Coat of arms of the Faroe Islands
The coat of arms of the Faroe Islands first appears on one of the medieval chairs in Kirkjubøur from around the 15th century. It depicts a silver ram passant with golden hooves and horns on an azure shield, uses show a ram in a seal used by the Løgrættumenn, members of the Old Faroese law Court, the Løgting. In 1948, the coat of arms came into use again after the Home Rule Act came into force, not by the Løgting, the old title Løgmaður had been reestablished, but this time as the leader of the government, and the coat of arms followed him. On 1 April 2004, the Prime Ministers Office announced that from on that it would use a new version of the coat of arms and this new interpretation was based on the original found depicted on the chairs from Kirkjubøur. The colours were inspired from the Faroese flag Merkið, and golden yellow was added, the new coat of arms depicts a ram on a blue shield ready to defend. It can be used by Cabinet Ministries and by official Faroese representatives, though some still use the old symbol
In heraldic achievements, the helmet or helm is situated above the shield and bears the torse and crest. The style of helmet displayed varies according to rank and social status, in some traditions, especially German and Nordic heraldry, two or three helmets may be used in a single achievement of arms, each representing a fief to which the bearer has a right. For this reason, the helmets and crests in German and Nordic arms are considered to be essential to the coat of arms and are never separated from it. Open-visored or barred helmets are typically reserved to the highest ranks of nobility, while lesser nobility, while these classifications remained relatively constant, the specific forms of all these helmets varied and evolved over time. The evolution of these heraldic helmets followed the evolution of combat techniques, the practice of indicating rank through the display of barred or open-face helmets did not appear until around 1615, long after the practice of heraldry had been established.
These barred helmets were restricted by the chancellery in Vienna to the nobility and certain doctors of law or theology. The direction a helmet faces and the number of bars on the grille have been ascribed special significance in manuals, a kings helmet, a golden helmet shown affronté with the visor raised, crowned with a royal crown, became adopted by the kings of Prussia. In ecclesiastical heraldry and other use a mitre or other rank-appropriate ecclesiastical hat in place of a helmet. In continental Europe, multiple helmets were usually turned inward, with the center helm turned affrontê, the arms of the last margraves of Brandenburg-Ansbach consist of a shield with 21 quarterings topped with a record thirteen helmets and crests. In the Roman Catholic Church, clerics entitled to a coat of arms use a instead of a helmet. ISBN 0-07-046308-5 Woodcock, John Martin Robinson, ISBN 0-19-211658-4 Media related to Heraldic helmets at Wikimedia Commons
Portcullises fortified the entrances to many medieval castles, securely closing off the castle during time of attack or siege. Every portcullis was mounted in vertical grooves in the walls of the castle, two portcullises to the main entrance would be used. The one closer to the inside would be closed first, and this was used to trap the enemy, and often, burning wood or fire-heated sand would be dropped onto them from the roof or murder-holes. Hot oil, was not commonly used in this manner, contrary to popular belief, arrowslits in the sides of the walls enabled archers and crossbowmen to eliminate the trapped group of attackers. In England, working portcullises survive at the Tower of London, Monk Bar in York, Amberley Castle, since then, the portcullis has been a moderately common motif of English heraldry, especially that heraldry dating from the Tudor period. The heraldic office of Portcullis Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary, a officer of arms in the College of Arms at London. It is through Lord Charles Somerset, son of the 5th Duke of Beaufort, Somerset established several towns during his governorship at the Cape Colony and named them for his family.
These include Worcester, Somerset West, Fort Beaufort and Beaufort West, institutions that derive the portcullis from these arms include a school, chamber of commerce and a rugby club. Other South African coats of arms include a portcullis are not necessarily related to either Lord Somerset or any of the town named for. A portcullis—fitted well with the scheme, since then, the portcullis has become the primary symbol of Parliament, an office building for Members of Parliament, opened in 2001, is named Portcullis House. A portcullis was previously found on the British one penny coin and on the pre-decimal thrupenny bit, the badge of the Canada Border Services Agency bore a portcullis, symbolising the agencys role as gatekeeper of goods into Canada. Though these do not appear in gateways of castles unless the blazon specifies them and it is often shown with chains attached, even when the blazon does not mention them. Arrow slit Castle Hoarding Machicolation Murder-hole Sally port Yett Kaufmann, J. E.
Kaufmann, the Medieval Fortress, Castles and Walled Cities of the Middle Ages
Coat of arms of Greenland
The coat of arms of Greenland is a blue shield featuring a silver polar bear. This symbol was first introduced in the coat of arms of Denmark in 1666, in a Danish context, the bear was originally shown walking naturally, but an upright position was specified in 1819. The 1470 London Roll shows an arms captioned Le Roy de Greneland featuring a shield depicting a polar bear surrounded by three birds and this royal title did not reflect any official title, but merely that the arms could be used by anyone controlling Greenland. The version currently used by the government of Greenland was designed by Greenlandic artist Jens Rosing, the polar bear symbolizes the fauna of Greenland and the blue colour designates the Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean Greenland is washed by. A similar arms is used by the official Danish government representative in Greenland, in this case, the bear raises its right paw, and the shield is crowned with the royal crown. The official Danish specification of the arms does not specify which forepaw is raised, the adherents of the full independence of Greenland use a green background.
