A beret is a soft, flat-crowned hat of woven, hand-knitted wool, crocheted cotton, wool felt, or acrylic fibre. Mass production began in 19th-century Spain, countries with which it remains associated. Berets are worn as part of the uniform of many military and police units worldwide, as well as by other organisations. Archaeology and art history indicate that headgear similar to the modern beret has been worn since the Bronze Age across Northern Europe and as far south as ancient Crete and Italy, where it was worn by the Minoans and Romans; such headgear has been popular among the nobility and artists across Europe throughout modern history. The Basque style beret was the traditional headgear of Aragonese and Navarrian shepherds from the Ansó and Roncal valleys of the Pyrenees, a mountain range that divides Southern France from northern Spain; the commercial production of Basque-style berets began in the 17th century in the Oloron-Sainte-Marie area of Southern France. A local craft, beret-making became industrialised in the 19th century.
The first factory, Beatex-Laulhere, claims production records dating back to 1810. By the 1920s, berets were associated with the working classes in a part of France and Spain and by 1928 more than 20 French factories and some Spanish and Italian factories produced millions of berets. In Western fashion and women have worn the beret since the 1920s as sportswear and as a fashion statement. Military berets were first adopted by the French Chasseurs Alpins in 1889. After seeing these during the First World War, British General Hugh Elles proposed the beret for use by the newly formed Royal Tank Regiment, which needed headgear that would stay on while climbing in and out of the small hatches of tanks, they were approved for use by King George V in 1924. Another possible origin of the RTR beret is that it was suggested to Alec Gatehouse by Eric Dorman-Smith. While the two officers were serving at Sandhurst in 1924, who had transferred to the Royal Tank Corps, had been given the task of designing a practical headgear for the new corps.
Dorman-Smith had toured Spain, including the Basque region, with his friend Ernest Hemingway during the past few years, had acquired a black Basque beret during his travels. The specifications were that it had to protect men's hair from the oil in a tank but not take up space in the cramped interior, he led Gatehouse straight to his room. Hanging on the wall was his Basque beret from Pamplona, he tossed it across, Gatehouse gingerly tried it on. The beret design was adopted... The black RTR beret was made famous by Field Marshal Montgomery in the Second World War; the beret fits snugly around the head, can be "shaped" in a variety of ways – in the Americas it is worn pushed to one side. In Central and South America, local custom prescribes the manner of wearing the beret, it can be worn by both women. Military uniform berets feature a headband or sweatband attached to the wool, made either from leather, silk or cotton ribbon, sometimes with a drawstring allowing the wearer to tighten the hat; the drawstrings are, according to custom, either tied and cut off or tucked in or else left to dangle.
The beret is adorned with a cap badge, either in cloth or metal. Some berets have a piece of buckram or other stiffener in the position where the badge is intended to be worn. Berets are not lined, but many are lined with silk or satin. In military berets, the headband is worn on the outside; the traditional beret has the "sweatband" folded inwardly. In such a case, these berets have only an additional inch or so of the same woollen material designed to be folded inwardly. Newer beret styles made of Polar fleece are popular. Berets came to be popularised across Europe and other parts of the world as typical Basque headgear, as reflected in their name in several languages, while the Basques themselves use the words txapela or boneta, they are popular and common in the Basque Country. The colours adopted for folk costumes varied by region and purpose: black and blue are worn more than red and white, which are used at local festivities; the people of Aragon adopted red berets while the black beret became the common headgear of workers in France and Spain.
