National Socialism, more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practice associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party and Nazi Germany, as well as other far-right groups. Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying Germans as part of what Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race and it aimed to overcome social divisions and create a homogeneous society, unified on the basis of racial purity. The term National Socialism arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of socialism, the Nazi Partys precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and anti-Semitic German Workers Party, was founded on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s, Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organisation, following the Holocaust and German defeat in World War II, only a few fringe racist groups, usually referred to as neo-Nazis, still describe themselves as following National Socialism. The full name of Adolf Hitlers party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, the shorthand Nazi was formed from the first two syllables of the German pronunciation of the word national.
The term was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a peasant, characterizing an awkward. It derived from Ignaz, being a version of Ignatius, a common name in Bavaria. Opponents seized on this and shortened the first word of the name, Nationalsozialistische. The NSDAP briefly adopted the Nazi designation, attempting to reappropriate the term, the use of Nazi Germany, Nazi regime, and so on was popularised by German exiles abroad. From them, the spread into other languages and was eventually brought back to Germany after World War II. In English, Nazism is a name for the ideology the party advocated. The majority of scholars identify Nazism in practice as a form of far-right politics, far-right themes in Nazism include the argument that superior people have a right to dominate over other people and purge society of supposed inferior elements. Adolf Hitler and other proponents officially portrayed Nazism as being neither left- nor right-wing, but the politicians of the Right deserve exactly the same reproach.
It was through their miserable cowardice that those ruffians of Jews who came into power in 1918 were able to rob the nation of its arms, a major inspiration for the Nazis were the far-right nationalist Freikorps, paramilitary organisations that engaged in political violence after World War I. The Nazis stated the alliance was purely tactical and there remained substantial differences with the DNVP, the Nazis described the DNVP as a bourgeois party and called themselves an anti-bourgeois party. After the elections in 1932, the alliance broke after the DNVP lost many of its seats in the Reichstag, the Nazis denounced them as an insignificant heap of reactionaries. The DNVP responded by denouncing the Nazis for their socialism, their violence. Kaiser Wilhelm II, who was pressured to abdicate the throne and flee into exile amidst an attempted communist revolution in Germany, there were factions in the Nazi Party, both conservative and radical
In heraldry, or is the tincture of gold and, together with argent, belongs to the class of light tinctures called metals, or light colours. In engravings and line drawings, it is hatched using a field of evenly spaced dots and it is very frequently depicted as yellow, though gold leaf was used in many illuminated manuscripts and more extravagant rolls of arms. The use of gold for or was a fashion amongst certain heraldic writers in the mid-20th century who attempted to demystify. Or is sometimes spelled with a letter so as not to confuse it with the conjunction or. However, this incorrect heraldic usage is not met with in standard works such as Bernard Burkes General Armory,1884. Fox-Davies advocated leaving all tinctures uncapitalized, a correctly stated blazon should eliminate any possible confusion between the tincture or and the conjunction or, certainly for the reader with a basic competence in heraldry. Sometimes, the different tinctures are said to be connected with special meanings or virtues, even if this is an idea mostly disregarded by serious heraldists throughout the centuries, it may be of anecdotal interest to see what they are, since the information is so often sought after
A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism, living either alone or with any number of other monks. The concept is ancient and can be seen in many religions, in the Greek language the term can apply to women, but in modern English it is mainly in use for men. The word nun is typically used for female monastics, although the term monachos is of Christian origin, in the English language monk tends to be used loosely for both male and female ascetics from other religious or philosophical backgrounds. However, being generic, it is not interchangeable terms that denote particular kinds of monk, such as cenobite, anchorite, hesychast. In Eastern Orthodoxy monasticism holds a special and important place. Orthodox monastics separate themselves from the world in order to pray unceasingly for the world and they do not, in general, have as their primary purpose the running of social services, but instead are concerned with attaining theosis, or union with God. However, care for the poor and needy has always been an obligation of monasticism, the level of contact though will vary from community to community.
