The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Scania, known by its local name Skåne, is the southernmost province of Sweden which consists of a peninsula on the southern tip of the Scandinavian Peninsula and some islands close to it. Scania is roughly equivalent to the modern Skåne County, the responsibility for overseeing implementation of state policy in the county is administered by the County Administrative Board. Within Scania there are 33 municipalities that are independent and separate from the Scania Regional Council which has its seat in Kristianstad, the largest city is Malmö, which is the third largest city in Sweden. To the north, Scania borders the provinces of Halland and Småland, to the northeast Blekinge, to the east and south the Baltic Sea and Bornholm island, since 2000 a road and railway bridge, the Øresund Bridge, bridges the sound to the Danish island of Zealand. The HH Ferry route across the part of Øresund remains as an important link between the Scandinavian Peninsula and Zealand. Scania is part of the transnational Øresund Region, Scania was part of the kingdom of Denmark up until the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658.
The transition to Sweden was confirmed by the 1660 Treaty of Copenhagen, the 1679 Peace of Lund, the last serious Danish attempt to invade the province failed in 1710, after the Battle of Helsingborg. The period 1658–1720 saw widespread violence by the Swedish militaries against the local population, the same was true about the Danish military, though to a far lesser extent. The region did not form part of Sweden proper until 1720 and it was divided in two counties and has since been regarded as fully integrated in Sweden. Until the early 19th century, a policy of forced assimilation was employed by the Swedish government in what had been a linguistically Danish region. Controversy relating to whether the Scanian dialects should be classified as a language or as Danish or Swedish dialects remains to this day. From north to south Scania is around 130 kilometres and covers less than 3% of Swedens total area, about 16% of Scanias population is foreign-born. With 120 inh/km2 Scania is the second most densely populated province of Sweden, the western part, along the coast of the Øresund, is by far the most populated part.
The endonym used in Swedish and other North Germanic languages is Skåne, the Latinized form Scania occurs especially in British English as an exonym. Scania is the only Swedish province for which exonyms are still used in many languages, e. g. French Scanie and German Schonen, Polish Skania, Spanish Escania, Italian Scania. For the provinces modern administrative counterpart, Skåne län, the endonym Skåne is used in English, in the Alfredian translation of Orosiuss and Wulfstans travel accounts, the Old English form Sconeg appears. The names Scania and Scandinavia are considered to have the same etymology, the name is possibly derived from the Germanic root *Skaðin-awjã, which appears in Old Norse as Skáney. According to some scholars, the Germanic stem can be reconstructed as *Skaðan- meaning danger or damage, Skanör in Scania, with its long Falsterbo reef, has the same stem combined with -ör, which means sandbanks
Railway electrification system
A railway electrification system supplies electric power to railway trains and trams without an on-board prime mover or local fuel supply. Electrification has many advantages but requires significant capital expenditure, selection of an electrification system is based on economics of energy supply and capital cost compared to the revenue obtained for freight and passenger traffic. Different systems are used for urban and intercity areas, some electric locomotives can switch to different supply voltages to allow flexibility in operation, Electric railways use electric locomotives to haul passengers or freight in separate cars or electric multiple units, passenger cars with their own motors. Electricity is typically generated in large and relatively efficient generating stations, transmitted to the railway network, some electric railways have their own dedicated generating stations and transmission lines but most purchase power from an electric utility. The railway usually provides its own lines and transformers.
Power is supplied to moving trains with a continuous conductor running along the track usually takes one of two forms. The first is a line or catenary wire suspended from poles or towers along the track or from structure or tunnel ceilings. Locomotives or multiple units pick up power from the wire with pantographs on their roofs that press a conductive strip against it with a spring or air pressure. Examples are described in this article, the second is a third rail mounted at track level and contacted by a sliding pickup shoe. Both overhead wire and third-rail systems usually use the rails as the return conductor. In comparison to the alternative, the diesel engine, electric railways offer substantially better energy efficiency, lower emissions. Electric locomotives are usually quieter, more powerful, and more responsive and they have no local emissions, an important advantage in tunnels and urban areas. Different regions may use different supply voltages and frequencies, complicating through service, the limited clearances available under catenaries may preclude efficient double-stack container service.
