket became first U. S. vessel to have radio communication. In 1910, the Bureau of Lighthouses was operated as the United States Lighthouse Service. In 1910, 11,713 aids to navigation of all types were around the country. Congress abolished the U. S. Light-House Board and created the Bureau of Lighthouses under the Department of Commerce; the Board had hired a number of civilians and many of these experienced people took over the roles that the military officers had been playing. Though called inspectors, the civilian heads of the districts changed their titles to superintendent.
At this time, the placement of aids to navigation along rivers had become the responsibility of the Lighthouse Service, many of these aids were tended on a part-time basis by local citizens called lamp lighters and lamp attendants. President William Taft selected George R. Putnam to head the new bureau and he gained the title "Commissioner of Lighthouses." For 25 years, Putnam headed the bureau and during his administration, navigational aids saw a substantial increase. New technology was incorporated into the bureau's work in the area of electric aids and some automation using electricity. Though the number of aids to navigation increased during Putnam's reign from 11,713 to 24,000 buoys and small lights, arguably two of his most significant achievements were the passage of the Retirement Act for lighthouse personnel in 1918 and the introduction in 1921 of the radiobeacon as an aid to navigation; this new technology permitted a reduction of over 800 employees during Putnam's 25 years as head of the bureau.
During World War I and the period following, several technological advances contributed to the automation of lighthouses, rendering human occupancy unnecessary. A device for automatically replacing burned-out electric lamps in lighthouses was developed and placed in several light stations in 1916. A bell alarm warning keepers of fluctuations in the burning efficiency of oil-vapor lamps was developed in 1917. In the same year, the first experimental radiobeacon was installed in a lighthouse; the only lightvessel of the service sunk by enemy action was the LV-71 on August 6, 1918. After the sinking of the SS Merak by the German submarine U-104 near Diamond Shoals, North Carolina LV-71 rescued the survivors but was sunk as well shortly thereafter. Nobody was hurt in the action because the German commander allowed the Americans to evacuate the ship before firing; the first automatic radiobeacon in the United States began service in 1928. Radiobeacons are still in use today, although most have been decommissioned as improved electronic navigational aids have become available.
An automatic time clock for operating electric range lights came into use in 1926, by 1933, a photo electric-controlled alarm device had been developed to check the operation of the unwatched electric light. A lightship staffed by remote control was equipped by the Lighthouse Bureau in 1934, it included a light, fog signal, radiobeacon, all controlled by radio signals. A battery-powered buoy which replaced the older acetylene buoys, was introduced in 1935; because of the technological improvements mentioned above, in particular the radiobeacon direction finder, the United States rose from sixth in shipping safety in 1920 to second in 1935, with only the Netherlands holding a better safety record. Improvements in the road and highway systems provided better and more rapid means of transportation during the 1920s and 1930s; as a result of the improved roadways, the Bureau was able to better maintain aids to navigation, benefiting the service economically. The extension of electric lines into remote sections of the country provided a reliable power source for operating aids to navigation.
By the 1920s and 1930s, the majority of light stations had electric service, reducing the number of staff necessary to operate the station. As ancillary buildings at many stations shore stations, were rendered useless, the makeup of the light station began to change. In 1935, Putnam was followed in the Commissioner's position by a career Lighthouse Service employee, H. D. King, a former district superintendent. On 1 July 1939, the Service merged with the United States Coast Guard, which has since taken over the maintenance and operati
Badges of the United States Coast Guard
Badges of the United States Coast Guard are issued by the Department of Homeland Security to members of the United States Coast Guard to denote certain qualifications and postings to certain assignments. Prior to 2002, the issuance of such badges was under the authority of the United States Department of Transportation. In addition to the U. S. Coast Guard badges listed below, uniform regulations authorize the wear of some specific U. S. Navy insignia as well as some Department of Defense and Executive Branch Identification badges; the following are the current U. S. Coast Guard and U. S. Coast Guard Auxiliary badges authorized for wear on the Coast Guard uniform: Military badges of the United States Identification badges of the United States military Obsolete badges of the United States military
Commandant of the Coast Guard
The Commandant of the United States Coast Guard is the service chief and highest-ranking member of the United States Coast Guard. The Commandant is an admiral, appointed for a four-year term by the President of the United States upon confirmation by the United States Senate; the Commandant is assisted by a vice commandant, an admiral, two Area Commanders and two Deputy Commandants, all of whom are vice admirals. Though the United States Coast Guard is one of the five military branches of the United States, unlike the other service chiefs, the Commandant of the Coast Guard is not a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; the Commandant is, entitled to the same supplemental pay as the Joint Chiefs, per 37 U. S. C. § 414, is accorded privilege of the floor under Senate Rule XXIII as a de facto JCS member during Presidential addresses. The Commandant maintains operational command over the Coast Guard, unlike the chiefs of the other services, who serve only administrative roles. Thus, while the operational chain of command for the other services goes from the President through the Secretary of Defense to the combatant commanders of the unified combatant commands and control of the Coast Guard goes from the President through the Secretary of Homeland Security through to the Commandant.
