Deforestation in Costa Rica
Deforestation is a major threat to biodiversity and ecosystems in Costa Rica. The country has a rich biodiversity with some 12,000 species of plants, 1,239 species of butterflies, 838 species of birds, 440 species of reptiles and amphibians, 232 species of mammals, which have been under threat from deforestation. Deforestation in Costa Rica has a serious impact on the environment and therefore may directly or indirectly contribute to flooding, sedimentation in rivers, loss of wildlife diversity, the obvious sheer loss of timber. Since the end of World War II 80% of the forests of Costa Rica have disappeared. 20,000 acres of land are deforested annually. As the population grew, the people of Costa Rica cut down the forests to provide for pastureland for cattle ranching to produce beef for the world market to raise revenue. Since the 1950s 60% of Costa Rica has been cleared to make room for cattle ranching; the problem was worsened because during the 1960s, the United States offered Costa Rican cattle ranchers millions of dollars in loans to produce beef.
The deforestation of Costa Rica's tropical rain forests as in other countries is a threat to life worldwide with a profound effect on the global climate. Soil erosion has increased with deforestation with the topsoil washed away from the hills into the streams and out into the oceans, year after year. Over half of Costa Rica's existing forest cover today is under the protection of national parks, biological reserves, or wildlife refuges. However, the major problem in regards to deforestation is the owned plots which occupy the other half. Lenient laws on land and amendments to forestry law makes it easy to obtain logging concessions as owners exploit the land to maximise income; as logging companies enter these forests to exploit them, they require access roads to transport the timber. While cattle ranching is by far the primary cause of deforestation in Costa Rica, banana plantations have significantly contributed to the problem. Lowland rainforest has been most affected where 130,000 acres of forested land have been removed.
Such industries have been synonymous with health risks, notably the high levels of toxic pesticides which affected thousands of plantation workers throughout Central America in the 1970s. Pesticides used to grow bananas and other fruits such as mangoes and citrus fruit may enter the hydrological systems and contaminate the water; the removal of the forest to make way for these fruit plantations may disrupt the nutrient balance in the soil and through monoculture exhaust the soils and render them unsustainable. Although most of the larger plantations in Costa Rica are owned by large companies multinationals, population pressure in Costa Rica has increased the demand for land among farmers who are forced to venture out onto new land to deforest and farm and compete over scraps of land. While certain conservation laws have been passed in Costa Rica, the government lacks the resources to enforce them; the amount of Costa Rican land deforested annually has declined since 1977: The conservation program in Costa Rica is ambitious and is one of the most developed among tropical rainforest countries.
The country has a high level of biodiversity and different eco-zones within a small area. For example one of the country's protected areas is a strip of forest which runs for 40 miles through nine ecological zones from sea level to 12,500 feet. In 1995, the government introduced further protected areas, a further 13% of the country was put under protection through owned preserves those with high biodiversity; the National Bamboo Project of Costa Rica was founded in 1986 to help decrease deforestation. The scheme aims at reducing deforestation by means of replacing timber with bamboo as a primary building material and providing low cost housing for Costa Rica's rural poor. By cultivating and building with Guadua species, indigenous giant bamboos, the National Bamboo Project was able to raise thousands of new homes for the poor, benefit the environment, advance bamboo-based building technology. In a number of parts of Costa Rica, areas that were bare ten years ago have now been reforested. Many non-government conservation organizations are working in the country to prevent deforestation and further these efforts of preservation and restoration.
The country has significantly taken advantage of ecotourism, taking the initiative to raise revenue through tourism while still protecting the forests. Today, while deforestation rates have declined from the 1990s with increased conservation efforts and such schemes, the remaining forests still face threats from illegal logging in protected areas and land cleared for agriculture and cattle pasture in unprotected areas. Corruption exists in Costa Rica, but this problem is much lower than in many other Latin American countries. Decentralized decision-making is being practiced in Costa Rica to improve protected area management and biodiversity conservation. Costa Rica stands out among all developing tropical countries for its commitment toward environmental and natural resources issues; the central government has developed a protected area system that has given some kind of protected status to 25% of its national territory. In the mid-nineties the Costa Rican government started to decentralize management and decision-making of all protected areas in the country to promote locally based biodiversity conservation governance.