Possible lethal electric current due to risk of contact with high-voltage contact wires, overhead wires are safer than third rails, but they are often considered unsightly. These are independent of the system used, so that. The permissible range of voltages allowed for the voltages is as stated in standards BS EN50163. These take into account the number of trains drawing current and their distance from the substation, railways must operate at variable speeds. Until the mid 1980s this was only practical with the brush-type DC motor, since such conversion was not well developed in the late 19th century and early 20th century, most early electrified railways used DC and many still do, particularly rapid transit and trams
Louisiana Museum of Modern Art
The Louisiana Museum of Modern Art is an art museum located directly on the shore of the Øresund Sound in Humlebæk,35 km north of Copenhagen, Denmark. The museum is acknowledged as a milestone in modern Danish architecture, noted for the synthesis it creates of art, the museum has at occasions exhibitions with works of the great impressionists and expressionists, like the large Claude Monet impressionist exhibition in 1994. The museum is included in the Patricia Schultz book 1,000 Places to See Before You Die, the name of the museum derives from the first owner of the property, Alexander Brun, who named the villa after his three wives, all named Louise. The museum was created in 1958 by Knud W. Jensen and he contacted architects Vilhelm Wohlert and Jørgen Bo who spent a few months walking around the property before deciding how a new construction would best fit into the landscape. This study resulted in the first version of the museum consisting of three connected by glass corridors. Since it has been extended several times until it reached its present circular shape in 1991, in late November 2012 Louisiana Museum of Modern Art launched Louisiana Channel, a web-TV channel contributing to the continual development of the museum as a cultural platform.
In 2013 the music department of the museum launch Louisiana Music, the videos are often housed in room settings where the viewer is made to feel part of the scene being portrayed. Perched above the sea, there is a garden between the museums two wings with works by artists including Henry Moore, Alexander Calder, and Jean Arp. Besides the collection of art, Louisiana displays a collection of Pre-Columbian art. Consisting of more than 400 objects, the collection was a donation from the Wessel-Bagge Foundation in 2001 and it is the personal collection left by Niels-Wessel Bagge, who was a Danish dancer and art collector living in California and who died in 1990. The Concert Hall was built in 1976 in connection with the West Wing which had built in 1966 and 1971. Its acoustics make it fit for chamber music but it is used for other musical genres as well as a wide array of others events and activities such as debates, lectures. The chairs are designed by Poul Kjærholm and the wall is decorated with paintings created for the site by Sam Francis.
In 2007 began a project to produce concerts filming and musical clips directed by Stéphan Aubé, all the movies are available for free on the Louisiana Music website. The grounds around the museum contain a sculpture garden. It is made up by a plateau and the sloping terrain towards Øresund and is dominated by huge, ancient specimen trees and sweeping vistas of the sea. It contains works by artists as Jean Arp, Max Ernst, Max Bill, Alexander Calder, Henri Laurens, Louise Bourgeois, Joan Miró. The sculptures are placed so that they can be viewed from within, in special sculpture yards or independently around the gardens, forming a synthesis with the lawns, the trees
A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot is a railway facility where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers or freight. It generally consists of at least one platform and a station building providing such ancillary services as ticket sales. If a station is on a line, it often has a passing loop to facilitate traffic movements. The smallest stations are most often referred to as stops or, in parts of the world. Stations may be at level, underground, or elevated. Connections may be available to intersecting rail lines or other modes such as buses. In British usage, the station is commonly understood to mean a railway station unless otherwise qualified. In the United States, the most common term in contemporary usage is train station, Railway station and railroad station are less frequent. Outside North America, a depot is place where buses, trains, or other vehicles are housed and maintained and from which they are dispatched for service. The two-storey Mount Clare station in Baltimore, which survives as a museum, first saw service as the terminus of the horse-drawn Baltimore.
The oldest terminal station in the world was Crown Street railway station in Liverpool, built in 1830, as the first train on the Liverpool-Manchester line left Liverpool, the station is slightly older than the Manchester terminal at Liverpool Road. The station was the first to incorporate a train shed, the station was demolished in 1836 as the Liverpool terminal station moved to Lime Street railway station. Crown Street station was converted to a goods station terminal, the first stations had little in the way of buildings or amenities. The first stations in the modern sense were on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, manchesters Liverpool Road Station, the second oldest terminal station in the world, is preserved as part of the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. It resembles a row of Georgian houses, dual-purpose stations can sometimes still be found today, though in many cases goods facilities are restricted to major stations. In rural and remote communities across Canada and the United States, such stations were known as flag stops or flag stations.
