Metropolitan Borough of Holborn
In 1930 these seven were combined into a single civil parish called Holborn, which was conterminous with the metropolitan borough. Previous to the formation it had been administered by two separate local bodies, Holborn District Board of Works and St Giles District Board of Works. The Inns of Court and Inns of Chancery had not been under the control of any local authority prior to 1900, St Giles, St George and St Andrew were depicted on the borough seal. The several constituent parishes were illustrated in the arms granted to Holborn in 1906, while the supporters, the Lion and the Griffin are from the arms of Lincolns Inn and Grays Inn. Charges from these arms were used, together with charges from the coats of arms of Hampstead and of St. Pancras, several of the street name signs in the British Museum/Senate House area still bear the Borough of Holborn area designation. Holborn Town Hall still exists, on High Holborn, the four-storey frontage is in three parts, the easternmost section was built as a Public Library in 1894 by architect W.
Rushworth. Then the central and western sections were added in 1906-8 to form a symmetrical facade, Holborn was the smallest of the twenty-eight metropolitan boroughs of the County of London, with an area of between 405 and 407 acres. Therefore, it was smaller than the City of London. It had the smallest population of any of the boroughs throughout its existence, municipal Year Book of the United Kingdom for 1907
Holborn is a district in the West End, central London, forming part of the London Borough of Camden. The areas first mention is in a charter of Westminster Abbey, by King Edgar and this mentions the old wooden church of St Andrew. The name Holborn may be derived from the Middle English hol for hollow, and bourne, historical cartographer William Shepherd in his Plan of London about 1300 labels the Fleet as Hole Bourn where it passes to the east of St Andrews church. The exact course of the stream is uncertain, but according to Stow it started in one of the small springs near Holborn Bar. This is supported by a map of London and Westminster created during the reign of Henry VIII that clearly marks the street as Oldbourne, other historians, find the theory implausible, in view of the slope of the land. It was outside the Citys jurisdiction and a part of Ossulstone Hundred in Middlesex, in the 12th century St Andrews was noted in local title deeds as lying on Holburnestrate—Holborn Street. The rest of the area below Bars was organised by the board of the parish of St Andrew.
The Metropolitan Borough of Holborn was abolished in 1965 and its area now part of the London Borough of Camden. Holborn is represented in the London Assembly as part of Barnet and Camden by Andrew Dismore, criminals from the Tower and Newgate passed up Holborn on their way to be hanged at Tyburn or St Giles. The theatre premièred the first full-length feature film in 1914, The World, the Flesh and the Devil, Charles Dickens took up residence in Furnivals Inn, on the site of Holborn Bars. Dickens put his character Pip, in Great Expectations, in residence at Barnards Inn opposite, staple Inn, notable as the promotional image for Old Holborn tobacco, is nearby. The three of these were Inns of Chancery, the area diversified and become recognisable as the modern street. A plaque stands at number 120 commemorating Thomas Earnshaws invention of the Marine chronometer, at the corner of Hatton Garden was the old family department store of Gamages. Until 1992, the London Weather Centre was located in the street, the Prudential insurance company relocated in 2002.
The Daily Mirror offices used to be directly opposite it, further east, in the gated avenue of Ely Place, is St Etheldredas Church, originally the chapel of the Bishop of Ely’s London palace. This ecclesiastical connection allowed the street to remain part of the county of Cambridgeshire until the mid-1930s and this meant that Ye Olde Mitre, a pub located in a court hidden behind the buildings of the Place and the Garden was subject to the Cambridgeshire Magistrates to grant its licence. St Etheldredas is the oldest church building used for Roman Catholic worship in London, this became so only after it ceased to be an Anglican chapel in the 19th century. Hatton Garden, the centre of the trade, was leased to a favourite of Queen Elizabeth I, Sir Christopher Hatton
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the second largest library in the world by number of items catalogued. It holds well over 150 million items from many countries, as a legal deposit library, the British Library receives copies of all books produced in the United Kingdom and Ireland, including a significant proportion of overseas titles distributed in the UK. The Library is a public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media. The Librarys collections include around 14 million books, along with holdings of manuscripts. In addition to receiving a copy of every publication produced in the UK and Ireland, the Library adds some three million items every year occupying 9.6 kilometres of new shelf space. Prior to 1973, the Library was part of the British Museum, the Euston Road building is classified as a Grade I listed building, of exceptional interest for its architecture and history. The British Library was created on 1 July 1973 as a result of the British Library Act 1972.
