Sir Richard Grenville spelt Greynvile and Greenfield, was an English sailor who, as captain of Revenge, died at the Battle of Flores, fighting against overwhelming odds, refusing to surrender his ship to the far more numerous Spanish. His ship, met 53 Spanish warships near Flores in the Azores, he and his crew fought the fifty three in a three-day running battle. Many Spanish ships were sunk or so badly damaged. Revenge was boarded three times and each time the boarders were seen off. Grenville was lord of the manors of Stowe, Kilkhampton of Bideford in Devon, he was a soldier, an armed merchant fleet owner, privateer and explorer. He took part in the early English attempts to settle the New World, participated in the fight against the Spanish Armada, his non-military offices included Member of Parliament for Cornwall, High Sheriff of County Cork in 1569–70 and Sheriff of Cornwall in 1576–77. He was the grandfather of Sir Bevil Grenville of English Civil War fame, whose son was John Granville, 1st Earl of Bath.
Richard Grenville was the eldest son and heir of Sir Roger Grenville, captain of Mary Rose when it sank in Portsmouth Harbour in 1545, by his wife Thomasine Cole, daughter of Thomas Cole of Slade. Thomasine remarried to Thomas Arundell; the ancient Grenville family were lords of the manors of Bideford in Devon and of Stowe, Kilkhampton in Cornwall. He was the privateer and explorer Humphrey Gilbert. Grenville's birthplace is believed to have been at Bideford, his father died when he was an infant, aged 3, his mother remarried to Thomas Arundell of Clifton Arundell House, where Grenville spent much of his childhood. At age 17, Grenville began law studies at the Inner Temple; as a minor, Grenville was elected to Parliament for Dunheved, Launceston, as Knight of the Shire for 1562–63. On 19 November 1562, aged 20, he was in an affray in the Strand in the company of his cousin, Nicholes Specott, with Lewis Lloyd and Edward Horseman, their attendants. Upon encountering Sir Edmound Unton, Fulke Greville, Robert Bannister and Thomas Allen, Grenville ran Robert Bannister through with his sword left him to die.
Grenville and company were outlawed for three months and pardoned for public duelling and manslaughter, just in time to resume his seat in Parliament. At age 21, he inherited his grandfather's estates at Stowe in Cornwall, Bideford and Buckland Abbey in Devon, England. In 1565 Grenville married daughter of Sir John St Ledger and heir to her brother, he was appointed High Sheriff of Cork c. 1568. In pursuit of his military career, with his West Country cousins, Carews, Champernownes, etc. Grenville fought against the Turks in Hungary for the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian in 1566. After petitioning Elizabeth I in 1565 to leave England for service abroad to a foreign prince and his West Country cousins paid for and recruited a troop of West Countrymen to accompany them. In 1569, he arrived in Ireland with Sir Warham St. Leger to arrange for the settlement of lands in the Barony of Kerricurrihy; these had been mortgaged to St Leger by 15th Earl of Desmond. At about this time Grenville seized lands for colonisation at Tracton, to the west of Cork harbour.
Sir Peter Carew had asserted his claim to lands in south Leinster. St Leger settled nearby, Humphrey Gilbert pushed westward from Idrone along the Blackwater River. All of these English efforts to take over land in the south of Ireland led to bitter disputes, they escalated into the first of the Desmond rebellions, led by James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald. As Sheriff of Cork, Grenville witnessed the rebellion in which Fitzmaurice, along with the Earl of Clancar, James Fitzedmund Fitzgerald, they killed nearly the entire garrison. The three surviving English soldiers were hanged the next day by the Irish. Fitzmaurice threatened the imminent arrival of Spanish forces. Having robbed the citizens of Cork, he boasted that he could take the artillery of the city of Youghal. In June 1569, soon after Grenville's sailing for England, Fitzmaurice camped outside the walls of Waterford and demanded that Grenville's wife and Lady St Leger be given over to him, along with all the English and all prisoners, his forces put local English farmers to the sword.