Prior to the creation of the Department of Homeland Security in 2003, the United States Coast Guard operated under and the Commandant reported to the Secretary of Transportation from 1966 to 2003, the Secretary of the Treasury from 1790 until 1966. The title of Commandant dates to a 1923 act that distributed the commissioned line and engineer officers of the U. S. Coast Guard in grades. Before 1923, the rank and title of the head of the Coast Guard was "captain-commandant." The rank "captain-commandant" originated in the Revenue Cutter Service in 1908. The original holder of that rank was the Chief of the Revenue Cutter Service; the Coast Guard traces the lineage of Commandants back to Captain Leonard G. Shepard, chief of the Revenue Marine Bureau though he never received the title of Captain-Commandant; the Captain-Commandant position was created in 1908 when Captain Worth G. Ross was the first to hold the position. Although he was retired, Ross's predecessor, Captain Charles F. Shoemaker, was elevated to the rank of Captain-Commandant.
Shoemaker's predecessor, Captain Shepard, had died and was not elevated to the rank. Chiefs exercised centralized control over the Revenue Marine Bureau. Captain Alexander V. Fraser, USRM, 1843–1848 Captain Richard Evans, USRM, 1848–1849In 1849 the Revenue Marine Bureau was dissolved, the Revenue Marine fell under the control the Commissioner of Customs until the Revenue Marine Bureau was again established in 1869. N. Broughton Devereux, 1869–1871 Sumner I. Kimball, 1871–1878 Ezra Clark, 1878–1885 Peter Bonnett, 1885–1889 There have been 26 Commandants of the Coast Guard since the office of Chief of the Revenue Marine Bureau was transferred to a military billet; this includes the current Commandant. Vice Commandant of the United States Coast Guard Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard Footnotes Citations References cited Commandant's official website
Maritime Law Enforcement Academy
The Maritime Law Enforcement Academy is a United States Coast Guard school located at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center in Charleston, South Carolina. It was created from the relocation and merger of the former Law Enforcement School at Yorktown and the former Boarding Team Member School at Petaluma, California. Courses offered at the MLEA include: Boarding Officer Course: The purpose of the BOC is to prepare Boarding Officers for the arduous duties associated with enforcing laws and treaties at sea; the course consists of twenty three training days over five weeks and is open to U. S. Coast Guard personnel and foreign naval officers. Boarding Team Member Course: The BTM course consists of nine training days over two weeks and trains Coast Guard personnel to serve as Boarding Team Members under the supervision of a Boarding Officer. Radiation Detection Level II Operators Course: This is a three-day course that prepares Coast Guard personnel to conduct radiation detection operations on board vessels and ashore.