A big commemorative black beret is the usual trophy in sport or bertso competitions, including Basque rural sports, the Basque portions of the Tour de France, the Vuelta Ciclista al Pais Vasco. It may bear sewn ornamental references to the contest; the black beret was once considered the national cap of France in Anglo-Saxon countries and is part of the stereotypical image of the Onion Johnny. It is no longer as worn as it once was, but it remains a strong sign of local identity in the southwest of France; when French people want to picture themselves as "the typical average Frenchman" in France or in a foreign country, they use this stereotype from Anglo-Saxon countries. There are three manufacturers in France. Laulhère has been making bérets since 1840. Boneteria Auloronesa is a small artisan French beret manufacturer in the Béarnese town of Oloron-Sainte-Marie, Le Béret Français is another artisan béret maker in the Béarnese village of Laàs; the beret still remains a strong
A shirt is a cloth garment for the upper body. An undergarment worn by men, it has become, in American English, a catch-all term for a broad variety of upper-body garments and undergarments. In British English, a shirt is more a garment with a collar, sleeves with cuffs, a full vertical opening with buttons or snaps. A shirt can be worn with a necktie under the shirt collar; the world's oldest preserved garment, discovered by Flinders Petrie, is a "highly sophisticated" linen shirt from a First Dynasty Egyptian tomb at Tarkan, dated to c. 3000 BC: "the shoulders and sleeves have been finely pleated to give form-fitting trimness while allowing the wearer room to move. The small fringe formed during weaving along one edge of the cloth has been placed by the designer to decorate the neck opening and side seam."The shirt was an item of clothing that only men could wear as underwear, until the twentieth century. Although the women's chemise was a related garment to the men's, it is the men's garment that became the modern shirt.
In the Middle Ages, it was a plain, undyed garment worn next under regular garments. In medieval artworks, the shirt is only visible on humble characters, such as shepherds and penitents. In the seventeenth century, men's shirts were allowed to show, with much the same erotic import as visible underwear today. In the eighteenth century, instead of underpants, men "relied on the long tails of shirts... to serve the function of drawers. Eighteenth-century costume historian Joseph Strutt believed that men who did not wear shirts to bed were indecent; as late as 1879, a visible shirt with nothing over it was considered improper. The shirt sometimes cuffs. In the sixteenth century, men's shirts had embroidery, sometimes frills or lace at the neck and cuffs and through the eighteenth century long neck frills, or jabots, were fashionable. Coloured shirts began to appear in the early nineteenth century, as can be seen in the paintings of George Caleb Bingham, they were considered casual wear, for lower-class workers only, until the twentieth century.
For a gentleman, "to wear a sky-blue shirt was unthinkable in 1860 but had become standard by 1920 and, in 1980, constituted the most commonplace event."European and American women began wearing shirts in 1860, when the Garibaldi shirt, a red shirt as worn by the freedom fighters under Giuseppe Garibaldi, was popularized by Empress Eugénie of France. At the end of the nineteenth century, the Century Dictionary described an ordinary shirt as "of cotton, with linen bosom and cuffs prepared for stiffening with starch, the collar and wristbands being separate and adjustable"; the first documented appearance of the expression "To give the shirt off one's back", happened in 1771 as an idiom that indicates extreme desperation or generosity and is still in common usage. In 1827 Hannah Montague, a housewife in upstate New York, invents the detachable collar. Tired of washing her husband’s entire shirt when only the collar needed it, she cut off his collars and devised a way of attaching them to the neckband after washing.
It wasn't until the 1930s that collar stays became popular, although these early accessories resembled tie clips more than the small collar stiffeners available today. They connected the collar points to the necktie, keeping them in place Camp shirt – a loose, straight-cut, short sleeved shirt or blouse with a simple placket front-opening and a "camp collar". Dress shirt – shirt with a formal collar, a full-length opening at the front from the collar to the hem, sleeves with cuffs White shirt - dress shirt which its colour is white Dinner shirt – a shirt made to be worn with male evening wear, e.g. a black tie or white tie. Guayabera – an embroidered dress shirt with four pockets. Poet shirt – a loose-fitting shirt or blouse with full bishop sleeves with large frills on the front and on the cuffs. T-shirt – "tee shirt", a casual shirt without a collar or buttons, made of a stretchy, finely knit fabric cotton, short-sleeved. Worn under other shirts, it is now a common shirt for everyday wear in some countries.
Long-sleeved T-shirt – a T-shirt with long sleeves that extend to cover the arms. Ringer T-shirt – tee with a separate piece of fabric sewn on as the collar and sleeve hems Halfshirt – a high-hemmed T-shirt Sleeveless shirt – a shirt manufactured without sleeves, or one whose sleeves have been cut off called a tank top A-shirt or vest or singlet – a sleeveless shirt with large armholes and a large neck hole worn by labourers or athletes for increased movability. Camisole – woman's undershirt with narrow straps, or a similar garment worn alone. Referred to as a cami, shelf top, spaghetti straps or strappy top Polo shirt – a pullover soft collar short-sleeved shirt with an abbreviated button placket at the neck and a longer back than front. Rugby shirt – a long-sleeved polo shirt, traditionally of rugged construction in thick cotton or wool, but softer today Henley shirt – a collarless polo shirt Baseball shirt – distinguished by a three quarters sleeve, team insignia, flat waist seam Sweatshirt – long-sleeved athletic shirt of heavier material, with or without hood Tunic – primitive shirt, distinguished by two-piece construction.