Prior to this, the library was part of the British Museum. In 1983, the Library absorbed the National Sound Archive, which holds many sound and video recordings, with over a million discs, the core of the Librarys historical collections is based on a series of donations and acquisitions from the 18th century, known as the foundation collections. From 1997 to 2009 the main collection was housed in this new building. Construction work on the Newspaper Storage Building was completed in 2013, the collection has now been split between the St Pancras and Boston Spa sites. The British Library Document Supply Service and the Librarys Document Supply Collection is based on the site in Boston Spa. Collections housed in Yorkshire, comprising low-use material and the newspaper and Document Supply collections, the Library previously had a book storage depot in Woolwich, south-east London, which is no longer in use. The new library was designed specially for the purpose by the architect Colin St John Wilson, facing Euston Road is a large piazza that includes pieces of public art, such as large sculptures by Eduardo Paolozzi and Antony Gormley.
It is the largest public building constructed in the United Kingdom in the 20th century, in December 2009 a new storage building at Boston Spa was opened by Rosie Winterton. The building was Grade I listed on 1 August 2015, in England, Legal Deposit can be traced back to at least 1610. The other five libraries are, the Bodleian Library at Oxford, the University Library at Cambridge, the Trinity College Library at Dublin, in 2003 the Ipswich MP Chris Mole introduced a Private Members Bill which became the Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2003. The Act extends United Kingdom legal deposit requirements to electronic documents, such as CD-ROMs, the Library holds the Asia and Africa Collections which include the India Office Records and materials in the languages of Asia and of north and north-east Africa
Kentish Town is an area of northwest London, England in the London Borough of Camden, immediately north of Camden Town. The name of Kentish Town is probably derived from Ken-ditch meaning the bed of a waterway and is unrelated to Kent. Kentish Town was originally a settlement on the River Fleet. It is first recorded during the reign of King John as kentisston, by 1456 Kentish Town was a thriving hamlet. In this period a chapel of ease was built for its inhabitants, between the availability of public transport to it from London, and its urbanisation, it was a popular resort. Large amounts of land were purchased to build the railway, which can still be seen today, Kentish Town was a prime site for development as the Kentish Town Road was a major route from London northwards. Karl Marx was a resident, living at 46 Grafton Terrace from 1856. 1877 saw the beginning of work in the area as it was poor. The mission first held their services outside but as their funding increased they built a house, chapel.
One mission house of the area was Lyndhurst Hall which remained in use before being taken over by the Council, the Council wished it to sell it for residential use, and the hall was demolished in 2006. All these streets lay behind the Oxford Arms, some of the freehold of these streets is still in the name of Christ Church Oxford. A network of streets in the north of Kentish Town was formerly part of an estate owned by St Johns College, Cambridge. Lady Margaret Road is named after Lady Margaret Beaufort, foundress of St Johns College, Burghley Road is named after Lord Burghley, Chancellor to Elizabeth I and benefactor of St Johns. Similarly, College Lane, Evangelist Road and Lady Somerset Road are street names linked to the estate of St Johns College. In 1912 the Church of St. Silas the Martyr was finally erected and consecrated and it can still be seen today along with the church of St Luke with St Paul and the Church of St. Barnabas. The present Church of England parish church is St. Benets, in his poem Parliament Hill Fields, Sir John Betjeman refers to the curious Anglo-Norman parish church of Kentish Town.