Many stations date from the 19th century and reflect the architecture of the time. Countries where railways arrived may still have such architecture, as stations often imitated 19th-century styles, various forms of architecture have been used in the construction of stations, from those boasting grand, Baroque- or Gothic-style edifices, to plainer utilitarian or modernist styles
Dyrehavsbakken, commonly referred to as Bakken, is an amusement park near Klampenborg, but which belongs under Lyngby-Taarbæk Kommune, about 10 km north of Copenhagen. It opened in 1583 and is the worlds oldest operating amusement park, with 2. 5-2.7 million visitors per year, it is the second most popular attraction in Denmark, after the more widely known Tivoli Gardens amusement park. Residents of Copenhagen were attracted to the due to the poor water quality in central Copenhagen during this period. Many believed the natural spring water to have properties, and therefore Piils discovery drew large crowds. These large crowds attracted entertainers and hawkers, whose presence began the origins of amusement parks as are presently known, for a period the area that the spring was located on was not open to the public due to it being on royal hunting grounds. In 1669, King Frederick III decided to set up a park in the area and his son, Christian V. The area was named Jægersborg Dyrehave, its present name, in 1671, the park was off-limits to the general public under Christian V and this did not change until 1756, under Frederick V.
Open to the public once again, Dyrehavsbakken began to flourish. Bakken continued to grow throughout the Napoleonic Wars. Its popularity was aided by easier accessibility due to the development of steamships and railroads, as well as good publicity from poets. As the popularity of Bakken grew, its conditions worsened, as a result, some of the business owners, or tent owners as they are still called today, created the Dyrehavsbakken Tent Owners’ Association of 1885. The association improved garbage collection, restroom facilities, water supply, the association is still around today, and all businesses operating in the park are required to join. The entertainment options improved over time, cabarets such as Sansouci, which opened in 1866, and Bakkens Hvile, which opened in 1877, became increasingly popular. The 20th century brought other popular ventures, such as the Circus Revue, over time, more modern rides and entertainment options have been introduced. Bakken may have started as a place to get clean spring water, Bakken is home to six roller coasters, the most famous of which is Rutschebanen, a wooden roller coaster open since 1932.
Rutschebanen has been deemed an American Coaster Enthusiasts Coaster Classic, the park is home to dozens of other flat, or amusement, rides suited for all ages. Each of the rides requires a number of coupons. Bumper Cars - bumper cars Crazy Theater - indoor laser shoot-out, 5D Cimema - shows 4 different movies, each about 10 –12 minutes long
A double-track railway usually involves running one track in each direction, compared to a single-track railway where trains in both directions share the same track. In the earliest days of railways in the United Kingdom, most lines were built as double-track because of the difficulty of co-ordinating operations before the invention of the telegraph, the lines tended to be busy enough to be beyond the capacity of a single track. In the early days the Board of Trade did not consider any single-track railway line to be complete and this improved with the development of the telegraph and the train order system. In any given country, rail traffic generally runs to one side of a double-track line, thus in Belgium, France, Sweden and Italy for example, the railways use left-hand running, while the roads use right-hand running. In countries such as Indonesia, it is the reverse, on the French-German border, for example, flyovers were provided so that train moving on the left in France end up on the right in Germany and vice versa.
Handedness of traffic can affect locomotive design, for the driver, visibility is good from both sides of the driving cab so the choice on which side to site the driver less important. For example, the French SNCF Class BB7200 is designed for using the left-hand track, the left/right principle in a country is followed mostly on double track. On single track, when trains meet, the train that shall not stop uses the straight path in the turnout. Double-track railways, especially older ones, may use each track exclusively in one direction and this arrangement simplifies the signalling systems, especially where the signalling is mechanical. Where the signals and points or rail switches are power-operated, it can be worthwhile to signal each line in both directions, so that the line becomes a pair of single lines. This allows trains to use one track where the track is out of service due to track maintenance work, or a train failure. Most crossing loops are not regarded as even though they consist of multiple tracks.
If the crossing loop is long enough to several trains. A more modern British term for such a layout is an extended loop, the distance between the track centres makes a difference in cost and performance of a double-track line. The track centres can be as narrow and as cheap as possible, signals for bi-directional working cannot be mounted between the tracks so must be mounted on the wrong side of the line or on expensive signal bridges. Track centres are usually wider on high speed lines, as pressure waves knock each other as high-speed trains pass, narrow track centres might be 4 metres or less. Narrow track centres may have to be widened on sharp curves to allow for rail vehicles following the arc of the curve. Widening a track centre to 5 metres or so suits high-speed trains passing each other, increasing width of track centres of 6 metres or more makes it much easier to mount signals and overhead wiring structures
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
Arriva is a multinational public transport company headquartered in Sunderland, England. It was established in 1938 as T Cowie and through a number of mergers and acquisitions was rebranded Arriva in 1997, Arriva operates bus, train and waterbus services in 14 countries across Europe. As at December 2015 it employed 55,000 people and operated 2.2 billion passenger journeys annually and it operates as three divisions, UK Bus, UK Rail and Mainland Europe. The company was founded by TSK Cowie in Sunderland in 1938 as a motorcycle dealer trading as T Cowie Limited. In 1948 the business was re-launched by Tom Cowie, the founders son, T Cowie plc was floated in December 1964, and in 1965 it bought out the first of many car dealerships. In 1972 it formed Cowie Contract Hire, which became the largest contract hire business in the UK, in 1980 T Cowie made its first foray into bus operations, buying the Grey-Green operation in London from the George Ewer Group. In 1984 T Cowie plc acquired the Hanger Group, which included Interleasing, further leasing companies acquired were Marley Leasing, RoyScot Drive and Ringway Leasing.