Hermits, on the hand, have little or no contact with the outside world. Orthodox monasticism does not have religious orders as are found in the West, basil the Great and the Philokalia, which was compiled by St. Nikodemos of the Holy Mountain and St. Makarios of Corinth. Hesychasm is of importance in the ascetical theology of the Orthodox Church. Meals are usually taken in common in a dining hall known as a trapeza. Food is usually simple and is eaten in silence while one of the brethren reads aloud from the writings of the Holy Fathers. The monastic lifestyle takes a deal of serious commitment. Within the cenobitic community, all monks conform to a way of living based on the traditions of that particular monastery. In struggling to attain this conformity, the comes to realize his own shortcomings and is guided by his spiritual father in how to deal honestly with them. For this same reason, bishops are almost always chosen from the ranks of monks, Eastern monasticism is found in three distinct forms, anchoritic and the middle way between the two, known as the skete.
One normally enters a community first, and only after testing and spiritual growth would one go on to the skete or, for the most advanced. However, one is not necessarily expected to join a skete or become a solitary, in general, Orthodox monastics have little or no contact with the outside world, including their own families
Au is a district in the south eastern plain tract of the German city of Munich in Bavaria. Au extends from the Deutsches Museum in the north and along the Isar up to Wittelsbacherbrücke in the south, in the centre of the area the Auer Dult takes place three times a year on the Mariahilfplatz, which is the largest annual market in Munich. Bordering boroughs of the city are Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt and Altstadt-Lehel on the side of the Isar, Untergiesing-Harlaching in the south. The Haidhausen district lies to the east and along with Au, Au was first documented on 12 December 1340 as Awe ze Gysingen, with Awe meaning Land on water. In 1808 Au was made a town as Vorstadt Au, in 1818, along with Untergiesing, Au formed its own urban munincipality. On 1 October 1854 the district was incorporated into Munich, hans-Georg Schwarzenbeck, a 1974 World Cup champion has operated a stationery shop in Au for over 20 years. After the munincipality had been part of the city in 1808 it was given its own coat of arms on 25 July 1808 by the Royal Bavarian Landes-Commissariat.
It is likely that coat of arms applied to Haidhausen, Three silver lilies with green styling and 6 leaves on a blue background. Meaning, In reference to the Lilienberg Monastery in Au, after the incorporation into the city of Munich in 1854, all rights to the coat of arms belonged to the Munich city council. Helmuth Stahleder, Von Allach bis Zamilapark and historical dates of the history of Munich and its incorporated suburbs. Stadtarchiv München, ed. München, Buchendorfer Verlag 2001, ISBN 3-934036-46-5 Herrmann Wilhelm, In der Münchner Vorstadt Au - Vergessene Lebenswelten des siebzehnten, achtzehnten und neunzehnten Jahrhunderts. MünchenVerlag ISBN 978-3-937090-00-9 Official site of the district at www. muenchen. de
Aubing-Lochhausen-Langwied is the 22nd borough of the German city of Munich. A large area between Aubing/Neuaubing and Germering on Munich ground of the Freiham district, east of Gut Freiham is currently under development, Aubing was first documented in 1010 AD as Ubingen. This name was most likely derived from the name Ubo of the Bavarii, in 1818 the municipality of Aubing was established, with the districts Aubing and Moosschwaige. On 1 April 1942 the Aubing municipality was connected to Munich, Aubing is divided by the Munich-Buchloe railway line in Alt-Aubing and Neu-Aubing. Alt-Aubing reflects the origins of Aubing with buildings still stand today. The old village centre is built around the parish church St. Quirin with its approximately one-thousand-year-old romanesque tower built in 1480. Neuaubing arose at the start of the 20th century as settlement for railwaymen, the Aubing coat of arms goes back to a local aristocratic family from the 12th to the 14th century. It was first mentioned in a document of a known Hartmann of Aubing on 1 May 1334, the layout goes back to Otto Hupp.