All protected areas were grouped in eleven regionally based administrative units and were labeled as conservation areas. The central g
The Phrygian cap or liberty cap is a soft conical cap with the apex bent over, associated in antiquity with several peoples in Eastern Europe and Anatolia, including Phrygia and the Balkans. In early modern Europe it came to signify freedom and the pursuit of liberty through a confusion with the pileus, the felt cap of manumitted slaves of ancient Rome. In artistic representations it signifies the pursuit of liberty, it is used in the coat of arms of certain republics or of republican state institutions in the place where otherwise a crown would be used. It thus came to be identified as a symbol of the republican form of government. A number of national personifications, in particular France's Marianne, are depicted wearing the Phrygian cap. By the 4th century BC the Phrygian cap was associated with Phrygian Attis, the consort of Cybele, the cult of which had by become graecified. At around the same time, the cap appears in depictions of the legendary king Midas and other Phrygians in Greek vase-paintings and sculpture.
Such images predate the earliest surviving literary references to the cap. By extension, the Phrygian cap came to be applied to several other non-Greek-speaking peoples as well. Most notable of these extended senses of "Phrygian" were the Trojans and other western Anatolian peoples, who in Greek perception were synonymous with the Phrygians, whose heroes Paris and Ganymede were all depicted with a Phrygian cap. Other Greek earthenware of antiquity depict Amazons and so-called "Scythian" archers with Phrygian caps. Although these are military depictions, the headgear is distinguished from "Phrygian helmets" by long ear flaps, the figures are identified as "barbarians" by their trousers; the headgear appears in 2nd-century BC Boeotian Tanagra figurines of an effeminate Eros, in various 1st-century BC statuary of the Commagene, in eastern Anatolia. Greek representations of Thracians regularly appear with Phrygian caps, most notably Bendis, the Thracian goddess of the moon and the hunt, Orpheus, a legendary Thracian poet and musician.
While the Phrygian cap was of wool or soft leather, in pre-Hellenistic times the Greeks had developed a military helmet that had a characteristic flipped-over tip. These so-called "Phrygian helmets" were of bronze and in prominent use in Thrace, Magna Graecia and the rest of the Hellenistic world from the 5th century BC up to Roman times. Due to their superficial similarity, the cap and helmet are difficult to distinguish in Greek art unless the headgear is identified as a soft flexible cap by long earflaps or a long neck flap. Confusingly similar are the depictions of the helmets used by cavalry and light infantry, whose headgear – aside from the traditional alopekis caps of fox skin – included stiff leather helmets in imitation of the bronze ones; the Greek concept passed to the Romans in its extended sense, thus encompassed not only to Phrygians or Trojans, but the other near-neighbours of the Greeks. On Trajan's Column, which commemorated Trajan's epic wars with the Dacians, the Phrygian cap adorns the heads of Trajan's Dacian prisoners.
The prisoner, accompanying Trajan in the monumental, 3 m tall statue of Trajan in the ancient Turkish city of Laodicea, is wearing a Phrygian Cap. Parthians appear with Phrygian caps in the 2nd-century Arch of Septimius Severus, which commemorates Roman victories over the Parthian Empire. With Phrygians caps, but for Gauls, appear in 2nd-century friezes built into the 4th century Arch of Constantine; the Phrygian cap reappears in figures related to the first to fourth century religion Mithraism. This astrology-centric Roman mystery cult projected itself with pseudo-Oriental trappings in order to distinguish itself from both traditional Roman religion and from the other mystery cults. In the artwork of the cult, the figures of the god Mithras as well as those of his helpers Cautes and Cautopates are depicted with a Phrygian cap; the function of the Phrygian cap in the cult are unknown, but it is conventionally identified as an accessory of its perserie. Early Christian art build on the same Greco-Roman perceptions of Zoroaster and his "Magi" as experts in the arts of astrology and magic, depict the "three wise men" with Phrygian caps.