Ports and Coastal Security Course: This is a five-day program designed to provide boarding officers with the specific concepts and experience necessary to safely conduct Security Boardings and Law Enforcement Ashore at facilities in compliance with Coast Guard policy, U. S. law, international treaties. Training ranges from criminal law and the use of force to boarding team member certification to the use of radiation detection equipment. Much of the training is live; the Academy is home to the Maritime Enforcement Specialist "A" school. Joint Maritime Training Center
Ship commissioning is the act or ceremony of placing a ship in active service, may be regarded as a particular application of the general concepts and practices of project commissioning. The term is most applied to the placing of a warship in active duty with its country's military forces; the ceremonies involved are rooted in centuries old naval tradition. Ship naming and launching endow a ship hull with her identity, but many milestones remain before she is completed and considered ready to be designated a commissioned ship; the engineering plant and electronic systems and multitudinous other equipment required to transform the new hull into an operating and habitable warship are installed and tested. The prospective commanding officer, ship's officers, the petty officers, seamen who will form the crew report for training and intensive familiarization with their new ship. Prior to commissioning, the new ship undergoes sea trials to identify any deficiencies needing correction; the preparation and readiness time between christening-launching and commissioning may be as much as three years for a nuclear powered aircraft carrier to as brief as twenty days for a World War II landing ship.
USS Monitor, of American Civil War fame, was commissioned less than three weeks after launch. Regardless of the type of ship in question, a vessel's journey towards commissioning in its nation's navy begins with a process known as sea trials. Sea trials take place some years after a vessel was laid down, mark the interim step between the completion of a ship's construction and its official acceptance for service with its nation's navy. Sea trials begin when the ship in question is floated out of its dry dock, at which time the initial crew for a ship will assume command of the vessel in question; the ship is sailed in littoral waters for the purpose of testing the design and other ship specific systems to ensure that they work properly and can handle the equipment that they will be using in the coming years. Tests done during this phase can include launching missiles from missile magazines, firing the ship's gun, conducting basic flight tests with rotary and fixed-wing aircraft that will be assigned to the ship in the future, various tests of the electronic and propulsion equipment.
During this phase of testing problems arise relating to the state of the equipment on the ship in question, which can result in the ship returning to the builder's shipyard to address the concerns in question. In addition to problems with a ship's arms and equipment, the sea trial phase a ship undergoes prior to commissioning can identify issues with the ship's design that may need to be addressed before it can be accepted into service with its nation's navy. During her sea trials in 1999 French Naval officials determined that the French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle was too short to safely operate the E2C Hawkeye, resulting in her return to the builder's shipyard for enlargement. After a ship has cleared its sea trial period, it will be accepted into service with its nation's navy. At this point, the ship in question will undergo a process of degaussing and/or deperming, which will vastly reduce the ship in question's magnetic signature. Once a ship's sea trials are completed plans for the actual commissioning ceremony will take shape.
Depending on the naval traditions of the nation in question, the commissioning ceremony may be an elaborately planned event with guests, the ship's future crew, other persons of interest in attendance, or the nation in question may forgo a ceremony and instead administratively place the ship in commission. At a minimum, on the day on which the ship in question is to be commissioned the crew will report for duty aboard the ship and the commanding officer will read through the orders given for the ship and its personnel. If the ship's ceremony is a public affair the Captain may make a speech to the audience, along with other VIPs as the ceremony dictates. Religious ceremonies, such as blessing the ship or the singing of traditional hymns or songs, may occur. Once a ship has been commissioned its final step toward becoming an active unit of the navy it now serves is to report to its home port and load or accept any remaining equipment. To decommission a ship is to terminate its career in service in the armed forces of a nation.
Unlike wartime ship losses, in which a vessel lost to enemy action is said to be struck, decommissioning confers that the ship has reached the end of its usable life and is being retired from a given country's navy. Depending on the naval traditions of the country in question, a ceremony commemorating the decommissioning of the ship in question may take place, or the vessel may be removed administratively with little to no fanfare; the term "paid off" is alternatively used in British Commonwealth contexts, originating in the age-of-sail practice of ending an officer's commission and paying crew wages once the ship completed its voyage. Ship decommissioning occurs some years after the ship was commissioned and is intended to serve as a means by which a vessel that has become too old or too obsolete can be retired with honor from the operating country's armed force. Decommissioning of the vessel may occur due to treaty agreements or for safety reasons (such as a ship's nuclear reactor and assoc
United States Coast Guard Academy
The United States Coast Guard Academy is the service academy of the United States Coast Guard, founded in 1876 and located in New London, Connecticut. It is the smallest of the five federal service academies and provides education to future Coast Guard officers in one of nine major fields of study. Unlike the other service academies, the Coast Guard Academy does not require a congressional nomination for admission. Students are officers-in-training and are referred to as cadets, upon graduation receive a Bachelor of Science degree and are commissioned as ensigns with a five-year active-duty service obligation, with additional years if the graduate attends flight school or subsequent government-funded graduate school. Out of 250 cadets entering the academy each summer, 200 graduate. Cadets can choose from among nine majors, with a curriculum, graded according their performance in a holistic program of academics, physical fitness and leadership. Cadets are required to adhere to the academy's "Honor Concept," "Who lives here reveres honor, honors duty,", emblazoned in the halls of the academy's entrance.