As Cork ran low on provisions, the people of Youghal expected an attack at any minute. The rebellion continued. Grenville sided with the Earl of Arundel and the Duke of Norfolk in 1569 against the Queen's secretary, he was elected MP for Cornwall in 1571 and appointed High Sheriff of Cornwall for 1576. "Undeviatingly Protestant", he arrested the Catholic priest Cuthbert Mayne at the home of the Tregians in 1577. Mayne was martyred as a result. In 1575–76, Sir Richard was back home at Bideford expanding his holdings and properties after his expedition plans were scuppered, he finished remodeling the rest of the interior of Buckland Greynvile Abbey into a suitable home for his growing family. He decorated it with navigational themes in the plaster on the ceilings, the Greynvile coat of arms on the mantle pieces, as well as a knight in repose against a tree. 1575, Grenville played a major role in the transformation of the small fishing port
George Grenville was a British Whig statesman who rose to the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain. Grenville was born into an influential political family and first entered Parliament in 1741 as an MP for Buckingham, he emerged as one of Cobham's Cubs, a group of young members of Parliament associated with Lord Cobham. In 1754 Grenville became Treasurer of the Navy, a position he held twice until 1761. In October 1761 he chose to stay in government and accepted the new role of Leader of the Commons causing a rift with his brother-in-law and political ally William Pitt who had resigned. Grenville was subsequently made Northern Secretary and First Lord of the Admiralty by the new Prime Minister Lord Bute. On 8 April 1763, Lord Bute resigned, Grenville assumed his position as Prime Minister, his government pursued an assertive foreign policy. His best known policy is the Stamp Act, a common tax in Great Britain onto the colonies in America, which instigated widespread opposition in Britain's American colonies and was repealed.
Grenville had strained relations with his colleagues and the King and in 1765 he was dismissed by George III and replaced by Lord Rockingham. For the last five years of his life Grenville led a group of his supporters in opposition and staged a public reconciliation with Pitt. George Grenville was born at Wotton House on 14 October 1712, he was the second son of Hester Temple. He was one of five brothers, his sister Hester Grenville married the leading political figure William Pitt. His elder brother was Richard Grenville the 2nd Earl Temple, it was intended by his parents. Grenville received his education at Eton College and at Christ Church and was called to the bar in 1736, he entered Parliament in 1741 as one of the two members for Buckingham, continued to represent that borough for the next twenty-nine years until his death. He was disappointed to be giving up what appeared to be a promising legal career for the uncertainties of opposition politics. In Parliament he subscribed to the "Boy Patriot" party.
In particular he enjoyed the patronage of Lord Cobham, the leader of a faction that included George Grenville, his brother Richard, William Pitt and George Lyttelton that became known as Cobham's Cubs. In December 1744 he became a Lord of the Admiralty in the administration of Henry Pelham, he allied himself with his brother Richard and with William Pitt in forcing Pelham to give them promotion by rebelling against his authority and obstructing business. In June 1747, Grenville became a Lord of the Treasury. In 1754 Grenville was made Treasurer of the Privy Councillor. Along with Pitt and several other colleagues he was dismissed in 1755 after speaking and voting against the government on a debate about a recent subsidy treaty with Russia which they believed was unnecessarily costly, would drag Britain into Continental European disputes. Opposition to European entanglements was a cornerstone of Patriot Whig thinking, he and Pitt joined the opposition. Grenville and Pitt both championed the formation of a British militia to provide additional security rather than the deployment of Hessian mercenaries favoured by the government.
As the military situation deteriorated following the loss of Minorca, the government grew weak until it was forced to resign in Autumn 1756. Pitt formed a government led by the Duke of Devonshire. Grenville was returned to his position as Treasurer of the Navy, a great disappointment as he had been expecting to receive the more prestigious and lucrative post of Paymaster of the Forces; this added to what Grenville regarded as a series of earlier slights in which Pitt and others had passed him over for positions in favour of men he considered no more talented than he was. From on Grenville felt a growing resentment towards Pitt, grew closer to the young Prince of Wales and his advisor Lord Bute who were both now opposed to Pitt. In 1758, as Treasurer of the Navy, he introduced and carried a bill which established a fairer system of paying the wages of seamen and supporting their families while they were at sea, praised for its humanity if not for its effectiveness, he remained in office during the years of British victories, notably the Annus Mirabilis of 1759 for which the credit went to the government of which he was a member.
However his seven-year-old son died after a long illness and Grenville remained by his side at their country house in Wotton and came to London. In 1761, when Pitt resigned upon the question of the war with Spain, subsequently functioned as Leader of the House of Commons in the administration of Lord Bute. Grenville's role was seen as an attempt to keep someone associated with Pitt involved in the government, in order to prevent Pitt and his supporters opposing the government. However, it soon led to conflict between Pitt. Grenville was seen as a suitable candidate because his reputation for honesty meant he commanded loyalty and respect amongst independent MPs. In May 1762, Grenville was appointed Northern Secretary, where he took an hard line in the negotiations with France and Spain designed to bring the Seven Years' War to a close. Grenville demanded much greater compensation in exchange for the return of British conquests, while Bute favored a more generous position which formed the basis of the Treaty of Paris.