In late Republican Rome, a soft felt cap called the pileus served as a symbol of freemen, was symbolically given to slaves upon manumission, thereby granting them not only their personal liberty, but libertas— freedom as citizens, with the right to vote. Following the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC, Brutus and his co-conspirators instrumentalized this symbolism of the pileus to signify the end of Caesar's dictatorship and a return to the republican system; these Roman associations of the pileus with liberty and republicanism were carried forward to the 18th-century, when the pileus was confused with the Phrygian cap, with the Phrygian cap becoming a symbol of those values. In revolutionary FranceIn 1675, the anti-tax and anti-nobility Stamp-Paper revolt erupted in Brittany and north-western France, where it became known as the bonnets rouges uprising after the blue or red caps worn by the insurgents. Although the insurgents are not known to have preferr
Philip II of Spain
Philip II was King of Spain, King of Portugal, King of Naples and Sicily, jure uxoris King of England and Ireland. He was Duke of Milan. From 1555 he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands; the son of Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V and Isabella of Portugal, Philip was called "Felipe el Prudente" in Spain. During his reign, Spain reached the height of its power; this is sometimes called the Spanish Golden Age. The expression "the empire on which the sun never sets" was coined during Philip's time to reflect the extent of his dominion. During Philip's reign there were separate state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1569, 1575, 1596; this was the cause of the declaration of independence that created the Dutch Republic in 1581. On 31 December 1584 Philip signed the Treaty of Joinville, with Henry I, Duke of Guise signing on behalf of the Catholic League. A devout Catholic, Philip saw himself as the defender of Catholic Europe against the Ottoman Empire and the Protestant Reformation.
He sent a large armada to invade Protestant England in 1588, with the strategic aim of overthrowing Elizabeth I of England and the establishment of Protestantism in England. He hoped to stop both English interference in the Spanish Netherlands and the harm caused to Spanish interests by English and Dutch privateering. Philip was described by the Venetian ambassador Paolo Fagolo in 1563 as "slight of stature and round-faced, with pale blue eyes, somewhat prominent lip, pink skin, but his overall appearance is attractive"; the Ambassador went on to say "He dresses tastefully, everything that he does is courteous and gracious." Besides Mary I, Philip was married three other times and widowed four times. The son of Charles I and V, King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor and his wife, Isabella of Portugal, Philip was born in the Spanish capital of Valladolid on 21 May 1527 at Palacio de Pimentel, owned by Don Bernardino Pimentel; the culture and courtly life of Spain were an important influence in his early life.
He was tutored by the future Archbishop of Toledo. Philip displayed reasonable aptitude in letters alike, he would study with more illustrious tutors, including the humanist Juan Cristóbal Calvete de Estrella. Though Philip had good command over Latin and Portuguese, he never managed to equal his father, Charles V, as a polyglot. While Philip was a German archduke of the House of Habsburg, he was seen as a foreigner in the Holy Roman Empire; the feeling was mutual. Philip felt himself to be culturally Spanish; this would impede his succession to the imperial throne. In April 1528, when Philip was eleven months old, he received the oath of allegiance as heir to the crown from the Cortes of Castile. From that time until the death of his mother Isabella in 1539, he was raised in the royal court of Castile under the care of his mother and one of her Portuguese ladies, Dona Leonor de Mascarenhas, to whom he was devotedly attached. Philip was close to his two sisters, María and Juana, to his two pages, the Portuguese nobleman Rui Gomes da Silva and Luis de Requesens, the son of his governor Juan de Zúñiga.
These men would serve Philip throughout their lives, as would Antonio Pérez, his secretary from 1541. Philip's martial training was undertaken by his governor, Juan de Zúñiga, a Castilian nobleman who served as the commendador mayor of Castile; the practical lessons in warfare were overseen by the Duke of Alba during the Italian Wars. Philip was present at the Siege of Perpignan in 1542 but did not see action as the Spanish army under Alba decisively defeated the besieging French forces under the Dauphin of France. On his way back to Castile, Philip received the oath of allegiance of the Aragonese Cortes at Monzón, his political training had begun a year under his father, who had found his son studious and prudent beyond his years, having decided to train and initiate him in the government of Spain. The king-emperor's interactions with his son during his stay in Spain convinced him of Philip's precocity in statesmanship, so he determined to leave in his hands the regency of Spain in 1543. Philip, made the Duke of Milan in 1540, began governing the most extensive empire in the world at the young age of sixteen.
Charles left Philip with experienced advisors—notably the secretary Francisco de los Cobos and the general Duke of Alba. Philip was left with extensive written instructions that emphasised "piety, patience and distrust." These principles of Charles were assimilated by his son, who would grow up to become grave, self-possessed and cautious. Philip spoke and had an icy self-mastery. After living in the Netherlands in the early years of his reign, Philip II decided to return to Spain. Although sometimes described as an absolute monarch, Philip faced many constitutional constraints on his authority, influenced by the growing strength of the bureaucracy; the Spanish Empire was not a single monarchy with one legal system but a federation of separate r
San José, Costa Rica
San José is the capital and largest city of Costa Rica. Located in the mid-west of the Central Valley, San José is the seat of national government, the focal point of political and economic activity, the major transportation hub of this Central American nation; the population of San José Canton was 288,054 in 2011, San José’s municipal land area measures 44.2 square kilometers, an estimated 333,980 residents in 2015. The metropolitan area stretches beyond the canton limits and has an estimated population of over 2 million in 2017; the city is named in honor of Joseph of Nazareth. Though few people live in the city center, it is the most important working area of the country, which brings in more than a million people daily. According to studies on Latin America, San José is one of the safest and least violent cities in the region. In 2006, the city was appointed Ibero-American Capital of Culture. San José is the sixth-most important destination in Latin America, according to The MasterCard Global Destinations Cities Index 2012.