A men's garment, is seen in modern times being worn by women Shirtwaist – a woman's tailored shirt (al
A cap is a form of headgear. Caps have crowns that fit close to the head, they are designed for warmth, when including a visor used for blocking sunlight from the eyes. They come in many shapes and sizes, various different brands. Ascot cap Ayam Baggy green Balmoral Baseball cap Beanie Bearskin Beret Biretta Busby Cap and bells Cap of Maintenance Casquette Caubeen Caul Coif Combination cap Coppola Cricket cap Deerstalker Do-rag Dutch cap Fez Fitted cap Flat cap Forage cap Gandhi cap Garrison cap Glengarry Greek fisherman's cap International cap Juliet cap Karakul Kepi Kippah Knit cap Kufi Lika cap M43 field cap Mao cap Monmouth cap Newsboy cap Nightcap Nurse cap Ochipok Papakhi Patrol cap Peaked cap Phrygian cap Rastacap Sailor cap Shako Shower cap Sindhi cap Snapback Sports visor Square academic cap Stormy Kromer cap Swim cap Tam o' Shanter Taqiyah, worn by Muslim males Toque Trucker hat Tubeteika Ushanka Utility cover Zucchetto Bonnet, until about 1700, the usual word for brimless male headgear Cap, metaphorical term List of headgear
Fashion is a popular style in clothing, lifestyle, makeup and body. Fashion is a distinctive and constant trend in the style in which people present themselves. A fashion can become the prevailing style in behaviour or manifest the newest creations of designers, technologists and design managers; because the more technical term costume is linked to the term "fashion", the use of the former has been relegated to special senses like fancy-dress or masquerade wear, while the word "fashion" refers to clothing, including the study of clothing. Although aspects of fashion can be feminine or masculine, some trends are androgynous. High-flying trendsetters in fashion can aspire to the label haute couture. Early Western travelers, traveling whether to India, Turkey or China, would remark on the absence of change in fashion in those countries; the Japanese shōgun's secretary bragged to a Spanish visitor in 1609 that Japanese clothing had not changed in over a thousand years. However, there is considerable evidence in Ming China of changing fashions in Chinese clothing.
Changes in costume took place at times of economic or social change, as occurred in ancient Rome and the medieval Caliphate, followed by a long period without major changes. In 8th-century Moorish Spain, the musician Ziryab introduced to Córdoba sophisticated clothing-styles based on seasonal and daily fashions from his native Baghdad, modified by his own inspiration. Similar changes in fashion occurred in the 11th century in the Middle East following the arrival of the Turks, who introduced clothing styles from Central Asia and the Far East. Additionally, there is a long history of fashion in West Africa. Cloth was used as a form of currency in trade with the Portuguese and Dutch as early as the 16th Century. Locally produced cloth and cheaper European imports were assembled into new styles to accommodate the growing elite class of West Africans and resident gold and slave traders. There was an strong tradition of cloth-weaving in Oyo and the areas inhabited by the Igbo people; the beginning in Europe of continual and rapid change in clothing styles can be reliably dated.
Historians, including James Laver and Fernand Braudel, date the start of Western fashion in clothing to the middle of the 14th century, though they tend to rely on contemporary imagery and illuminated manuscripts were not common before the fourteenth century. The most dramatic early change in fashion was a sudden drastic shortening and tightening of the male over-garment from calf-length to covering the buttocks, sometimes accompanied with stuffing in the chest to make it look bigger; this created the distinctive Western outline of a tailored top worn over trousers. The pace of change accelerated in the following century, women and men's fashion in the dressing and adorning of the hair, became complex. Art historians are therefore able to use fashion with confidence and precision to date images to within five years in the case of images from the 15th century. Changes in fashion led to a fragmentation across the upper classes of Europe of what had been a similar style of dressing and the subsequent development of distinctive national styles.