A blazon in heraldic terms is, Azure, a bear rampant argent
The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary, and vary from country to country and era to era. There is often a variety of ranks within the noble class. g, san Marino and the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles often distinguish nobles from non-nobles, although in many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, some countries have had non-hereditary nobility, such as the Empire of Brazil. The term derives from Latin nobilitas, the noun of the adjective nobilis. In modern usage, nobility is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies and it rapidly came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. Nobility is a historical and often legal notion, differing from high socio-economic status in that the latter is based on income. Being wealthy or influential cannot, ipso facto, make one noble, various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens.
Not all of the benefits of nobility derived from noble status per se, usually privileges were granted or recognised by the monarch in association with possession of a specific title, office or estate. Most nobles wealth derived from one or more estates, large or small and it included infrastructure such as castle and mill to which local peasants were allowed some access, although often at a price. Nobles were expected to live nobly, that is, from the proceeds of these possessions, work involving manual labour or subordination to those of lower rank was either forbidden or frowned upon socially. In some countries, the lord could impose restrictions on such a commoners movements. Nobles exclusively enjoyed the privilege of hunting, in France, nobles were exempt from paying the taille, the major direct tax. In some parts of Europe the right of war long remained the privilege of every noble. During the early Renaissance, duelling established the status of a respectable gentleman, Nobility came to be associated with social rather than legal privilege, expressed in a general expectation of deference from those of lower rank.
By the 21st century even that deference had become increasingly minimised, in France, a seigneurie might include one or more manors surrounded by land and villages subject to a nobles prerogatives and disposition. Seigneuries could be bought, sold or mortgaged, if erected by the crown into, e. g. a barony or countship, it became legally entailed for a specific family, which could use it as their title. Yet most French nobles were untitled, in other parts of Europe, sovereign rulers arrogated to themselves the exclusive prerogative to act as fons honorum within their realms. Nobility might be inherited or conferred by a fons honorum
In heraldry, an escutcheon is a shield that forms the main or focal element in an achievement of arms. The word is used in two related senses, firstly, as the shield on which a coat of arms is displayed. Escutcheon shapes are derived from actual shields used by knights in combat, other shapes are in use, such as the roundel commonly used for arms granted to Aboriginal Canadians by the Canadian Heraldic Authority. Secondly, a shield can itself be a charge within a coat of arms, more often, a smaller shield is placed over the middle of the main shield as a form of marshalling. In either case, the shield is usually given the same shape as the main shield. When there is one such shield, it is sometimes called an inescutcheon. The word escutcheon is derived from Middle English escochon, from Anglo-Norman escuchon, from Vulgar Latin scūtiōn-, from Latin scūtum, from its use in heraldry, escutcheon can be a metaphor for a familys honour. The idiom a blot on the escutcheon is used to mean a stain on somebodys reputation, by about 1250 the shields used in warfare were almost triangular in shape, referred to as heater shields.
That on the monument to the latters grandfather Geoffrey V. This almost equilateral shape is used as a setting for armorials from this classical age of heraldry. In the Tudor era the heraldic escutcheon took the shape of an inverted Tudor arch, continental European designs frequently use the various forms used in jousting, which incorporate mouths used as lance rests into the shields, such escutcheons are known as à bouche. The mouth is correctly shown on the side only, as jousting pitches were designed for right-handed knights. Heraldic examples of English shields à bouche can be seen in the spandrels of the timber roof of Lincolns Inn Hall. In this case the lozenge is without crest or helm, again objects of manly warfare, for the practical purpose of categorisation the lozenge may be treated as a variety of heraldic escutcheon. In general a female was represented by her paternal arms impaled by the arms of her husband on an escutcheon, in modern Canadian heraldry, and certain other modern heraldic jurisdictions, women may be granted their own arms and display these on an escutcheon.
Life peeresses in England display their arms on a lozenge, an oval or cartouche is occasionally used instead of the lozenge for armigerous women. Divorced women may theoretically until remarriage use their ex-husbands arms differenced with a mascle, the lozenge shape of quasi-escutcheon is used for funerary hatchments for both men and women. Pretoria High School for Girls in South Africa is one of the few schools that was granted permission to use the lozenge as part of its coat of arms
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
The lion is a common charge in heraldry. It traditionally symbolises bravery, royalty, stateliness, Lion refers to a Judeo Christian symbolism. The Lion of Judah stands in the coat of arms of the city of Jerusalem, similar looking lion can be found e. g. In the coat of arms of the Republic of Finland, symmetrically paired animals in particular find continuation from Migration Period art via Insular art to Romanesque art and heraldry. The animals of the predecessors of heraldic designs are likely to have been used as clan symbols. Adopted in Germanic tradition around the 5th century, they were re-interpreted in a Christian context in the kingdoms of Gaul. It was a predecessor of the medieval bestiaries, the lion as a heraldic charge is present from the very earliest development of heraldry in the 12th century. One of the earliest known examples of armory as it came to be practiced can be seen on the tomb of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou. An enamel, probably commissioned by Geoffreys widow between 1155 and 1160, depicts him carrying a shield decorated six golden lions rampant.