San José ranked 15th in the world’s fastest-growing destination cities by visitor cross-border spending. The population of San José grew during the eighteenth-century colonization planning, different from the traditional foundation plans of Spanish cities in the continent of Central America. Founded in 1736 by order of Cabildo de León, its objective was to concentrate the scattered inhabitants of the Aserrí Valley. De León thus ordered the construction of a chapel near the area known as La Boca del Monte, completed a year later; that year St. Joseph was chosen as parish patron, hence its current name; the chapel, modest, was erected with help from the church of Cartago. Unlike neighboring Cartago San José was not founded by formal decree and thus lacked a city government, it was not until the enactment of the Constitution of Cádiz in 1812 when San José had its first city government. On the 18th of October 1813, the area was first defined as a city by presbyter Florencio del Castillo, on behalf of the Spanish government, title, lost in 1814 when Ferdinand VII of Spain annulled the proceedings of the courts.
The municipal government was restored in 1820 along with the title of city and in 1823 San José became the capital of Costa Rica. This makes. Population and economic growth were spurred by improvements in access to water and the installment of the Tobacco Factory in 1782; the accumulation of capital brought by tobacco plantations allowed the city to economically surpass neighboring provinces. The first modern urban neighborhood carries the name of his founder, the French coffee entrepreneur Monsieur Amon, was created in the late 19th century, in line with Belle Époque contemporary architecture. Barrio Amon, as well as the National Theatre, remain symbols of the so-called Costa Rican coffee golden age. Today San José is a modern city with bustling commerce and brisk expressions of art and architecture. Spurred by the country's improved tourism industry, it is a significant destination and stopover for foreign visitors. San José exerts a strong influence because of its proximity to other cities and the country's demographic assemblage in the Central Valley.
Costa Rica has developed high education levels. As of 2011 97.6% of the population over 10 was literate, 96% of children aged 6-11 attend primary school and 71% of students of high-school age attend high-school. The country as a whole has the highest education levels in Central America and one of the best in Latin America; this is true for San José, the nation's educational hub home to a large number of public and private universities. University of Santo Tomas, the first university of Costa Rica was established here in 1843; that institution maintained close ties with the Roman Catholic Church and was closed in 1888 by the progressive and anti-clerical government of President Bernardo Soto Alfaro as part of a campaign to modernize public education. The schools of law, fine arts, pharmacy continued to operate independently, but Costa Rica had no university proper until 1940, when those four schools were re-united to establish the modern University of Costa Rica, during the reformist administration of President Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia.
The city's public education system is composed of pre-schools and high schools, which are located in all of the city's districts and are under the supervision of the Ministry of Public Education. Private institutions do exist within the city; these educational institutions range from pre-schools to universities. Most tend to be bilingual, teaching subjects in either French or English and Spanish, among other languages, apart from just teaching a certain language. San José is one of Latin America's safer cities; as of 19 June 2012, both nation reduced their crime indices considerably. Nationwide, crime was reduced from 12.5 to 9.5 incidents per 100,000 inhabitants. In 2012, new police equipment was issued by the government, the security budget was increased. President Laura Chinchilla's government has donated vehicles and other equipment to the police department on at least two occasions; the city's greater metropolitan area serves as the headquarters of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights.
The capital is made up of 5 districts: Catedral, Hospital, Mata Redonda, Merced. And three districts partially: Pavas, Zapote. San José has several internal transportation networks that connect the city districts and metropolitan area.