This was assessment was approved of on 23 February 1933, the coat of arms shows 3 leaves on a silver background. Today like all other Munich districts, Aubing carries the Munich coat of arms, Alt-Aubing has many clubs and associations, one of which is the Burschenverein Aubing that sets up the maypole in the village centre every three years. Many figures are carved into the wood of the maypole, Lochhausen was first documented in 948/955 AD as Lohhusa. The name means house or houses in the forest, in 1818 Lochhausen became part of the Langwied municipality. On 1 April 1942 this municipality became part attached to the city of Munich. The old village centre is formed around the church of St. Michael. Langwied was first document in 1269/1271 as Lanquat, the name Langwied means am langen Wald. The ending quat used up to the 15th century could come from waten, in 1818 the Langwied municipality was formed with Lochhausen and Gröbenzell. On 1 April 1942 the municipality was incorporated into the city of Munich by treaty from 29 August/2 September 1941, northern parts of Langwied formed the Gröbenzell municipality in 1952 along with other parts of municipalities.
Numerous bus lines connect the district
Milbertshofen, Am Riesenfeld and Am Hart are three boroughs situated in the north of Munich in Germany. Jointly, they form the city district 11 Milbertshofen-Am Hart, as of December 2016, the three boroughs had 76.255 inhabitants. Milbertshofen-Am Hart is sourrounded by Schwabing-Freimann, Schwabing-West, Neuhausen-Nymphenburg, north of it comes the municipality Oberschleißheim. In Milbertshofen-Am Hart is the Olympiapark and the three BMW Museums, other notable buildings include BMW FIZ, Bayerisches Landesamt für Verfassungsschutz, Mira shopping center and Gymnasium München Nord. Green Areas include and Panzerwiese, the Olympiapark is the location of the Spartan Race Sprint as well as Start- and Finish location of the Munich Marathon. Concerts took place in the Olympiahalle, the 291-metre-high Olympiaturm in Am Riesenfeld is Munichs tallest building
Pasing is a district in the city of Munich and part of the borough Pasing-Obermenzing. Pasing is located west of the Munich city centre, at the edge of the citys innermost traffic zone. The district is residential, there is a large concentration of shops and restaurant at the Pasinger Marienplatz. The quarters railway station, Pasing Station, is served by the S-Bahn suburban trains 3,4,6,8 and 20 as well as national and international trains services. Tram line 19 and several bus lines terminate at the station The Pasinger Stadtpark is the quarters main recreational park. It is located south of Pasing Marienplatz, straddling the river Würm, nearby, a branch of the Munich University of Applied Sciences is located. On 31 December 1991, Pasing counted 39,723 residents over an area of 1.074 hectares, on 31 December 1999, there were 35,752 people, theres no disconnected value since 1999, due to being measured together with Obermenzing. Pasing is characterized by an economic structure. The distribution of the 21,000 jobs in the industry, transport.
An emphasis on an area does not exist. In addition to the variety in the village shopping center Pasing Arcade exists. Alois Wunder, only Oberbürgermeister of Pasing Hans Nimmerfall, politician Felix Neureuther, World Cup alpine ski racer Michael Ende important author for children books
Coat of arms of Bavaria
The coat of arms of the German state of Bavaria has greater and lesser versions. It had been introduced by law fully by 5 June 1950, Article 1 The colours of the state are white, the modern coat of arms was designed by Eduard Ege, following heraldic traditions, in 1946. First Quarter, At the dexter chief, sable, a lion rampant Or and this represents the administrative region of Upper Palatinate. It is identical to the coat of arms of the Electorate of the Palatinate, second Quarter, At the sinister chief, per fess dancetty and argent. This represents the regions of Upper and Lower Franconia. This was the coat of arms of the bishops of Würzburg. Third Quarter, At the dexter base, argent, a panther rampant azure and this represents the regions of Lower and Upper Bavaria. Fourth Quarter, At the sinister base, Or, three lions passant guardant Sable, armed Gules, the White-And-Blue Inescutcheon, The escutcheon of white and blue oblique fusils was originally the coat of arms of the Counts of Bogen, adopted in 1242 by the House of Wittelsbach.