Kentish Town Road contains one of Londons many disused Tube stations, south Kentish Town tube station was closed in June 1924 after strike action at the Lots Road power station meant the lift could not be used. It never reopened as a station, although it was used as an air raid shelter during World War II
Ilex /ˈaɪlɛks/, or holly, is a genus of 400 to 600 species of flowering plants in the family Aquifoliaceae, and the only living genus in that family. The species are evergreen or deciduous trees and climbers from tropics to temperate zones worldwide, the genus Ilex is widespread throughout the temperate and subtropical regions of the world. It includes species of trees and climbers, with evergreen or deciduous foliage and its range was more extended in the Tertiary period and many species are adapted to laurel forest habitat. It occurs from sea level to more than 2,000 metres with high mountain species and it is a genus of small, evergreen trees with smooth, glabrous, or pubescent branchlets. The plants are generally slow-growing with some growing to 25 m tall. The type species is the European holly Ilex aquifolium described by Linnaeus, plants in this genus have simple, alternate glossy leaves, frequently with a spiny leaf margin. The inconspicuous flower is white, with four petals. They are generally dioecious, with male and female flowers on different plants, the small fruits of Ilex, although often referred to as berries, are technically drupes.
They range in color from red to brown to black, the bones contain up to ten seeds each. Some species produce fruits parthenogenetically, such as the cultivar Nellie R. Stevens, the fruits ripen in winter and thus provide winter colour contrast between the bright red of the fruits and the glossy green evergreen leaves. Hence the cut branches, especially of I. aquifolium, are used in Christmas decoration. The fruits are slightly toxic to humans, and can cause vomiting. However, they are an important food source for birds and other animals, unfortunately this can have negative impacts as well. It has been placed on the Washington State Noxious Weed Control Boards monitor list, Ilex in Latin means the holm-oak or evergreen oak. The name holly in common speech refers to Ilex aquifolium, specifically stems with berries used in Christmas decoration, by extension, holly is applied to the whole genus. The origin of the holly is considered a reduced form of Old English holen, Middle English Holin. The French word for holly, derives from the Old Low Franconian *hulis, both are related to Old High German hulis, huls, as are Low German/Low Franconian terms like Hülse or hulst.
These Germanic words appear to be related to words for holly in Celtic languages, such as Welsh celyn, Breton kelen, several romance languages use the Latin word acrifolium, so Italian agrifoglio, Occitan grefuèlh, etc
Camden Town, often shortened to Camden, is an inner city district of northwest London,2.4 miles north of the centre of London. It is one of the 35 major centres identified in the London Plan, the areas industrial economic base has been replaced by service industries such as retail and entertainment. The area now hosts street markets and music venues which are associated with alternative culture. Camden Town is named after Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden and his earldom was styled after his estate, Camden Place near Chislehurst in Kent, formerly owned by historian William Camden. The name, which appears on the Ordnance Survey map of 1822, was applied to the early 20th century Camden Town Group of artists. Camden Town stands on land which was once the manor of Kentish Town, sir Charles Pratt, a radical 18th century lawyer and politician, acquired the manor through marriage. In 1791, he started granting leases for houses to be built in the manor, in 1816, the Regents Canal was built through the area.
Up to at least the mid 20th century, Camden Town was considered an unfashionable locality, the Camden markets, which started in 1973 and have grown since then, attract many visitors all week. Camden Lock Village, known as Camden Lock market, suffered a major fire, Camden Town, previously in the Metropolitan Borough of St Pancras, became part of the London Borough of Camden when it was created in 1965. Camden Town is contained in the following political constituencies for different purposes, listed with some incumbents as of 2017, Camden London Borough Council, Camden Town with Primrose Hill, returns three Borough councillors. UK Parliament, Holborn and St Pancras, four Labour, two Conservative, one Green, one UKIP. Camden Town is on flat ground at 100 feet above sea level,2.4 miles north-northwest of Charing Cross. To the north are the hills of Hampstead and Highgate, the culverted, subterranean River Fleet flows from its source on Hampstead Heath through Camden Town south to the Thames. The Regents Canal runs through the north of Camden Town, from the end of the twentieth century entertainment-related businesses and a Holiday Inn started moving into the area. A number of retail and food chain outlets replaced independent shops, driven out by high rents and redevelopment.