In spite of this, Grenville had now become associated with Bute rather than his former political allies who were
Thomas Pitt of Boconnoc
Thomas Pitt of Boconnoc was a British landowner, Member of Parliament and Lord Warden of the Stannaries. He was the grandson and namesake of the better known Thomas Pitt and the son of Robert Pitt, MP, of Boconnoc, near Lostwithiel in Cornwall, he was the elder brother of William Pitt the Elder. He succeeded his father in 1727 including Boconnoc, he was Assay master of the Stannaries from March 1738 to February 1742 and Lord Warden of the Stannaries from February 1742 to March 1751, when the Cornish Stannary Parliament met for the last time. As head of the family, Pitt inherited both his grandfather's immense fortune and his parliamentary boroughs - he had the complete power to nominate both MPs at Old Sarum and one of the two at Okehampton, as well as considerable influence in at least two Cornish boroughs and Grampound, he had himself elected Member of Parliament for Okehampton in 1727, the first election after he came of age, represented the borough until 1754. Pitt was ambitious for political influence and, attaching himself to the retinue of Frederick, Prince of Wales, managed the general elections of 1741 and 1747 in Cornwall in the Prince's interests.
By 1751 Pitt had bankrupted himself, the death that year of the Prince of Wales destroyed his hopes of securing influence or patronage for his efforts. He mortgaged his boroughs to the Treasury, allowing the government to name two MPs at Old Sarum and one at Okehampton in return for a pension of £1000 a year. After sitting for Old Sarum in the 1754 Parliament, he resigned his seat and fled the country. Returning to England in 1761, Pitt persuaded the government to allow him to be once more elected for Old Sarum - a temporary measure, he promised, to prevent his being arrested for debt until he was able satisfy his creditors, he promised to relinquish the seat at the earliest possible moment and allow the government to name his replacement in accordance with the original arrangement. He had married, c.1731, the daughter of Sir Thomas Lyttelton, 4th Baronet, M. P. of Hagley and the sister of Lord Lyttelton. They had 2 daughters, he afterwards married, in 1761, the daughter of General Murray. His only surviving son was the first Baron Camelford, who repudiated his father's arrangement for Old Sarum, chose himself as MP when he inherited the borough.
Robert Beatson, A Chronological Register of Both Houses of Parliament Lewis Namier, The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs
George II of Great Britain
George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death in 1760. George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain: he was born and brought up in northern Germany, his grandmother, Sophia of Hanover, became second in line to the British throne after about 50 Catholics higher in line were excluded by the Act of Settlement 1701 and the Acts of Union 1707, which restricted the succession to Protestants. After the deaths of Sophia and Anne, Queen of Great Britain, in 1714, his father George I, Elector of Hanover, inherited the British throne. In the first years of his father's reign as king, George was associated with opposition politicians, until they rejoined the governing party in 1720; as king from 1727, George exercised little control over British domestic policy, controlled by the Parliament of Great Britain. As elector, he spent twelve summers in Hanover, where he had more direct control over government policy.
He had a difficult relationship with his eldest son, who supported the parliamentary opposition. During the War of the Austrian Succession, George participated at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743, thus became the last British monarch to lead an army in battle. In 1745, supporters of the Catholic claimant to the British throne, James Francis Edward Stuart, led by James's son Charles Edward Stuart and failed to depose George in the last of the Jacobite rebellions. Frederick died unexpectedly in 1751, nine years before his father, so George II was succeeded by his grandson, George III. For two centuries after George II's death, history tended to view him with disdain, concentrating on his mistresses, short temper, boorishness. Since most scholars have reassessed his legacy and conclude that he held and exercised influence in foreign policy and military appointments. George was born in the city of Hanover in Germany, was the son of George Louis, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg, his wife, Sophia Dorothea of Celle.