Provinces of Costa Rica
According to Article 168 of the Constitution of Costa Rica, the political divisions are classified into 3 tiers of sub-national entities. The Constitution of Costa Rica states, "For Public Administration purposes, the national territory is divided into provinces, these into cantons and cantons into districts." The country consists of 7 provinces, 81 cantons, 473 districts. ISO 3166-2:CR Cantons of Costa Rica Districts of Costa Rica Media related to Provinces of Costa Rica at Wikimedia Commons
It is known as the Liberal State the historical period in Costa Rica that occurred between 1870 and 1940. It responded to the hegemonic dominion in the political and economic aspects of liberal philosophy, it is considered a period of transcendental importance in Costa Rican history, as it's when the consolidation of the National State and its institutions takes place. The arrival of the Liberals in power meant a profound change that affected all the essential aspects of Costa Rican politics, economy and culture. During this stage of national history, the development of a capitalist economy based on an agro-export model allowed Costa Rica its insertion in the world market and the generation of the necessary resources to develop its institutions and create infrastructure works, being the most significant the railroad to the Atlantic; the consolidation of coffee exports first, in the mid and late nineteenth century, those of banana, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as engines of national development, will generate a series of cultural changes that will give the Costa Rican nation much of its current physiognomy.
The consolidation of an agro-export bourgeoisie allied to foreign capital triggered a series of social changes that will impel the working class to fight for a series of social reforms that will be consolidated towards the end of the period. In 1870, Jesús Jiménez Zamora was overthrown by Tomás Guardia Gutiérrez, who called a new National Constituent Assembly to draft a new Constitution in 1871, this being the longest running carta magna in the history of the country until 1949. Guardia set the presidential term in four years. In 1876 Aniceto Esquivel Sáenz was elected, with Guardia as head of the army and always having control of the country, taking power again in 1880. Guardia led a progressive government; the concession for the construction of the first railway to the Atlantic began, commissioned to the American engineer Minor Cooper Keith, which also unleashed the exploitation of bananas as an export resource. At this time the first massive immigrations of Italian and Chinese to work in the construction of the railroad begin.
Guardia died in office and was succeeded by Próspero Fernández Oreamuno, who prepared the country for an eventual war against the intentions of Guatemalan General Justo Rufino Barrios, to reunify Central America by force, but with the death of Barrios war was avoided. In his government new civil and fiscal codes were drafted. Fernandez expelled from the country, in 1884, the Jesuits, together with Bishop Bernardo Augusto Thiel, accusing the clergy of having political interference. Upon the death of Fernandez in office, the government passed to Bernardo Soto Alfaro, who dedicated his management to the cultural and material development of the country. During his government, the work of Mauro Fernández Acuña, who founded the Normal School for teacher training, signed the General Law of Common Education, which expanded secondary education, as well as the foundation of the Liceo de Costa Rica, the Institute of Alajuela and the Superior School of Ladies between 1887 and 1888, the closure of the University of Santo Tomás.
In 1887, the National Museum of Costa Rica was created. During this decade the national telephone service was inaugurated. In 1888, civil marriage and divorce were introduced, as well as the secularization of cemeteries. During the government of Soto, the Red Cross was established in the country and the national lottery was created to finance hospitals. After the elections of 1889, the government of Soto tried to ignore the result that gave the victory, overwhelmingly, to José Joaquín Rodríguez Zeledón. On November 7 of that year, the entire population, under the leadership of Rafael Yglesias Castro, rose up in favor of Rodríguez's electoral triumph in the first civic and popular day of Costa Rican history, so that day is remembered as the Day of the Costa Rican Democracy. Soto preferred to depart from power rather than repress the population, handing over the government to Dr. Carlos Durán Cartín, first appointed, who six months gave the government to Rodriguez; the government of Rodríguez Zeledón was characterized by arbitrary actions in the exercise of its functions.
During his government the monument to Juan Santamaría was inaugurated. He was succeeded by Rafael Yglesias Castro, whose administration was progressive. In its management, the National Monument of Costa Rica, the School of Fine Arts and the National Theater were inaugurated, the Gold Standard was implanted, the construction of the railroad to the Pacific began and many other works of progress were made. In 1899, the transnational company United Fruit Company was founded, which came to control the production and export of bananas during the following century, whose presence was the trigger for important social movements in the 20th century. During the second period of Rafael Yglesias, in 1900, the tramway was inaugurated in San José, the first Costa Rican novels were published and the first car was introduced, property of Enrique Carranza. In 1902, Yglesias was succeeded by Ascensión Esquivel Ibarra, whose government was austere and with a severe saving. During this government, the current letter of the National Anthem, written by José María Zeledón Brenes, was adopted.