Restaurants with a variety of culinary traditions thrived, many of them an away from the markets, on Camden High Street and its side streets, Chalk Farm Road. The plan to re-develop the historic Stables Market led to a steel and glass extension, built on the edges of the site in 2006, Camden is well known for its markets. Camden Town Tube station is near the markets and other attractions and it is a key interchange station for the Bank, Charing Cross and High Barnet Northern line branches
Kilburn is an area of north-west London, which is between London Borough of Brent postcodes, most of Kilburn is in the Brent but a small section is inside Westminster. West Kilburn which is Kilburn lane to the north, Fernhead road to the east, Harrow road to the south, Kilburn is situated 3.75 miles north-west of Charing Cross. The main thoroughfare running northwest-southeast is Kilburn High Road, part of the modern A5 road which forms the boundary between the boroughs of Brent and Camden, the road dates back to pre-Roman times and is part of the Roman road known as Watling Street. The town of Kilburn has its origins in a 12th-century priory on the banks of the Kilburn Brook, Kilburn today is a busy and multicultural London district. It has one of the capitals highest Irish populations, as well as a sizable Afro-Caribbean population, the area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. Kilburn High Road originated as an ancient trackway, part of a Celtic route between the now known as Canterbury and St Albans.
Under Roman rule, the route was paved, in Anglo-Saxon times the road became known as Watling Street. Kilburn grew up on the banks of a stream which has been known variously as Cuneburna and Cyebourne and it is suggested the name means either Royal River or Cattle River. The river is today as the River Westbourne. From the 1850s it was piped underground and is now one of Londons many underground rivers, the name Kilburn was first recorded in 1134 as Cuneburna, referring to the priory which had been built on the site of the cell of a hermit known as Godwyn. Godwyn had built his hermitage by the Kilburn river during the reign of Henry I, Kilburn Priory was a small community of nuns, probably Augustinian canonesses. It was founded in 1134 at the Kilburn river crossing on Watling Street, Kilburn Priorys position on Watling Street meant that it became a popular resting point for pilgrims heading for the shrines at St Albans and Willesden. The Priory was dissolved in 1536-37 by Henry VIII, and nothing remains of it today, the priory lands included a mansion and a hostium, which may have been the origin of the Red Lion pub, thought to have been founded in 1444.
Opposite, the Bell Inn was opened around 1600, on the site of the old mansion, the whole is now open for the reception of the public, the great room being particularly adapted to the use and amusement of the politest companies. Fit either for music, dancing, or entertainments, a plentiful larder is always provided, together with the best of wines and other liquors. A printed account of the waters, as drawn up by an eminent physician, is given gratis at the Wells, in the 19th century the wells declined, but the Kilburn Wells remained popular as a tea garden. The Bell was demolished and rebuilt in 1863, the building stands there today. The Kilburn stretch of Watling Street, now called Edgware Road and Kilburn High Road, was built up with inns
It is characterised by its mixed-use of residential, retail and healthcare, with no single activity dominating. The historically bohemian area was home to such writers as Virginia Woolf, George Bernard Shaw. The neighbourhood is classified as above-averagely deprived, and parts of it have the worst living environment in the according to a government report. In 2016 the Sunday Times named the district as the best place to live in London, Fitzrovia is probably named after the Fitzroy Tavern, a public house situated on the corner of Charlotte Street and Windmill Street within the district. Until the end of the 19th century the area now includes Fitzrovia belonged to the Duke of Grafton and his family, their surname is Fitzroy. The name was adopted during the years initially by and in recognition of the artistic. The name Fitzrovia was recorded in print for the first time by Tom Driberg MP in the William Hickey gossip column of the Daily Express in 1940. The writer and dandy Julian MacLaren-Ross recalled in his Memoirs of the Forties that Meary James Thurairajah Tambimuttu aka Tambi, Tambi had apparently claimed to have coined the name Fitzrovia.