A chronicle dated to c.1175 states that Geoffrey was given a shield of this description when he was knighted by his father-in-law, Henry I, in 1128. Since Henry was the son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, it seems reasonable to suppose that the adoption of lions as an emblem by Henry or his sons might have been inspired by Geoffreys shield. Richard is credited with having originated the English crest of a lion statant, unlike the eagle, which is comparatively rare in heraldry because it was reserved as an imperial symbol, the lion became a symbol of chivalry and was not restricted to royal coats of arms. The Zürich armorial has a number of coats of arms with lions, the lion in the coat of arms of Bohemia is depicted with two tails. According to Ménestrier, this is due to a jest made by Emperor Frederick, who granted Vladislaus II, Duke of Bohemia a coat of arms with a lion coué, that is, with its tail between its legs. Vladislaus men refused to follow this emblem, calling it an ape, so that Frederick agreed to improve the arms by giving the lion not just one but two erect tails.
One distinction commonly made, although it may be of limited importance, is the distinction of lions in the positions as leopards. The following table summarizes the principal attitudes of heraldic lions, Other terms are used to describe the position in further detail. The lions head is seen in agreement with the overall position
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Coat of arms of Iceland
The coat of arms of Iceland displays a silver-edged, red cross on blue shield. This alludes to the design of the flag of Iceland, the supporters are the four protectors of Iceland standing on a pahoehoe lava block. Great respect was given to creatures of Iceland, so much that there was a law during the time of the Vikings that no ship should bear grimacing symbols when approaching Iceland. This was so the protectors would not be provoked unnecessarily, the landvættir decorate the obverse of the Icelandic króna coins, but animals of the ocean appear on the reverse. The Icelandic presidency uses a swallowtailed Icelandic flag with the coat of arms, the National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police uses a white flag with the coat of arms, when the use of the State flag is not warranted, and some other state services do as well. The second one is believed to be the one that was given to Earl Gissur Þorvaldsson by the King of Norway, Hákon Hákonarson, in 1258. It was patterned on the Kings own coat of arms, exchanging the colours of the shield with the colour of the lion and adding the blue, circa 1500, the Icelandic coat of arms became a crowned stockfish on a red shield.
It is known as the Þorskmerkið and the fish was depicted occasionally in a variant form, on October 3,1903, the coat of arms of Iceland was changed to a white falcon on a blue shield. It remained in use until the first version of the coat of arms with the landvættir became official on February 12,1919 and this lasted until Iceland became a republic. When the republic was declared on June 17,1944, the coat of arms was redesigned, removing the Danish crown, flag of Iceland Icelandic heraldry The Icelandic Prime Ministers Office on the coat of arms Official website of the President of Iceland on national heraldry
Coat of arms of Denmark
The national coat of arms of Denmark consists of three pale blue lions passant wearing crowns, accompanied by nine red lilypads, all in a golden shield. It is historically the coat of arms of the House of Estridsen, the current design was introduced in 1819, under Frederick VI. Previously, there had no distinction between the national and the royal coat of arms. Since 1819, there has been a more complex royal coat of arms of Denmark separate from the coat of arms. The oldest known depiction of the dates from a seal used by King Canute VI c. The oldest documentation for the dates from c. Historically, the lions faced the viewer and the number of hearts was not regulated, the heart shapes originally represented waterlily pads, a royal decree of 1972 still specifies these figures as søblade. The current design was adopted in 1819 during the reign of King Frederick VI who fixed the number of hearts to nine and decreed that the beasts were lions. A rare version exists from the reign of king Eric of Pomerania in which the three lions jointly hold the Danish banner, in a fashion as in the coat of arms of the former South Jutland County.
1960, Denmark used both a small and a coat of arms, similar to the system still used in Sweden. The latter symbol held wide use within the government administration, e. g. by the Foreign Ministry. Since this time, the symbol has been classified as the coat of arms of the royal family, leaving Denmark with only one national coat of arms. The crown on the shield is a construction based on the crown of King Christian V. The main difference from the crown is that the latter is covered with table cut diamonds rather than pearls. Both crowns, and other insignia, are located in Rosenborg Castle in Copenhagen. The blazon in heraldic terms is, Or, three lions passant in pale Azure crowned and armed Or langued Gules, nine hearts Gules. The main differences are as follows, In the Danish coat of arms the lions are crowned, face forward, in the Estonian coat of arms, the leopards face the viewer, they are not crowned, and no hearts are present. The coat of arms of Tallinn resembles the Estonian arms, and it shows great similarities with the contemporary insignia of Englands Richard the Lionheart and the current arms of the German state of Baden-Württemberg
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government