P&O Nedlloyd Container Line Limited was an Anglo-Dutch worldwide ocean-going container shipping line, with dual headquarters in London and Rotterdam. The company was formed in 1997 by the merger of the interests of Dutch transportation company Royal Nedlloyd. In 2004, Royal Nedlloyd bought the shares from P&O. Royal P&O Nedlloyd was acquired by the Danish A. P. Moller-Maersk Group in 2005 and was combined with their existing container shipping business Maersk-Sealand to form Maersk Line. As Sealand was the USA based historic innovator of container shipping, Maersk Line subsequently embodies the Dutch, British as well as Danish, P&O Nedlloyd was the largest partner in the Grand Alliance, which included shippings concerns such as OOCL, Hapag Lloyd and NYK Lines. Expanding in 1998, the line purchased Blue Star Lines container business, the company acquired the container business of Harrison Line. Further expansion came with the buyout of Farrell Lines in 2000, in 2001, after three years of negotiations, an attempt to make P&O Nedlloyd failed.
The company was listed on the Euronext Amsterdam as Royal P&O Nedlloyd NV, in May 2005 Maersk announced plans to purchase P&O Nedlloyd for 2.3 billion euros. At the time of the acquisition, P&O Nedlloyd had 6% of the industry market share. The combined company would be about 18% of world market share, Maersk completed the buyout of the company on 13 August 2005, Royal P&O Nedlloyd shares terminated trading on 5 September. In February 2006, the new combined entity adopted the name Mærsk Line At the time the company was folded into A. P. Moller and its container fleet, consisting of owned and leased vessels, had a capacity of 635,000 twenty-foot equivalent units. Royal P&O Nedlloyd N. V. had 13,000 employees in 146 countries, in January 2008, Maersk Line announced drastic reorganisational measures. Items of P&O Nedlloyd and its predecessors historical heritage are displayed at both the Maritime Museum Rotterdam and the National Maritime Museum in London, official website PONLHeritage Website SCARA staff association P&O Nedlloyd Videos Maersk Line Website
P&O Ferries is a British based company that operates ferries from the United Kingdom to Ireland and Continental Europe. P&O originally established ferry services in the United Kingdom in the late 1960s in the North Sea, in the late 1970s P&O was affected by a reduction in traditional shipping activities which saw the sale of a number of its businesses and assets. This continued into 1985 with the sale of its cross-channel ferry activities to European Ferries, in April 2002, P&O announced its intention to purchase Stena Lines 40% share of the joint venture. These closures were blamed on the expansion of low-cost airlines. This meant the closure of the route served by P&O Ferries in Portsmouth. Throughout its history, P&O Ferries has operated in five areas, centred around Dover, Southampton, the Irish Sea. P&O began ferry operations in Dover in the 1960s with a route to Boulogne in France under the Normandy Ferries brand and this route was sold to European Ferries on 4 January 1985 which rebranded them, along with its Southampton–Le Havre route, as Normandy Ferries Ltd.
Prior to the acquisition, European Ferries had ordered two vessels for the Dover–Calais route. These were delivered in June and December 1987 as Pride of Dover and Pride of Calais, as a result, vessels were renamed from the recognisable Pride of prefix to instead be prefixed with P&OSL in 1999. P&OSL operated eleven vessels, eight of which provided a freight and passenger service on the Dover–Calais route, in August 2002, P&O acquired Stena Lines 40% share of P&OSL, which were re-merged with the Portsmouth and North Sea operations under the P&O Ferries brand. In December 2002, the Dover–Zeebrugge route closed, leaving only the Dover–Calais route remaining, vessel prefixes were again changed to PO before they were repainted into a new livery and resuming the use of the Pride of prefix in 2003. The two new vessels, Spirit of Britain and Spirit of France, are 49,000 gross tonnes and 210 metres long, making them the largest ferries to operate in the English Channel. They were the first passenger ferries in the world to comply with the new SOLAS Safe Return to Port requirements, Spirit of Britain entered service on 21 January 2011 replacing Pride of Dover, which remained in layup in Tilbury before being sold and scrapped in late 2012.