The white-and-blue fusils are indisputably the emblem of Bavaria and the heart shield today symbolizes Bavaria as a whole, along with the Peoples Crown, it is officially used as the Minor Coat of Arms. The Peoples Crown, The four coat fields with the shield in the centre are crowned with a golden band with precious stones decorated with five ornamental leaves. This crown appeared for the first time in the coat of arms in 1923 to symbolize sovereignty of the people after the out of the royal crown. Bavaria was one of the duchies of the Eastern Franconian Empire. The House of Wittelsbach, who ruled in Bavaria for about eight centuries, used the coat lozengy since 1242, Bavaria became a kingdom in 1806, and in 1835 a new coat of arms was created, similar to todays but representing some regions by different coats of arms. The first known coat of arms of the house of Wittelsbach is Azure, when Louis I married Ludmilla, the widow of Albert III, Count of Bogen, he adopted the coat of arms of the counts of Bogen together with their land.
The number of varied, from 15th century 21 were used. Lit, Wilhelm Volkert, Die Bilder in den Wappen der Wittelsbacher, in the eleventh century the counts of Kraiburg, a branch of the counts of Sponheim of Rhenish Hesse, acquired land in Upper and Lower Bavaria. In 1259, after the death of the last male member of the family, the coat of arms of the family was the Lion of Sponheim, although the charge was not a lion but a panthier, a mixture of a dragon and a lion. Nowadays, the fire-spitting panthier/panther is the Coat of Arms of the city of Ingolstadt, the coat of arms created for the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1835 included the lion
Dachau concentration camp
Dachau concentration camp was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners. It is located on the grounds of a munitions factory northeast of the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km northwest of Munich in the state of Bavaria. The Dachau camp system grew to include nearly 100 sub-camps, which were work camps or Arbeitskommandos. The camps were liberated by U. S. forces on 29 April 1945, There were 32,000 documented deaths at the camp, and thousands that are undocumented. Approximately 10,000 of the 30,000 prisoners were sick at the time of liberation, in the postwar years the Dachau facility served to hold SS soldiers awaiting trial. After 1948, it held ethnic Germans who had expelled from eastern Europe and were awaiting resettlement. It was finally closed in 1960, There are several religious memorials within the Memorial Site, which is open to the public. After the takeover of Bavaria on 9 March 1933, Heinrich Himmler, Chief of Police in Munich, began to speak with the administration of an unused gunpowder and he toured the site to see if it could be used for quartering protective-custody prisoners.
The Concentration Camp at Dachau was opened 22 March 1933, with the arrival of about 200 prisoners from Stadelheim Prison in Munich and it became the first regular concentration camp established by the coalition government of the National Socialist German Workers Party and the German National Peoples Party. Jehovah’s Witnesses and emigrants were sent to Dachau after the 1935 passage of the Nuremberg Laws which institutionalized racial discrimination, in early 1937, the SS, using prisoner labor, initiated construction of a large complex capable of holding 6,000 prisoners. The construction was completed in mid-August 1938. More political opponents, and over 11,000 German and Austrian Jews were sent to the camp after the annexation of Austria and the Sudetenland in 1938. Sinti and Roma in the hundreds were sent to the camp in 1939, the prisoners of Dachau concentration camp originally were to serve as forced labor for a munition factory, and to expand the camp. It was used as a center for SS guards and was a model for other concentration camps.
The camp was about 300 m ×600 m in rectangular shape, the prisoners entrance was secured by an iron gate with the motto “Arbeit macht frei”. This reflected Nazi propaganda, which trivialized concentration camps as labor and re-education camps, as of 1938, the procedure for new arrivals occurred at the Schubraum, where prisoners were to hand over their clothing and possessions. One former Luxembourgian prisoner, Albert Theis, reflected about the room, everything had to be handed over, rings, watches. The camp included a building that contained offices for the Gestapo trial commissioner, SS authorities
In heraldry, argent /ˈɑːrdʒənt/ is the tincture of silver, and belongs to the class of light tinctures, called metals. It is very frequently depicted as white and usually considered interchangeable with it, in engravings and line drawings, regions to be tinctured argent are either left blank or indicated with the abbreviation ar. in them. The name derives from Latin argentum, translated as silver or white metal, the word argent had the same meaning in Old French blazon, from which it passed into the English language. In some historical depictions of coats of arms, a kind of leaf was applied to those parts of the device that were argent. Over time, the content of these depictions has tarnished and darkened. As a result, it can sometimes be difficult to distinguish regions that were intended as argent from those that were sable. This leaves an impression that the rule of tincture has been violated in cases where. He bases this in part on the labels used to difference the arms of members of the British Royal Family.