His sister, Sophia Dorothea, was born. Both of George's parents committed adultery, in 1694 their marriage was dissolved on the pretext that Sophia had abandoned her husband, she was confined to Ahlden House and denied access to her two children, who never saw their mother again. George spoke only French, the language of diplomacy and the court, until the age of four, after which he was taught German by one of his tutors, Johann Hilmar Holstein. In addition to French and German, he was schooled in English and Italian, studied genealogy, military history, battle tactics with particular diligence. George's second cousin once removed, Queen Anne, ascended the thrones of England and Ireland in 1702, she had no surviving children, by the Act of Settlement 1701, the English Parliament designated Anne's closest Protestant blood relations, George's grandmother Sophia and her descendants, as Anne's heirs in England and Ireland. After his grandmother and father, George was third in line to succeed Anne in two of her three realms.
He was naturalized as an English subject in 1705 by the Sophia Naturalization Act, in 1706, he was made a Knight of the Garter and created Duke and Marquess of Cambridge, Earl of Milford Haven, Viscount Northallerton, Baron Tewkesbury in the Peerage of England. England and Scotland united in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, jointly accepted the succession as laid down by the English Act of Settlement. George's father did not want his son to enter into a loveless arranged marriage as he had, wanted him to have the opportunity of meeting his bride before any formal arrangements were made. Negotiations from 1702 for the hand of Princess Hedvig Sophia of Sweden, Dowager Duchess and regent of Holstein-Gottorp, came to nothing. In June 1705, under the false name of "Monsieur de Busch", George visited the Ansbach court at their summer residence in Triesdorf to investigate incognito a marriage prospect: Caroline of Ansbach, the former ward of his aunt Queen Sophia Charlotte of Prussia; the English envoy to Hanover, Edmund Poley, reported that George was so taken by "the good character he had of her that he would not think of anybody else".
A marriage contract was concluded by the end of July. On 22 August / 2 September 1705O. S./N. S. Caroline arrived in Hanover for her wedding, held the same evening in the chapel at Herrenhausen. George was keen to participate in the war against France in Flanders, but his father refused permission for him to join the army in an active role until he had a son and heir. In early 1707, George's hopes were fulfilled. In July, Caroline fell ill with smallpox, George caught the infection after staying by her side devotedly during her illness, they both recovered. In 1708, George participated in the Battle of Oudenarde in the vanguard of the Hanoverian cavalry; the British commander, wrote that George "distinguished himself charging at the head of and animating by his example troops, who played a good part in this happy victory". Between 1709 and 1713, George and Caroline had three more children, all girls: Anne and Caroline. By 1714, Queen Anne's health had declined, British Whigs, politicians who supported the Hanoverian succession, thought it prudent for one of the Hanoverians to live in England, to safeguard
The Pitt–Newcastle ministry governed the Kingdom of Great Britain between 1757 and 1762, at the height of the Seven Years' War. It was headed by Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, serving in his second term as Prime Minister; the most influential and famous figure in the government however was William Pitt, who served as Secretary of State. The ministry ended a period of political instability. Pitt was a strong war leader, but lacked the support in parliament necessary to provide effective leadership. Newcastle provided this, they divided duties between them: Pitt directed defence and foreign policy, while Newcastle controlled the nation's finances and patronage. The ministry was successful leading Britain to many victories in the war in the so-called Annus Mirabilis of 1759, which put the country in an immensely strong position by 1761; that year Pitt resigned over a dispute concerning the entry of Spain into the war. The ministry had been under pressure since the death of the old King with the accession of King George III, who disliked both Pitt and Newcastle and favoured John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute.
Bute had joined the Cabinet as Northern Secretary in March 1761, following Pitt's resignation the ministry was sometimes referred to as the Bute–Newcastle coalition. In 1762 Newcastle was forced to resign, with his followers sacked by Bute in the "Massacre of the Pelhamite Innocents", it is unclear, member of the ministry. Great Britain in the Seven Years' War Pitt–Devonshire ministry Middleton, Richard; the Bells of Victory: The Pitt-Newcastle Ministry and the Conduct of the Seven Years' War, 1757–1762. Cambridge University Press
George Lyttelton, 1st Baron Lyttelton
George Lyttelton, 1st Baron Lyttelton, known as Sir George Lyttelton, Bt between 1751 and 1756, was a British statesman. As an author himself, he was the supporter of other writers and as a patron of the arts made an important contribution to the development of 18th century landscape design. Lord Lyttelton was the eldest son of Sir Thomas Lyttelton, 4th Baronet, by his wife Christian, daughter of Sir Richard Temple, 3rd Baronet. Educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, he afterwards went on grand tour, visiting Europe with his tutor, it was during this time that he started publishing his early works in both prose. After he was elected to Parliament in 1735, he continued to publish from time to time. In 1742 he married Lucy, daughter of Hugh Fortescue, following her death in 1747 he married Elizabeth, daughter of Field Marshal Sir Robert Rich, 4th Baronet, in 1749, he died in August 1773, aged 64, was succeeded as baron by his eldest son, Thomas. Though Samuel Johnson’s biographical notice of Lyttelton is characterised by a conspicuous show of dislike, it diverges at the end into a long description of his exemplary death and the plain inscription he asked to have added to his first wife’s monument in St John the Baptist Church, Hagley.