Spirit of France entered service on 9 February 2012 and this route was sold to European Ferries in January 1985 which rebranded them, along with its Dover-Boulogne route, as Townsend Thoresen. Following the acquisition in 1987, P&O European Ferries operated routes from Portsmouth to Cherbourg, in 1993 P&O opened a new route from Portsmouth to Bilbao, using the Pride of Bilbao operating a twice weekly service. This was the longest route that P&O Ferries operated and was late arriving due to the weather conditions in the Bay of Biscay. 1998 saw the introduction of a new high-speed service on the Portsmouth–Cherbourg route using the Superstar Express, for her 2003 season she was painted in standard P&O Ferries livery and her trading name was shortened to Express, with her official name becoming Catalonia A. In her final season in 2004, the vessel was officially renamed Express, in summer 2004 P&O Ferries operated a Portsmouth–Caen route using the Incat 91 model catamaran Max Mols from Mols-Linien, trading under the name Caen Express
British and Irish Steam Packet Company
The British and Irish Steam Packet Company was a steam packet and passenger ferry company operating between ports in Ireland and in Great Britain between 1836 and 1992. It was latterly called the B&I, and branded as B + I line. The B&I was established in Dublin in 1836 with a fleet of paddle steamers. The company was based on Eden Quay until it moved to No.46 East Wall in 1860, the fleet changed to iron in the 1840s and 1850s to ply on the company routes of Falmouth-Torquay-Southampton-Portsmouth and London together with Dublin-Wexford-Waterford. The company acquired the London service of the Waterford Steamship Company in 1870 by which they dominated this route, the controlling owner of the B&I was the Liverpool Shipping Company. It was taken over by the Kylsant Royal Mail Company in 1917, among the operations of this group were Burns and Laird City of Cork Steam Packet The Dublin and Lancashire Shipping Co. This was regretted on the outbreak of World War II, when Coast Lines withdrew most of the vessels, during the war, the company sustained casualties with the separate losses of two vessels in Liverpool in 1940, the Innisfallen, and the Munster sunk by a mine.
B&I was taken over by the Irish Government in 1965 and it had ten passenger and cargo vessels, many built in the late 1940s. The new management commenced a programme of modernisation, launching the car ferries Munster, Innisfallen. The Munster and Leinster plied the Dublin-Liverpool route and the new Innisfallen out of Cork changed from Fishguard to Swansea in 1969, the company was operating new freight ships. On 25 April 1980 a jetfoil service from Dublin to Liverpool started but was withdrawn as it was not a commercial success. The company ran into financial problems in 1981, this and labour disputes persisted into the early 1992 when the company was privatised. Port of Cork refused to lend €3m to Swansea-Cork Ferries for new ferry, Irish Ferries Enthusiasts History of the B & I Line
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Tyne Tees Steam Shipping Company
The Tyne Tees Steam Shipping Company provided shipping services in the United Kingdom from 1904 to 1943. Four companies came together in 1904 to form the Tyne Tees Steam Shipping Company and these were, The Tyne Steam Shipping Co. Ltd, The Tees Union Steamship Co, The Free Trade Wharf Co. Ltd Passenger services were operated between Newcastle upon Tyne and the continent until the Great Depression in the United Kingdom, the vessels and interests of the company were purchased by Coast Lines in 1943. The former Headquarters building is now the Hotel du Vin and Sunderland to London / Antwerp / Rotterdam / Amsterdam / Dordrecht / Hamburg / Bremen / Ghent / Northern French Ports. Funnel, Black with red top and dividing white band
Overseas Containers Limited was a container shipping company formed by a consortium of British shipping companies in 1965. It is not to be confused with Orient Overseas Container Line, OCL was formed in 1965 by four British companies and Commonwealth Shipping, Furness Withy, P&O and the Ocean Steamship Company. Between 1969 and 1970 OCL took delivery of its first ships, initially operating from a set of offices in Bevis Marks, London, OCL moved to custom built offices on Braham Street, a few hundred yards away on a traffic island at the end of Commercial Road. The first trade route was the Australia/UK one followed by the Far East/UK route, initial arrivals in Europe intended for the UK had to be diverted and transhipped via Rotterdam, because of unresolved industrial disputes in UK ports. OCL played a role in the development of CAMEL - the standardised format for electronic manifests. By 1982 OCL was Europes largest container through transport operator with a fleet of 20 containerships, one company, P&O, gradually increased its share of the consortium until in 1986 it bought the remaining 53% held by Ocean Transport and Trading and British & Commonwealth.
On 1 January 1987 the name OCL ceased to exist, the becoming known as P&O Containers Ltd. In 1996 P&O Containers merged with Nedlloyd to form P&O Nedlloyd, august 2005 saw the completion of a buyout of P&O Nedlloyd by the A. P. Moller-Maersk Group and in February 2006 the name Maersk Line was adopted for the combined fleets. All OCL ships names ended in Bay, such as Encounter Bay, Tokyo Bay, Liverpool Bay, Resolution Bay, subsidiary operations such as the Australia- Japan Container Line did not follow this trend, instead having names such as Arafura and Aotea. When OCL became P&OCL, there was a modification to the ships colour scheme, the hulls becoming completely green. The naming convention was retained, and in June 2006 there were still a couple of Bay ships in the Maersk Line fleet, the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company. Graham, Graham, Swire, Michael Penney, Ken Owen, Michael Heron, Bob Straffen, Marion Ward, Pat Moore, British Box Business, A History of OCL. PONLHeritage history 1837-1996 SCARA staff association P&O Heritage history P&O Nedlloyd history
Liverpool is a major city and metropolitan borough in North West England.24 million people in 2011. Liverpool historically lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby in the south west of the county of Lancashire and it became a borough from 1207 and a city from 1880. In 1889 it became a county borough independent of Lancashire, Liverpool sits on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary and its growth as a major port is paralleled by the expansion of the city throughout the Industrial Revolution. Along with general cargo, raw materials such as coal and cotton, the city was directly involved in the Atlantic slave trade. Liverpool was home to both the Cunard and White Star Line, and was the port of registry of the ocean liner RMS Titanic and others such as the RMS Lusitania, Queen Mary, and Olympic. The city celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2007, and it held the European Capital of Culture title together with Stavanger, several areas of Liverpool city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO in 2004.
The Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City includes the Pier Head, Albert Dock, tourism forms a significant part of the citys economy. Liverpool is the home of two Premier League football clubs and Everton, matches between the two being known as the Merseyside derby, the world-famous Grand National horse race takes place annually at Aintree Racecourse on the outskirts of the city. The city is home to the oldest Black African community in the country. Natives of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians and colloquially as Scousers, a reference to scouse, the word Scouse has become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. Pool is a place name element in England from the Brythonic word for a pond, inlet, or pit, cognate with the modern Welsh. The derivation of the first element remains uncertain, with the Welsh word Llif as the most plausible relative and this etymology is supported by its similarity to that of the archaic Welsh name for Liverpool Llynlleifiad. Other origins of the name have suggested, including elverpool.
The name appeared in 1190 as Liuerpul, and it may be that the place appearing as Leyrpole, in a record of 1418. King Johns letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool, the original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an H shape, Bank Street, Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street, Moor Street, in the 17th century there was slow progress in trade and population growth. Battles for the town were waged during the English Civil War, in 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. Since Roman times, the city of Chester on the River Dee had been the regions principal port on the Irish Sea
Orient Steam Navigation Company
The Orient Steam Navigation Company, known as the Orient Line, was a British shipping company with roots going back to the late 18th century. From the early 20th century onwards an association began with P&O which became 51% shareholder in 1919, the Orient Lines beginnings can be traced back to the formation of a shipbroking company by James Thomson in 1797. The company was operating a fleet of sailing ships by the early 19th century. Scotsman James Anderson joined James Thompson & Co. in 1828, his nephew James George Anderson joined the firm in 1854, with the death of the last member of the Thompson family it was restyled Anderson, Anderson & Co. in 1869. The inauguration of a service to Australia with the packet Orient in 1866 saw the company trade as The Orient Line of Packets. In 1877, Anderson & Co, Anderson & Co. and Greens jointly founded the Orient Steam Navigation Company, with a capital of £44,642, early in 1878. They built a series of large seagoing steamers for the trade, a close association with the Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company began at the turn of the 20th century with the two companies sharing an Australian Government mail contract.
Each company had a sailing from England to Australia every two weeks, resulting in a weekly service of fast mail ships. This was at a time of expansion for the Orient Line. All had names starting with O, such as Otway, Orsova, Otranto and Orvieto – a quintet of 12, the First World War saw all of the companys ships commandeered for war service, with several losses. Those that survived returned to the England – Australia service in 1919. N, a new firm, Green & Co. Ltd. Anderson, Green & Co. Ltd. became a shipbroking firm until renamed Anderson Hughes following further rationalisation in 1975, the Orient Line fleet was upgraded following the war with the purchase of second-hand former German vessels from the British Government, made available through war reparations. They included the USS Zeppelin which Orient bought in 1920, had refitted and renamed Ormuz, more new ships were acquired in the second half of the 1920s, most built at the Vickers Armstrong shipyard in Barrow-in-Furness. The company managed to trade through the Great Depression and returned to profitability, the company engaged a New Zealand-born marine architect, Brian ORorke, to design RMS Orion and Orcades, which became the focus of great interest from the British design fraternity.
The Second World War again saw the requisitioning of Orient Line ships, unfortunately four were lost, with the other four returning to the England-Australia mail service in 1947. It took a number of years for the fleet to be returned to full strength due to the slow industrial recovery after the war. Three new ships of 28, 000–29,000 tons entered service, Orcades and Orsova, matching in speed and size the three new postwar ships for P&O. All had higher speeds that allowed them to reduce the time from England to Australia by eight days to 28 days
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon. The country lies within the temperate zone and has a changeable. Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudds death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of Englands conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism, Welsh national feeling grew over the century, Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962.
Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and around Cardiff and Newport, and in the nearby valleys. Now that the countrys traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales economy depends on the sector and service industries. Wales 2010 gross value added was £45.5 billion, over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the land of song, Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Celtic Britons in particular, the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales and these words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning fellow-countrymen.
The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, in particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century and it is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh, until c.1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, Welsh
British-India Steam Navigation Company
British India Steam Navigation Company was formed in 1856 as the Calcutta and Burmah Steam Navigation Company. The company had formed out of Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co. It became British India SN Co in 1862, as one of the largest shipowners of all time, the company owned more than 500 ships and managed 150 more for other owners. At its height in 1922, BI had more than 160 ships in the fleet, many built on Clydeside, the main shipping routes of the line were, Britain to India, Kenya, Tanganyika. The company ran services from India to Pakistan, Bay of Bengal, Malaya, Thailand, Persian Gulf, East Africa, BI had a long history of service to the British and Indian governments through trooping and other military contracts. In the last decade of its operational existence BI carried thousands of children on educational cruises. Nevasa of 1956 was the passenger ship built for BI. The highly popular Uganda was taken up by the British Ministry of Defence in 1982 as a ship during the Falklands war with Argentina.
Returning to BIs tradition of government service again in 1983 - this time as a troopship - Uganda was the last BI when finally withdrawn in 1985. Dwarka holds the distinction of closing British-Indias true liner services, when withdrawn from the companys Persian Gulf local trades in 1982, in her 35th year. National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC BI Ship Site A Short History of British India Steam Navigation Clydeside built BI ships Miller, William H. The Last Blue Water Liners, Conway Press, London,1986 - ISBN 0-85177-400-8 Morton, Michael Quentin, The British India Line in the Arabian Gulf, 1862-82, Liwa journal, December 2013, Vol.5, No
City of Dublin Steam Packet Company
The City of Dublin Steam Packet Company was a shipping line established in 1823. It served cross-channel routes between Britain and Ireland for over a century, for 70 of those years it transported the mail. It was wound-up by a committee of the House of Lords in 1922. The City of Dublin Steam Packet Company began in Dublin in 1822 as Charles Wye Williams & Company and his company initially operated steam ships between Dublin and Liverpool. In 1826, the added service to London and Belfast. Later, service was provided between Glasgow and Belfast. Transatlantic service to New York started with the Royal William departing Liverpool on 5 July 1838, in January,1839, they were awarded a contract to provide a night mail service from Holyhead, their ships docked at the Admiralty Pier in Holyhead. In 1843, the took over the routes of the St. George Steam Packet Company. The Company operated steamers on the River Shannon. Up until 1850, the British Admiralty carried the Royal Mail, Ships carrying mail on these contracts were authorized to use the designation RMS or Royal Mail Ship.
The most valuable route, with the highest volume, was between Kingstown, in Ireland, and Holyhead in Wales, the line won the contract and purchased RMS Saint Columba and RMS Llwywllyn from the Admiralty. These were twin-propeller vessels powered by a steam engine, capable of 24 knots. The Company was not able to recover from this loss. Afterwards, the fleet were taken over by the British & Irish Steam Packet Company. The City of Dublin Steam Packet Company was finally liquidated in 1924, Columba 1848 St.13, No 2, Sept.1992. Info on The Ships List Anglesey-Môn Info Web Sealink-Holyhead. com Ship Trafalgar Collection, East Carolina Manuscript Collection, J. Y