Maclaren-Ross recalls Tambimuttu saying, Now we go to the Black Horse, the Burglars Rest, maclaren-Ross replied, I know the Fitzroy to which Tambimuttu said, Ah, that was in the Thirties, now they go to other places. Tambimuttu took him on a pub crawl, the Fitzroy Tavern was named after Charles FitzRoy, who first developed the northern part of the area in the 18th century. FitzRoy purchased the Manor of Tottenhall and built Fitzroy Square, to which he gave his name, the square is the most distinguished of the original architectural features of the district, having been designed in part by Robert Adam. The south-western area was first developed by the Duke of Newcastle who established Oxford Market, in addition to Fitzroy Square and nearby Fitzroy Street, there are numerous locations named for the FitzRoy family and Devonshire/Portland family, both significant local landowners. Charles FitzRoy was the grandson of Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Grafton, William Bentinck, 2nd Duke of Portland and his wife Margaret Harley lend their names to Portland Place, Great Portland Street and Harley Street.
Margaret Harley was daughter of Edward Harley, 2nd Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, for whom Oxford Street, the Marquessate of Titchfield is a subsidiary title to the Dukedom of Portland, hence Great Titchfield Street. The name of the Grafton familys country estate is Euston Hall, two of Londons oldest surviving residential walkways can be found in Fitzrovia. Colville Place and the pre-Victorian Middleton Buildings are in the old London style of a way, another notable modern building is the YMCA Indian Student Hostel on Fitzroy Square, one of the few surviving buildings by Ralph Tubbs. The Candy brothers scheme, which was unpopular with local people, stanhope plc took over the project, and proposed a short term project which would allow residents to create temporary allotments on the site until a new development was started. However, the Icelandic bank Kaupthing, which had a controlling interest in the site, announced in March 2010 its intention to sell the site on the open market, in July 2010, the site passed into the ownership of Aviva Investments and Exemplar Properties
A crest is a component of a heraldic display, consisting of the device borne on top of the helm. Originating in the decorative sculptures worn by knights in tournaments and, to an extent, battles. A normal heraldic achievement consists of the shield, above which is set the helm, on which sits the crest, the word crest derives from the Latin crista, meaning tuft or plume, perhaps related to crinis, hair. They first appeared in a context in the form of the metal fans worn by knights in the 12th and 13th centuries. These were primarily decorative, but may have served a purpose by lessening or deflecting the blows of opponents weapons. These fans were generally of one colour, evolving to repeat all or part of the arms displayed on the shield. The fan crest was developed by cutting out the figure displayed on it, to form a metal outline. Torses did not come into use in Britain until the 15th century, and are still uncommon on the Continent. Crests were mounted on a furred cap known as a chapeau. By the 16th century the age of tournaments had ended, and their illustrated equivalents consequently began to be treated as simply two-dimensional pictures.
In the same period, different helms began to be used for different ranks and knights helms faced forwards, whereas those of peers, torses suffered artistically, being treated not as silken circlets, but as horizontal bars. Heraldry in general underwent something of a renaissance in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, crests are now generally not granted unless they could actually be used on a physical helm, and the rules about directions of helms are no longer rigidly observed. The use of crests was once restricted to those of tournament rank, i. e. knights and above and they are not generally used by women and clergymen, as they did not participate in war or tournaments and thus would not have helms on which to wear them. Some heraldists are of the opinion that crests, as devices, are not suited for use by corporate bodies. This practice did not exist in Britain until the modern era, and arms with more than one crest are still rare. After the 16th century, it common for armigers to detach the crest and wreath from the helm.