Following the retirement of Tom Cowie, the company was renamed Cowie Group plc in April 1994, as part of the privatisation of London bus services, Cowie Group acquired the Leaside Buses and South London Transport business units in September 1994 and January 1995. Cowie plc bought United Automobile Services and British Bus in July and August 1996, as a result of these transactions, in October 1996 Cowie Group was reclassified on the stock exchange from a motor dealer to a transport group. In November 1997 the company was rebranded as Arriva plc, in that year it bought Unibus in Denmark, its first venture outside the United Kingdom. In June 1999 Arriva sold its business to General Motors. In February 2000 Arriva purchased MTL Holdings, which included its first UK rail franchises, Merseyrail Electrics, in 2002/03 Arriva sold its motor-retailing businesses and in February 2006 it sold its vehicle-rental business to Northgate. In April 2008 the LNWR train maintenance business in England was acquired, in 2010 it was reported that the government-owned railway companies of France and Germany were considering making takeover bids for the business.
SNCF subsidiary Keolis and Arriva entered discussions regarding a merger, the takeover was approved by the European Commission in August 2010, conditional on Deutsche Bahn disposing of some Arriva services in Germany. The takeover took effect on 27 August 2010, and Arriva was delisted from the London Stock Exchange on 31 August 2010, in late 2011 Arriva acquired Grand Central Railway and sold its Arriva Scotland West bus operation. In May 2013 Arriva purchased Veolia Transports Central European business with 3,400 vehicles, in May 2013 Arriva entered the Croatian bus market with the purchase of Veolia Transport Central Europe with 120 buses. Arriva group bought three medium-sized bus transport companies in 2006 and 2007 end established its own transport company Arriva vlaky s. r. o. in 2009. These four companies are owned through Arriva holding Česká republika s. r. o. which is owned by the Dutch company Arriva Coöperatie W. A
Surveying or land surveying is the technique and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor, Surveyors work with elements of geometry, regression analysis, engineering, programming languages and the law. Surveying has been an element in the development of the environment since the beginning of recorded history. The planning and execution of most forms of construction require it and it is used in transport, communications and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership. It is an important tool for research in other scientific disciplines. Basic surveyance has occurred since humans built the first large structures, the prehistoric monument at Stonehenge was set out by prehistoric surveyors using peg and rope geometry. In ancient Egypt, a rope stretcher would use simple geometry to re-establish boundaries after the floods of the Nile River. The almost perfect squareness and north-south orientation of the Great Pyramid of Giza, built c.2700 BC, the Groma instrument originated in Mesopotamia.
The mathematician Liu Hui described ways of measuring distant objects in his work Haidao Suanjing or The Sea Island Mathematical Manual, the Romans recognized land surveyors as a profession. They established the basic measurements under which the Roman Empire was divided, Roman surveyors were known as Gromatici. In medieval Europe, beating the bounds maintained the boundaries of a village or parish and this was the practice of gathering a group of residents and walking around the parish or village to establish a communal memory of the boundaries. Young boys were included to ensure the memory lasted as long as possible, in England, William the Conqueror commissioned the Domesday Book in 1086. It recorded the names of all the owners, the area of land they owned, the quality of the land. It did not include maps showing exact locations, abel Foullon described a plane table in 1551, but it is thought that the instrument was in use earlier as his description is of a developed instrument. Gunters chain was introduced in 1620 by English mathematician Edmund Gunter and it enabled plots of land to be accurately surveyed and plotted for legal and commercial purposes.
Leonard Digges described a Theodolite that measured horizontal angles in his book A geometric practice named Pantometria, joshua Habermel created a theodolite with a compass and tripod in 1576. Johnathon Sission was the first to incorporate a telescope on a theodolite in 1725, in the 18th century, modern techniques and instruments for surveying began to be used. Jesse Ramsden introduced the first precision theodolite in 1787 and it was an instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes