Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville
Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville was a French zoologist and anatomist. Blainville was born near Dieppe; as a young man he went to Paris to study art, but devoted himself to natural history. He attracted the attention of Georges Cuvier, for whom he substituted as lecturer at the Collège de France and at the Athenaeum Club, London. In 1812 he was aided by Cuvier in acquiring the position of assistant professor of anatomy and zoology in the Faculty of Sciences at Paris. Relations between the two men soured, a situation that ended in open enmity. In 1825 Blainville was admitted a member of the French Academy of Sciences. Two years on the death of Cuvier, he obtained the chair of comparative anatomy, of which he proved himself a worthy successor to his former teacher. In 1837, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. On May 1, 1850, he died from an attack of apoplexy in a railway carriage at the Embarcadère du Havre in Paris, he was the taxonomic authority of numerous zoological species and extant.
In the field of herpetology, he adopted Pierre André Latreille's proposal of separating Amphibia from Reptilia, developed a unique arrangement in regards to sub-groupings, using organs of generation as primary criteria. He described several new species of reptiles. Blainville rejected evolution, he was a critic of Lamarck's evolutionary ideas but similar to Lamarck proposed a great chain of being. It was in 1822. Blainville is commemorated in the scientific name of a North American lizard, Phrynosoma blainvillii. Sur les ichthyolites, ou, Les poissons fossiles - On "ichthyolites", or fossil fish. De l'organisation des animaux, ou Principes d'anatomie comparée - On the organization of animals, or principles of comparative anatomy. Manuel de malacologie et de conchyliologie - Manual of conchology. Cours de physiologie générale et comparée - Course of general and comparative physiology. Manuel d'actinologie, ou de zoophytologie - Manual of actinology or zoophytology. Ostéographie ou description iconographique comparée du squelette et du système dentaire des mammifères récents et fossiles - Osteography or comparative iconographical descriptions of the skeleton and teeth of living and fossil mammals.
Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Blainville, Henri Marie Ducrotay de". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4. Cambridge University Press
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, snakes, lizards and their extinct relatives. The study of these traditional reptile orders combined with that of modern amphibians, is called herpetology; because some reptiles are more related to birds than they are to other reptiles, the traditional groups of "reptiles" listed above do not together constitute a monophyletic grouping or clade. For this reason, many modern scientists prefer to consider the birds part of Reptilia as well, thereby making Reptilia a monophyletic class, including all living Diapsids; the earliest known proto-reptiles originated around 312 million years ago during the Carboniferous period, having evolved from advanced reptiliomorph tetrapods that became adapted to life on dry land. Some early examples include Casineria. In addition to the living reptiles, there are many diverse groups that are now extinct, in some cases due to mass extinction events. In particular, the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event wiped out the pterosaurs, plesiosaurs and sauropods, as well as many species of theropods, including troodontids, dromaeosaurids and abelisaurids, along with many Crocodyliformes, squamates.
Modern non-avian reptiles inhabit all the continents except Antarctica, although some birds are found on the periphery of Antarctica. Several living subgroups are recognized: Testudines, 350 species. Reptiles are tetrapod vertebrates, creatures that either have four limbs or, like snakes, are descended from four-limbed ancestors. Unlike amphibians, reptiles do not have an aquatic larval stage. Most reptiles are oviparous, although several species of squamates are viviparous, as were some extinct aquatic clades – the fetus develops within the mother, contained in a placenta rather than an eggshell; as amniotes, reptile eggs are surrounded by membranes for protection and transport, which adapt them to reproduction on dry land. Many of the viviparous species feed their fetuses through various forms of placenta analogous to those of mammals, with some providing initial care for their hatchlings. Extant reptiles range in size from a tiny gecko, Sphaerodactylus ariasae, which can grow up to 17 mm to the saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus, which can reach 6 m in length and weigh over 1,000 kg.
In the 13th century the category of reptile was recognized in Europe as consisting of a miscellany of egg-laying creatures, including "snakes, various fantastic monsters, assorted amphibians, worms", as recorded by Vincent of Beauvais in his Mirror of Nature. In the 18th century, the reptiles were, from the outset of classification, grouped with the amphibians. Linnaeus, working from species-poor Sweden, where the common adder and grass snake are found hunting in water, included all reptiles and amphibians in class "III – Amphibia" in his Systema Naturæ; the terms "reptile" and "amphibian" were interchangeable, "reptile" being preferred by the French. Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti was the first to formally use the term "Reptilia" for an expanded selection of reptiles and amphibians similar to that of Linnaeus. Today, the two groups are still treated under the same heading as herptiles, it was not until the beginning of the 19th century that it became clear that reptiles and amphibians are, in fact, quite different animals, Pierre André Latreille erected the class Batracia for the latter, dividing the tetrapods into the four familiar classes of reptiles, amphibians and mammals.
The British anatomist Thomas Henry Huxley made Latreille's definition popular and, together with Richard Owen, expanded Reptilia to include the various fossil "antediluvian monsters", including dinosaurs and the mammal-like Dicynodon he helped describe. This was not the only possible classification scheme: In the Hunterian lectures delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons in 1863, Huxley grouped the vertebrates into mammals and ichthyoids, he subsequently proposed the names of Ichthyopsida for the latter two groups. In 1866, Haeckel demonstrated that vertebrates could be divided based on their reproductive strategies, that reptiles and mammals were united by the amniotic egg; the terms "Sauropsida" and "Theropsida" were used again in 1916 by E. S. Goodrich to distinguish between lizards and their relatives on the one hand and mammals and their extinct relatives on the other. Goodrich supported this division by the nature of the hearts and blood vessels in each group, other features, such as the structure of the forebrain.