The academy's motto is Scientiæ cedit mare, Latin for "the sea yields to knowledge". The Academy is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges, ABET, AACSB for its various programs.· The roots of the academy lie in the School of Instruction of the Revenue Cutter Service, the school of the Revenue Cutter Service. The School of Instruction was established near New Bedford, Massachusetts in 1876 and used the USRC Dobbin for its exercises. Captain John Henriques served as superintendent from founding until 1883; the one civilian instructor was Professor Edwin Emery, who taught mathematics, English composition, physics, theoretical steam engineering, international law, revenue law, among other subjects. The School was a two-year apprenticeship, in essence, supplemented by minimal classroom work; the student body averaged five to ten cadets per class. With changes to new training vessels, the school moved to Curtis Bay, Maryland in 1900 and to Fort Trumbull in 1910, a Revolutionary War–era Army installation in New London, Connecticut.
In 1914, the school became the Revenue Cutter Academy, it became the Coast Guard Academy in 1915 with the merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the Life Saving Service. Land was purchased in New London on 31 July 1930 for the construction of the Coast Guard Academy; the 40-acre site was made up of two parcels from the Allyn and Payne estates and was purchased for $100,000. The $100,000 was not raised through a bond issue, as planned, but with a bank loan based on uncollected back taxes; the contract was awarded to Murch Brothers Construction Company of St. Louis and ground was broken on January 1931 by Jean Hamlet, daughter of RADM Harry G. Hamlet, Academy Superintendent from 1928–1932. On 15 May 1931, Treasury Secretary Andrew W. Mellon visited New London to lay the cornerstone of Hamilton Hall. Construction proceeded on schedule and cadets moved in to the new buildings on 20 September 1932. In 1946, the academy received the barque Horst Wessel as a war reparation from Germany, a 295-foot tall ship, renamed the USCGC Eagle.
It remains the main training vessel for cadets at the academy as well as for officer candidates at the Coast Guard's Officer Candidate School, located on the grounds of the USCGA. The academy was racially integrated in 1962 at the request of President Kennedy; the academy began admitting women in 1976 at the request of Congress. Superintendent of the academy Vice Admiral Harry G. Hamlet composed the academy's mission statement in 1929. All entering cadets must memorize the statement during their first few days of Swab Summer, the indoctrination period for new cadets; the mission of the United States Coast Guard Academy is to graduate young men and women with sound bodies, stout hearts and alert minds, with a liking for the sea and its lore, with that high sense of Honor and Obedience which goes with trained initiative and leadership. Unlike the other service academies, admission to the USCGA does not require a congressional nomination; this is due to the fervent objections of Captain John A. Henriques, the first Superintendent of the Revenue Cutter School of Instruction.
His objection stemmed from years of poor political appointments in the U. S. Revenue Cutter Service's bureaucracy; the academy is cited as being one of the most difficult American institutions of higher education in which to gain entrance. Each year more than 2,000 students apply and appointments are offered until the number accepting appointments to the incoming class numbers reaches 400; those who have accepted appointments as cadets report to the USCGA in late June or early July for "Swab Summer", a basic military training program designed to prepare them for the rigors of their Fourth Class year. After four years of study and training 200 of those cadets will graduate. About 35 percent of cadets are women. All graduating cadets earn commissions as ensigns in the United States Coast Guard, as well as Bachelor of Science degrees. For that reason the academy maintains a core curriculum of science and professional development courses in addition to major-specific courses; each cadet takes two semesters of classes during the school year and spends the majority of the summer in military training to produce officers of character with the requisite professiona