Lyttelton was Member of Parliament for Okehampton from 1735 to 1756 and, as one of Cobham's Cubs during the 1730s, opposed the Prime Minister Robert Walpole. He served as secretary to Frederick, Prince of Wales from 1737, after Walpole's fall, as a Commissioner of the Treasury in 1744; that year too he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. Lyttelton was made a Privy Councillor in 1754 and in the following year became Chancellor of the Exchequer, but performed poorly in that role. In 1756 he was raised to the peerage as Lord Lyttelton, Baron of Frankley in the County of Worcester, continued to speak in the House of Lords until the year before he died. Lyttelton was described as “an amiable, absent-minded man, of unimpeachable integrity and benevolent character, with strong religious convictions and respectable talents,” but as “a poor practical politician”, his political opponent Lord Hervey spitefully characterised his performance as a speaker as “a great flow of words that were always uttered in a lulling monotony, the little meaning they had to boast of was borrowed from the commonplace maxims and sentiments of moralists, philosophers and poets, crudely imbibed, half digested, ill put together, confusedly refunded.”
Lord Lyttelton was a friend and supporter of Alexander Pope in the 1730s and of Henry Fielding in the 1750s. He had written his “Epistle to Mr. Pope, from a young gentleman at Rome” while still on European tour, advising him to abandon satire for a patriotic theme more worthy of his greatness. On the poem was used to preface editions of Pope's work. Throughout his life he acted as a friendly patron of poets. James Thomson, for whom Lyttelton arranged a pension, was a frequent visitor to Hagley Hall. Joseph Warton he appointed his domestic chaplain and it was at his suggestion that David Mallet was made undersecretary to the Prince of Wales. Lyttelton's own poetic reputation was guaranteed continuity by his work being included in the collection of English poets prefaced by Johnson's Lives. Variously annotated and augmented, the collection appeared in succeeding editions into the start of the 19th century; the monody “To the Memory of a Lady Deceased”, written on the death of his first wife, had an longer lasting reputation.
Though Thomas Gray found “parts of it too stiff and poetical”, he praised the fourth stanza as “truly tender and elegiac”. The poem was alluded to or parodied by others well into the 19th century the invocation of the “shades of Hagley” in the fifth stanza. Anna Seward, in answer to a correspondent who preferred Lyttelton's ode to the newly fashionable sonnet, ingeniously rearranged the lines of the poem into a series of sonnets, in which the "shades of Hagley" passage headed the second, and William Gladstone acknowledged that his Church Principles was “completed beneath the shades of Hagley” as late as 1840. Despite his long political career, it was as a poet that Lyttelton was chiefly remembered in the 19th century, but he was author of many works in prose, chiefly historical and theological. Two, are distinguished by their humour. Letters from a Persian in England, to his Friend at Ispahan comments on the idiosyncrasies of the time from the naïve point of view of an outsider. On attending a wedding ceremony in “one of their Mosques”, for example, the visitor remarks that “Marriage here is esteemed a Religious Ceremony, that I believe is one Reason among others why so little Regard is paid to it.”
Oliver Goldsmith was to borrow the same approach for his Chinese philosopher in Letters from a Citizen of the World to his Friends in the East. There were French models for both in the Lettres Persanes of Montesquieu and the Lettres Chinoises of Jean-Baptiste de Boyer, Marquis d'Argens, both of, translated soon after into English. Another work with prior French counterparts was Lyttelton's Dialogues of the Dead. Though these had Classical precedents, the more immediate models were François Fénelon’s Dialogues des morts anciens et modernes and Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle's Nouveaux Dialogues des morts, which had appeared in popular English translations as Dialogues of the Dead; the themes treated in Lyttelton's are political and philosophical, although the characters sometimes stray from their expected role. Joseph Addison and Jonathan Swift’s conversation is o
Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, known between 1725 and 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British statesman, regarded as the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain. Although the exact dates of Walpole's dominance, dubbed the "Robinocracy", are a matter of scholarly debate, the period 1721–1742 is used, he dominated the Walpole–Townshend ministry and the subsequent Walpole ministry and holds the record as the longest-serving British prime minister in history. Speck says that Walpole's uninterrupted run of 20 years as Prime Minister "is rightly regarded as one of the major feats of British political history... Explanations are offered in terms of his expert handling of the political system after 1720, his unique blending of the surviving powers of the crown with the increasing influence of the Commons", he was a Whig from the gentry class, first elected to Parliament in 1701 and held many senior positions. He looked to country gentlemen for his political base. Historian Frank O'Gorman says his leadership in Parliament reflected his "reasonable and persuasive oratory, his ability to move both the emotions as well as the minds of men, above all, his extraordinary self-confidence".