This led to the use of the term crest to mean arms. Unlike a badge, which can be used by any amount of relatives and retainers, a crest is personal to the armiger, and its use by others is considered usurpation
St Pancras, London
St Pancras is an area of central London. The district now encompassed by the term St Pancras is not easy to define, the name is sometimes applied to the immediate vicinity of the eponymous railway station, but Kings Cross is the usual name for the area around the two mainline stations as a whole. However, as the choice of name for the borough suggests, the original focus of the area was the church, now known by the retronym of St Pancras Old Church. The building is in the half of the parish, and is believed by many to be one of the oldest sites of Christian worship in Great Britain. However, in the 14th century the population moved en masse to Kentish Town, probably due to flooding by the River Fleet and the availability of better wells at the new location. A chapel of ease was established there, and the old settlement was abandoned, except for a few farms, in the 1790s Earl Camden began to develop some fields to the north and west of the old church as Camden Town. About the same time, a district was built to the south and east of the church.
In 1822 the new church of St Pancras was dedicated as the parish church, the site was chosen on what was called the New Road, now Euston Road, which had been built as Londons first bypass, the M25 of its day. The two sites are about a kilometer apart, the new church is Grade I listed for its Greek Revival style, the old church was rebuilt in 1847. In the mid 19th century two major stations were built to the south of the Old Church, first Kings Cross. The new church is closer to Euston Station, by the end of the nineteenth century the ancient parish had been divided into 37 parishes, including one for the old church. The parish of St Pancras was administered by a vestry until the Metropolitan Borough of St Pancras was established in 1900, in 1965 the former area of the borough was combined with that of two others to form the London Borough of Camden. Georges Church, and St George the Martyr and these were all closed under the Extramural Interment Act in 1854, the parish was required to purchase land some distance away, and chose East Finchley for its new St Pancras Cemetery.
The disused graveyard at St Pancras Old Church was left alone for over thirty years, Thomas Hardy, a junior architect and a novelist and poet, was involved in this work. Particularly, he placed a number of gravestones around a tree, the cemetery was disturbed again in 2002-03 by the construction of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link, but much more care was given to the removal of remains than in the 19th century. The name St Pancras survives in the name of the parliamentary constituency, Holborn. Old St Pancras Church and its graveyard have links to Charles Dickens, Thomas Hardy, immediately to the north of the churchyard is St Pancras Hospital, originally the parish workhouse and latterly the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases. St Pancras is one of the railway stations in England
St George's, Bloomsbury
St Georges, Bloomsbury, is a parish church in Bloomsbury, London Borough of Camden, United Kingdom. They appointed Nicholas Hawksmoor, a pupil and former assistant of Sir Christopher Wren, to design and build this church and this was the sixth and last, of his London churches. St Georges was consecrated on 28 January 1730 by Edmund Gibson, the Victorian novelist Anthony Trollope was baptised here in 1824. Richard Meux Benson, founder of the first Anglican religious order for men, Society of St John the Evangelist, the funeral of Emily Davison, the suffragette who died when she was hit by the Kings horse during the 1913 Derby, took place here that same year. Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia attended a controversial requiem for the dead of the Abyssinian war in 1937, the building reopened fully from October 2006, including a new exhibition on the church and Bloomsbury housed in its undercroft. The land on which the church is built was bought for £1,000 from Lady Russell, the land purchase was the work of Nicholas Hawksmoor, one of the two surveyors appointed by the Commissioners of the 1711 Act.