These national styles remained different until a counter-movement in the 17th to 18th centuries imposed similar styles once again originating from Ancien Régime France. Though the rich led fashion, the increasing affluence of early modern Europe led to the bourgeoisie and peasants following trends at a distance, but still uncomfortably close for the elites – a factor that Fernand Braudel regards as one of the main motors of changing fashion. In the 16th century, national differences were at their most pronounced. Ten 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten different hats. Albrecht Dürer illustrated the differences in his actual contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian fashions at the close of the 15th century; the "Spanish style" of the late 16th century began the move back to synchronicity among upper-class Europeans, after a struggle in the mid-17th century, French styles decisively took over leadership, a process completed in the 18th century. Though different textile colors and patterns changed from year to year, the cut of a gentleman's coat and the length of his waistcoat, or the pattern to which a lady's dress was cut, changed more slowly.
Men's fashions were derived from military models, changes in a European male silhouette were galvanized in theaters of European war where gentleman officers had opportunities to make notes of foreign styles such as the "Steinkirk" cravat or necktie. Though there had been distribution of dressed dolls from France since the 16th century and Abraham Bosse had produced engravings of fashion in the 1620s, the pace of change picked up in the 1780s with increased publication of French engravings illustrating the latest Paris styles. By 1800, all Western Europeans were dressing alike. Although tailors and dressmakers were no doubt responsible for many innovations, the textile industry led many trends, the history of fashion design is understood to date from 1858 when the English-born Charles Frederick Worth opened the first true haute couture house in Paris; the Haute house was the name established by government for the fashion houses that met the standards of industry. These fashion houses have to adhere to standards such as keeping at least twenty employees
A scarf, plural scarves, is a piece of fabric worn around the neck for warmth, sun protection, fashion, or religious reasons. They can be made in a variety of different materials such as linen or cotton, it is a common type of neckwear. Scarves have been worn since ancient times; the Statue of Ashurnasirpal II from the 9th century BC features the emperor wearing a shawl. In Ancient Rome, the garment was used to keep clean rather than warm, it was called a focale or sudarium, was used to wipe the sweat from the neck and face in hot weather. They were worn by men around their neck or tied to their belt. Historians believe that during the reign of the Chinese Emperor Cheng, scarves made of cloth were used to identify officers or the rank of Chinese warriors. In times, scarves were worn by soldiers of all ranks in Croatia around the 17th century; the only difference in the soldiers' scarves that designated a difference in rank was that the officers had silk scarves whilst the other ranks were issued with cotton scarves.
Some of the Croatian soldiers served as mercenaries with the French forces. The men's scarves were sometimes referred to as "cravats", were the precursor of the necktie; the scarf became a real fashion accessory by the early 19th century for both women. By the middle of the 20th century, scarves became one of the most essential and versatile clothing accessories for both men and women. In cold climates, a thick knitted scarf made of wool, is tied around the neck to keep warm; this is accompanied by a heavy jacket or coat. In drier, dustier warm climates, or in environments where there are many airborne contaminants, a thin headscarf, kerchief, or bandanna is worn over the eyes and nose and mouth to keep the hair clean. Over time, this custom has evolved into a fashionable item in many cultures among women; the cravat, an ancestor of the necktie and bow tie, evolved from scarves of this sort in Croatia. In India, woollen scarfs with Bandhani work use tie and dye technique used in Bhuj and Mandvi of the Kutch District of Gujarat State.
Scarves that are used to cover the lower part of face are sometimes called a cowl. Scarves can be colloquially called a neck-wrap. Scarfs can be tied in many ways including the pussy-cat bow, the square knot, the cowboy bib, the ascot knot, the loop, the necktie, the gypsy kerchief. Scarfs can be tied in various ways on the head. Several Christian denominations include a scarf known as a Stole as part of their liturgical vestments. Silk scarves were used by pilots of early aircraft in order to keep oily smoke from the exhaust out of their mouths while flying; these were worn by pilots of closed cockpit aircraft to prevent neck chafing by fighter pilots, who were turning their heads from side to side watching for enemy aircraft. Today, military flight crews wear scarves imprinted with unit insignia and emblems not for functional reasons but instead for esprit-de-corps and heritage. Students in the United Kingdom traditionally wear academic scarves with distinctive combinations of striped colours identifying their individual university or college.