In 1906 began the first term of Cleto González Víquez, who expanded the pipe of San José and those of other cities. He was concerned about public hygiene and municipal services, he finished the railway to the Pacific. He was succeeded by Ricardo Jiménez
Nicaragua the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the northwest, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest. Managua is the country's capital and largest city and is the third-largest city in Central America, behind Tegucigalpa and Guatemala City; the multi-ethnic population of six million includes people of indigenous, European and Asian heritage. The main language is Spanish. Indigenous tribes on the Mosquito Coast speak English. Inhabited by various indigenous cultures since ancient times, the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century. Nicaragua gained independence from Spain in 1821; the Mosquito Coast followed a different historical path, with the English colonizing it in the 17th century and coming under the British rule, as well as some minor Spanish interludes in the 19th century. It became an autonomous territory of Nicaragua in 1860 and the northernmost part of it was transferred to Honduras in 1960.
Since its independence, Nicaragua has undergone periods of political unrest, dictatorship and fiscal crisis, leading to the Nicaraguan Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s and the Contra War of the 1980s. The mixture of cultural traditions has generated substantial diversity in folklore, cuisine and literature the latter given the literary contributions of Nicaraguan poets and writers, such as Rubén Darío. Known as the "land of lakes and volcanoes", Nicaragua is home to the second-largest rainforest of the Americas; the country has set a goal of 90% renewable energy by the year 2020. The biological diversity, warm tropical climate and active volcanoes make Nicaragua an popular tourist destination. There are two prevailing theories on; the first is that the name was coined by Spanish colonists based on the name Nicarao, the chieftain or cacique of a powerful indigenous tribe encountered by the Spanish conquistador Gil González Dávila during his entry into southwestern Nicaragua in 1522. This theory holds that the name Nicaragua was formed from Nicarao and agua, to reference the fact that there are two large lakes and several other bodies of water within the country.
However, as of 2002, it was determined that the cacique's real name was Macuilmiquiztli, which meant "Five Deaths" in the Nahuatl language, rather than Nicarao. The second theory is that the country's name comes from any of the following Nahuatl words: nic-anahuac, which meant "Anahuac reached this far", or "the Nahuas came this far", or "those who come from Anahuac came this far". Paleo-Americans first inhabited what is now known as Nicaragua as far back as 12,000 BCE. In pre-Columbian times, Nicaragua's indigenous people were part of the Intermediate Area, between the Mesoamerican and Andean cultural regions, within the influence of the Isthmo-Colombian area. Nicaragua's central region and its Caribbean coast were inhabited by Macro-Chibchan language ethnic groups, they had coalesced in Central America and migrated to present-day northern Colombia and nearby areas. They lived a life based on hunting and gathering, as well as fishing, performing slash-and-burn agriculture. At the end of the 15th century, western Nicaragua was inhabited by several different indigenous peoples related by culture to the Mesoamerican civilizations of the Aztec and Maya, by language to the Mesoamerican Linguistic Area.
The Chorotegas were Mangue language ethnic groups who had arrived in Nicaragua from what is now the Mexican state of Chiapas sometime around 800 CE. The Pipil-Nicarao people were a branch of Nahuas who spoke the Nahuat dialect, like the Chorotegas, they too had come from Chiapas to Nicaragua in 1200 CE. Prior to that, the Pipil-Nicaraos had been associated with the Toltec civilization. Both the Chorotegas and the Pipil-Nicaraos were from Mexico's Cholula valley, had migrated southward. Additionally, there were trade-related colonies in Nicaragua, set up by the Aztecs starting in the 14th century. In 1502, on his fourth voyage, Christopher Columbus became the first European known to have reached what is now Nicaragua as he sailed southeast toward the Isthmus of Panama. Columbus explored the Mosquito Coast on the Atlantic side of Nicaragua but did not encounter any indigenous people. 20 years the Spaniards returned to Nicaragua, this time to its southwestern part. The first attempt to conquer Nicaragua was by the conquistador Gil González Dávila, who had arrived in Panama in January 1520.
In 1522, González Dávila ventured into the area that became known as the Rivas Department of Nicaragua. It was there that he encountered an indigenous Nahua tribe led by a chieftain named Macuilmiquiztli, whose name has sometimes been erroneously referred to as "Nicarao" or "Nicaragua". At the time, the tribe's capital city was called Quauhcapolca. González Dávila had brought along two indigenous interpreters, taught the Spanish language, thus he was able to have a discourse with Macuilmiquiztli. After exploring and gathering gold in the fertile western valleys, González Dávila and his men were attacked and driven off by the Chorotega, led by the chieftain Diriangen; the Spanish attempted to convert the tribes to Christianity. The first Spanish permanent settlements were founded in 1524; that year, the conquistador