Unlike others appointed by the Commissioners, Hawksmoor continued to work as a surveyor of the 1711 Act churches until his death in 1736, of the twelve churches completed, he was responsible for designing six, of which St George’s Bloomsbury was the last. His final designs for St George’s, were commissioned and adopted after earlier designs by James Gibbs. The stepped tower is influenced by Pliny the Elders description of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus and its statues of fighting lions and unicorns symbolise the recent end of the First Jacobite Rising. The Portico is based on that of the Temple of Bacchus in Baalbek, the tower is depicted in William Hogarths well-known engraving Gin Lane. Charles Dickens used St Georges as the setting for The Bloomsbury Christening in Sketches by Boz, the statue of George I was humorously described by Horace Walpole in a rhyme, The church was designated a Grade I listed building on 24 October 1951. Services are held on Monday & Wednesday at 1, 10pm, the church is usually open to visitors from 1, 00pm –4, 00pm every day of the week.
St. Georges runs educational workshops and lectures for schools, families and it hosts events and classes for the local community events. Location St Georges Bloomsbury is located on Bloomsbury Way next door to the Bloomsbury Thistle Hotel. Two minutes walk from the British Museum Hymn A hymn used on St Georges Day begins, A maid in fetters wailing / Her sore and sorry plight / A foul and slimy dragon / A brave, / St George for Merry England / Triumphant echoes ring. Since 1 April 2014 the crypt has housed the Museum of Comedy, the museum focuses on the history of British comedy and includes photos, props and costumes, scripts and videos of British comedic performers and shows. There is a 100-seat performance space, the space was originally renovated and used as an art gallery in the 1990s. Meller, Hugh St. Georges Bloomsbury, a guide to the church
A defensive wall is a fortification used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors. In ancient to modern times, they were used to enclose settlements, beyond their defensive utility, many walls had important symbolic functions – representing the status and independence of the communities they embraced. Existing ancient walls are almost always masonry structures, although brick, depending on the topography of the area surrounding the city or the settlement the wall is intended to protect, elements of the terrain may be incorporated in order to make the wall more effective. Walls may only be crossed by entering the city gate and are often supplemented with towers. Simpler defensive walls of earth or stone, thrown up around hillforts, early castles, from very early history to modern times, walls have been a near necessity for every city. Uruk in ancient Sumer is one of the worlds oldest known walled cities, before that, the city of Jericho in what is now the West Bank had a wall surrounding it as early as the 8th millennium BC.
The Assyrians deployed large labour forces to build new palaces, some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were fortified. By about 3500 B. C. hundreds of small farming villages dotted the Indus floodplain, many of these settlements had fortifications and planned streets. Mundigak in present-day south-east Afghanistan has defensive walls and square bastions of sun dried bricks, babylon was one of the most famous cities of the ancient world, especially as a result of the building program of Nebuchadnezzar, who expanded the walls and built the Ishtar Gate. Exceptions were few — notably, ancient Sparta and ancient Rome did not have walls for a long time, these fortifications were simple constructions of wood and earth, which were replaced by mixed constructions of stones piled on top of each other without mortar. In Central Europe, the Celts built large fortified settlements which the Romans called oppida, the fortifications were continuously expanded and improved. In ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, in classical era Greece, the city of Athens built a long set of parallel stone walls called the Long Walls that reached their guarded seaport at Piraeus.
Large tempered earth walls were built in ancient China since the Shang Dynasty, although stone walls were built in China during the Warring States, mass conversion to stone architecture did not begin in earnest until the Tang Dynasty. The large walls of Pingyao serve as one example, the famous walls of the Forbidden City in Beijing were established in the early 15th century by the Yongle Emperor. The Romans fortified their cities with massive, mortar-bound stone walls, the most famous of these are the largely extant Aurelian Walls of Rome and the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople, together with partial remains elsewhere. These are mostly city gates, like the Porta Nigra in Trier or Newport Arch in Lincoln, apart from these, the early Middle Ages saw the creation of some towns built around castles. These cities were only protected by simple stone walls and more usually by a combination of both walls and ditches. From the 12th century AD hundreds of settlements of all sizes were founded all across Europe and these cities are easy to recognise due to their regular layout and large market spaces