Members of the Scouting movement wear a scarf-like item called a neckerchief as part of their uniform, sometimes referred to as a scarf. In some Socialist countries Young pioneers wore. Since at least the early 1900s, when the phenomenon began in Britain, coloured scarves have been traditional supporter wear for fans of association football teams across the world those in warmer climates; these scarves come in a wide variety of sizes and are made in a club's particular colours and may contain the club crest, pictures of renowned players, various slogans relating to the history of the club and its rivalry with others. At some clubs supporters will sometimes perform a'scarf wall' in which all supporters in a section of the stadium will stretch out their scarves above their heads with both hands, creating an impressive'wall' of colour; this is accompanied by the singing of a club anthem such as "You'll Never Walk Alone" at Liverpool F. C. or "Grazie Roma" at A. S. Roma; this was solely a British phenomenon, but has since spread to the rest of Europe and South America.
Some clubs supporters will perform a scarf'twirl' or'twirly' in which a group of supporters hold the scarves above their heads with one hand, twirl the scarf, creating a'blizzard' of colour. This is accompanied by a club anthem such as "Hey Jude" at Heart of Midlothian F. C. Scarf wearing is a noted feature of support for Australian rules football clubs in the Australian Football League; the scarves are in the form of alternating bars of colour with the team name or mascot written on each second bar. The craft of knitting garments such as scarves is an important trade in some countries. Hand-knitted scarves are still common as gifts as well. Printed scarves are additionally offered internationally through high fashion design houses. Among the latter are Burberry, Alexander McQueen, Cole Haan, Etro, Hermès, Nicole Miller, Emilio Pucci, Fendi, Louis Vuitton and Prada. There are three basic scarf shapes: square and rectangular; the main manufacturer of fashion scarves used today is China. The most common materials used to make fashion scarves are silk, cotton and pashmina or other cashmere wool.
A coat is a garment worn by either sex, for warmth or fashion. Coats have long sleeves and are open down the front, closing by means of buttons, hook-and-loop fasteners, toggles, a belt, or a combination of some of these. Other possible features include shoulder straps and hoods. Coat is one of the earliest clothing category words in English, attested as far back as the early Middle Ages; the Oxford English Dictionary traces coat in its modern meaning to c. 1300, when it was written cote. The word coat stems from Old French and Latin cottus, it originates from the Proto-Indo-European word for woolen clothes. An early use of coat in English is coat of mail, a tunic-like garment of metal rings knee — or mid-calf length; the medieval and renaissance coat is a midlength, sleeved men's outer garment, fitted to the waist and buttoned up the front, with a full skirt in its essentials, not unlike the modern coat. By the eighteenth century, overcoats had begun to supplant capes and cloaks as outerwear, by the mid-twentieth century the terms jacket and coat became confused for recent styles.
In the early 19th century, coats were divided into overcoats. The term "under-coat" is now archaic but denoted the fact that the word coat could be both the outermost layer for outdoor wear or the coat worn under that. However, the term coat has begun to denote just the overcoat rather than the under-coat; the older usage of the word coat can still be found in the expression "to wear a coat and tie", which does not mean that wearer has on an overcoat. Nor do the terms tailcoat, morning coat or house coat denote types of overcoat. Indeed, an overcoat may be worn over the top of a tailcoat. In tailoring circles, the tailor who makes all types of coats is called a coat maker. In American English, the term sports coat is used to denote a type of jacket not worn as outerwear; the term jacket is a traditional term used to refer to a specific type of short under-coat. Typical modern jackets extend only to the upper thigh in length, whereas older coats such as tailcoats are of knee length; the modern jacket worn with a suit is traditionally called a lounge coat in British English and a sack coat in American English.