Hoppit says Walpole's policies sought moderation: he worked for peace, lower taxes and growing exports and allowed a little more tolerance for Protestant Dissenters. He avoided controversy and high-intensity disputes as his middle way attracted moderates from both the Whig and Tory camps. H. P. Dickinson sums up his historical role by saying that "Walpole was one of the greatest politicians in British history, he played a significant role in sustaining the Whig party, safeguarding the Hanoverian succession, defending the principles of the Glorious Revolution He established a stable political supremacy for the Whig party and taught succeeding ministers how best to establish an effective working relationship between Crown and Parliament". Walpole was born in Houghton, Norfolk in 1676. One of 19 children, he was the third son and fifth child of Robert Walpole, a member of the local gentry and a Whig politician who represented the borough of Castle Rising in the House of Commons, his wife Mary Walpole, the daughter and heiress of Sir Geoffrey Burwell of Rougham, Suffolk.
Horatio Walpole, 1st Baron Walpole was his younger brother. As a child, Walpole attended a private school at Norfolk. Walpole entered Eton College in 1690 where he was considered "an excellent scholar", he matriculated at King's College, Cambridge on the same day. On 25 May 1698, he left Cambridge after the death of his only remaining elder brother, Edward, so that he could help his father administer the family estate to which he had become the heir. Walpole had planned to become a clergyman but as he was now the eldest surviving son in the family, he abandoned the idea. In November 1700 his father died, Robert succeeded to inherit the Walpole estate. A paper in his father's handwriting, dated 9 June 1700, shows the family estate in Norfolk and Suffolk to have been nine manors in Norfolk and one in Suffolk; as a young man, Walpole had bought shares in the South Sea Company, which monopolized trade with Spain, the Caribbean and South America. The speculative market for slaves and mahogany spawned a frenzy that had ramifications throughout Europe when it collapsed.
However, Walpole had bought at the bottom and sold at the top, adding to his inherited wealth and allowing him to create Houghton Hall as seen today. Walpole's political career began in January 1701 when he won a seat in the general election at Castle Rising, he left Castle Rising in 1702 so that he could represent the neighbouring borough of King's Lynn, a pocket borough that would re-elect him for the remainder of his political career. Voters and politicians nicknamed him "Robin". Like his father, Robert Walpole was a member of the Whig Party. In 1705, Walpole was appointed by Queen Anne to be a member of the council for her husband, Prince George of Denmark, Lord High Admiral. After having been singled out in a struggle between the Whigs and the government, Walpole became the intermediary for reconciling the government to the Whig leaders, his abilities were recognised by Lord Godolphin and he was subsequently appointed to the position of Secretary at War in 1708. Despite his personal clout, Walpole could not stop Lord Godolphin and the Whigs from pressing for the prosecution of Henry Sacheverell, a minister who preached anti-Whig sermons.
The trial was unpopular with much of the country, causing the Sacheverell riots, was followed by the downfall of the Duke of Marlborough and the Whig Party in the general election of 1710. The new ministry, under the leadership of the Tory Robert Harley, removed Walpole from his office of Secretary at War but he remained Treasurer of the Navy until 2 January 1711. Harley had first attempted to entice him and threatened him to join the Tories, but Walpole rejected the offers, instead becoming one of the most outspoken members of the Whig Opposition, he defended Lord Godolphin against Tory attacks in parliamentary debate, as well as in the press. In 1712, Walpole was accused of venality and corruption in the matter of two forage contracts for Scotland. Although it was proven that he had retained none of the money, Walpole was pronounced "guilty of a high breach of trust and notorious corruption", he was found guilty by the House of Lords. While in the T