However, it has argued that these could be regarded as white labels proper. Sometimes, the different tinctures are said to be connected with special meanings or virtues, even if this is an idea mostly disregarded by serious heraldists throughout the centuries, it may be of anecdotal interest to see what they are, since the information is so often sought after. Many sources give different meanings, but argent is often said to represent the following, Of jewels, the pearl Of heavenly bodies, the Moon Of metals, silver
Schwabing is a borough in the northern part of Munich, the capital of the German state of Bavaria. It is divided into the city borough 4 and the city borough 12, for further information on the Munich boroughs, Boroughs of Munich. Schwabing used to be famous as Munichs bohemian quarter and is popular among tourists and locals, especially young people, for its accumulation of bars, clubs. Another popular location is the Englischer Garten, or English Garden, the main buildings of Munichs largest universities, Ludwigs-Maximilians-Universität and the Technical University of Munich and Academy of Fine Arts are situated in the nearby Maxvorstadt. A student housing area called Studentenstadt ist located in the north of Schwabing, lenin was a resident of Schwabing for some years, as was noted psychoanalyst and bohemian Otto Gross. The Countess Fanny zu Reventlow was known as The Bohemian Countess of Schwabing, the gentrification of Schwabing and various construction projects have led to protests, so around 2011
The fees were often lands or revenue-producing real property held in feudal land tenure, these are typically known as fiefs or fiefdoms. However, not only land but anything of value could be held in fee, including office, rights of exploitation such as hunting or fishing, monopolies in trade. In ancient Rome a benefice was a gift of land for life as a reward for services rendered, originally, in medieval Latin European documents, a land grant in exchange for service continued to be called a beneficium. Later, the term feudum, or feodum, began to replace beneficium in the documents, the first attested instance of this is from 984, although more primitive forms were seen up to one hundred years earlier. The origin of the feudum and why it replaced beneficium has not been well established, but there are multiple theories, described below. The most widely held theory is put forth by Marc Bloch that it is related to the Frankish term *fehu-ôd, in which means cattle and -ôd means goods. When land replaced currency as the store of value, the Germanic word *fehu-ôd replaced the Latin word beneficium.
This Germanic origin theory was shared by William Stubbs in the nineteenth century, a theory put forward by Archibald R. Lewis that the origin of fief is not feudum, but rather foderum, the earliest attested use being in Astronomuss Vita Hludovici. In that text is a passage about Louis the Pious which says annona militaris quas vulgo foderum vocant, a theory by Alauddin Samarrai suggests an Arabic origin, from fuyū. Samarrais theory is that early forms of fief include feo, feuz and others, however, advises medieval and early modern Muslim scribes often used etymologically fanciful roots in order to claim the most outlandish things to be of Arabian or Muslim origin. It lacked a precise meaning until the middle of the 12th century, in English usage, the word fee is first attested around 1250–1300, the word fief from around 1605–15. In French, the fief is found from the middle of the 13th century. In French, one finds seigneurie, which rise to the expression seigneurial system to describe feudalism.
Originally, vassalage did not imply the giving or receiving of landholdings, by the middle of the 10th century, fee had largely become hereditary. The eldest son of a deceased vassal would inherit, but first he had to do homage and fealty to the lord, the fees of the 11th and the 12th century derived from two separate sources. The first was land carved out of the estates of the upper nobility, the second source was allodial land transformed into dependent tenures. The process occurred in Germany, and was going on in the 13th century. In England, Henry II transformed them into important sources of royal income, the discontent of barons with royal claims to arbitrarily assessed reliefs and other feudal payments under Henrys son King John resulted in Magna Carta of 1215