The American English term is used. Traditionally, the majority of men dressed in a coat and tie, although this has become less widespread since the 1960s; because the basic pattern for the stroller and dinner jacket are the same as lounge coats, tailors traditionally call both of these special types of jackets a coat. An overcoat is designed to be worn as the outermost garment worn as outdoor wear. A topcoat is a shorter overcoat, if any distinction is to be made. Overcoats worn over the top of knee length coats such as frock coats, dress coats, morning coats are cut to be a little longer than the under-coat so as to cover it, as well as being large enough to accommodate the coat underneath; the length of an overcoat varies: mid-calf being the most found and the default when current fashion isn't concerned with hemlines. Designs vary from knee-length to the ankle length fashionable in the early 1970s and known as the "maxi". Speakers of American English sometimes informally use the words coat interchangeably.
Some of these styles are still worn. Note that for this period, only coats of the under-coat variety are listed, overcoats are excluded. Basque, a fitted, kneelength women's coat of the 1870s Spencer, a waistlength doublebreasted, men's jacket of the 1790s, adopted as a women's fashion from the early nineteenth century Redingote a type of coat; the modern terms "jacket" and "coat" are used interchangeably as terms, although the term "coat" tends to be used to refer to longer garments. Modern coats include the: British Warm Chesterfield coat Covert coat Duffel coat Pea coat Raincoat or Mackintosh Trench coat Jacket Overcoat Robe White coat Antongiavanni, Nicholas: The Suit, HarperCollins Publishers, New York, 2006. ISBN 0-06-089186-6 Byrd, Penelope: The Male Image: men's fashion in England 1300-1970. B. T. Batsford Ltd, London, 1979. ISBN 978-0-7134-0860-7 Croonborg, Frederick: The Blue Book of Men's Tailoring. Croonborg Sartorial Co. New York and Chicago, 1907 Cunnington, C. Willett. R. L. Shep, California, 1986.
ISBN 0-914046-03-9 Doyle, Robert: The Art of the Tailor, Sartorial Press Publications, Ontario, 2005. ISBN 0-9683039-2-7 Mansfield, Alan. Oxford University Press, New York, 2007 Unknown author: The Standard Work on Cutting Men’s Garments. 4th ed. Pub. 1886 by Jno J. Mitchell, New York. ISBN 0-916896-33-1 Vincent, W. D. F.: The Cutter’s Practical Guide. Vol II "All kinds of body coats"; the John Williamson Comp
An ascot tie, or ascot or hanker-tie, is a neckband with wide pointed wings, traditionally made of pale grey patterned silk. This wide tie is patterned, folded over, fastened with a tie pin or tie clip, it is reserved for formal wear with morning dress for daytime weddings and worn with a cutaway morning coat and striped grey formal trousers. This type of dress cravat is made of a thicker, woven type of silk similar to a modern tie and is traditionally either grey or black; the ascot is descended from the earlier type of cravat widespread in the early 19th century, most notably during the age of Beau Brummell, made of starched linen and elaborately tied around the neck. In the 1880s, amongst the upper-middle-class in Europe men began to wear a more loosely tied version for formal daytime events with daytime full dress in frock coats or with morning coats, it remains a feature of morning dress for weddings today. The Royal Ascot race meeting at the Ascot Racecourse gave the ascot its name, although such dress cravats were no longer worn with morning dress at the Royal Ascot races by the Edwardian era.
The ascot was still worn for business with morning dress in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In British English, the casual form is called a cravat, or sometimes as a day cravat to distinguish it from the formal dress cravat, it is made from a thinner woven silk, more comfortable when worn against the skin with ornate and colourful printed patterns. Students at the United States Army Officer Candidate School wear ascots as part of their uniform, black for basic officer candidates and white for senior officer candidates. Pararescue trainees upon completion of extended training day are given a blue ascot. In the United States Navy the ascot is now worn for ceremonial purposes with Enlisted Full Dress Whites and Enlisted Full Dress Blue in the Ceremonial Guard. In the Dutch Army, it is a part of the uniform, for barrack use, the ascot is in the weapon colors, with a logo, when in combat uniform, a DPM or desert version is used; the Royal Danish Army employs an ascot for the ceremonial version of the barrack dress, its colors vary between each company.
"Uniform Regulations for the Army". Army Operational Command. DK: parawings.com. September 2012. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016. Villarosa, Riccardo: The Elegant Man - How to Construct the Ideal Wardrobe. Random House, 1992. ISBN 0-679-42101-7 How to tie the Ruche knot How to tie an Ascot Tie