According to Goodrich, both lineages evolved from an earlier stem group, Protosauria in which he included some animals today considered reptile-like amphibians, as well as early reptiles. In 1956, D. M. S. Watson observed that the first two groups diverged early in reptilian history, so he divided Goodrich's Protosauria between them, he reinterpreted Sauropsida and Theropsida to exclude birds and mammals, respectively. Thus his Sauropsida included Procolophonia, Millerosauria, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia
CITES is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals. It was drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature; the convention was opened for signature in 1973 and CITES entered into force on 1 July 1975. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species in the wild, it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 35,000 species of animals and plants. In order to ensure that the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade was not violated, the Secretariat of GATT was consulted during the drafting process; as of 2018, Secretary-General of the CITES Secretariat is Ivonne Higuero. CITES is one of sustainable use agreements in existence. Participation is voluntary, countries that have agreed to be bound by the Convention are known as Parties. Although CITES is binding on the Parties, it does not take the place of national laws.
Rather it provides a framework respected by each Party, which must adopt their own domestic legislation to implement CITES at the national level. Domestic legislation is either non-existent, or with penalties with the gravity of the crime and insufficient deterrents to wildlife traders; as of 2002, 50% of Parties lacked one or more of the four major requirements for a Party: designation of Management and Scientific Authorities. Funding for the activities of the Secretariat and Conference of the Parties meetings comes from a Trust Fund derived from Party contributions. Trust Fund money is not available to Parties to improve compliance; these activities, all those outside Secretariat activities must find external funding from donor countries and regional organizations such as the European Union. Although the Convention itself does not provide for arbitration or dispute in the case of noncompliance, 36 years of CITES in practice has resulted in several strategies to deal with infractions by Parties.
The Secretariat, when informed of an infraction by a Party, will notify all other parties. The Secretariat will give the Party time to respond to the allegations and may provide technical assistance to prevent further infractions. Other actions the Convention itself does not provide for but that derive from subsequent COP resolutions may be taken against the offending Party; these include: Mandatory confirmation of all permits by the Secretariat Suspension of cooperation from the Secretariat A formal warning A visit by the Secretariat to verify capacity Recommendations to all Parties to suspend CITES related trade with the offending party Dictation of corrective measures to be taken by the offending Party before the Secretariat will resume cooperation or recommend resumption of tradeBilateral sanctions have been imposed on the basis of national legislation. Infractions may include negligence with respect to permit issuing, excessive trade, lax enforcement, failing to produce annual reports.
CITES addressed depletion resulting from demand for luxury goods such as furs in Western countries, but with the rising wealth of Asia in China, the focus changed to products demanded there those used for luxury goods such as ivory or shark fins or for superstitious purposes such as rhinoceros horn. As of 2013 the demand was massive and had expanded to include thousands of species considered unremarkable and in no danger of extinction such as manta rays or pangolins; the text of the Convention was finalized at a meeting of representatives of 80 countries in Washington, D. C. United States, on 3 March 1973, it was open for signature until 31 December 1974. It entered into force after the 10th ratification by a signatory country, on 1 July 1975. Countries that signed the Convention become Parties by accepting or approving it. By the end of 2003, all signatory countries had become Parties. States that were not signatories may become Parties by acceding to the Convention; as of October 2016, the Convention has 183 parties, including the European Union.
The CITES Convention includes rules for trade with non-Parties. All member states of the United Nations are party to the treaty, with the exception of Andorra, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, South Sudan, East Timor, Tonga and Tuvalu. UN observer the Holy See is not a member; the Faroe Islands, an autonomous country in the Kingdom of Denmark, is treated as a non-Party to CITES. An amendment to the text of the Convention, known as the Gaborone Amendment allows regional economic integration organizations, such as the European Union, to have the status of a member state and to be a Party to the Convention; the REIO can vote at CITES meetings with the number of votes representing the number of members in the REIO, but it does not have an additional vote. In accordance with Article XVII, paragraph 3, of the CITES Convention, the Gaborone Amendment entered into force on 29 November 2013, 60 days after 54 (tw
The Phrynosomatidae are a diverse family of lizards, sometimes classified as a subfamily, found from Panama to the extreme south of Canada. Many members of the group are adapted to life in hot, sandy deserts, although the spiny lizards prefer rocky deserts or relatively moist forest edges, the short-horned lizard lives in prairie or sagebrush environments; the group includes both egg-laying and viviparous species, with the latter being more common in species living at high elevations. The 136 species are organised into 9 genera in this subfamily; the earless taxa are sister genera. Family Phrynosomatidae Callisaurus Blainville, 1835 – zebra-tailed lizards Cophosaurus Troschel, 1852 – greater earless lizards Holbrookia Girard, 1851 – earless lizards Petrosaurus Boulenger, 1885 – California rock lizards Phrynosoma Wiegmann, 1828 – horned lizards Sceloporus Wiegmann, 1828 – spiny lizards Uma Baird, 1859 – fringe-toed lizards Urosaurus Hallowell, 1854 – tree and brush lizards Uta Baird & Girard, 1852 – side-blotched lizards Data related to Phrynosomatidae at Wikispecies Media related to Phrynosomatidae at Wikimedia Commons Phrynosomatidae Family