Baker River (New Hampshire)
The Baker River, or Asquamchumauke, is a 36. 4-mile-long river in the White Mountains region of New Hampshire in the United States. It rises on the side of Mount Moosilauke and runs south. The river traverses the towns of Warren and Rumney and it is part of the Merrimack River watershed. The Baker Rivers name recalls Lt. Thomas Baker, whose company of 34 scouts from Northampton, Massachusetts passed down the valley in 1712. It was along this river on April 28,1752 that John Stark and Amos Eastman were captured by Abenaki warriors and taken to Saint-François-du-Lac, John Starks brother William Stark escaped, and David Stinson was killed during the ambush. On the 1835 Thomas Bradford map of New Hampshire, the river is shown as Bakers River, originating on Mooshillock Mtn
Maize, known as corn, is a large grain plant first domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The six major types of corn are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, flour corn, the leafy stalk of the plant produces separate pollen and ovuliferous inflorescences or ears, which are fruits, yielding kernels or seeds. Maize kernels are used in cooking as a starch. Most historians believe maize was domesticated in the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico, recent research modified this view somewhat, scholars now indicate the adjacent Balsas River Valley of south-central Mexico as the center of domestication. The Olmec and Mayans cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica and its believed that beginning about 2500 BC, the crop spread through much of the Americas. The region developed a network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. Nevertheless, recent data indicates that the spread of maize took place even earlier, according to Piperno, A large corpus of data indicates that it was dispersed into lower Central America by 7600 BP and had moved into the inter-Andean valleys of Colombia between 7000 and 6000 BP.
Since then, even earlier dates have been published, the study demonstrated that the oldest surviving maize types are those of the Mexican highlands. Later, maize spread from this region over the Americas along two major paths and this is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands. Before they were domesticated, maize plants only grew small,25 millimetres long corn cobs, Maize is the most widely grown grain crop throughout the Americas, with 361 million metric tons grown in the United States in 2014. Approximately 40% of the crop—130 million tons—is used for corn ethanol, genetically modified maize made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009. After the arrival of Europeans in 1492, Spanish settlers consumed maize and explorers and traders carried it back to Europe, Spanish settlers far preferred wheat bread to maize, cassava, or potatoes. Maize flour could not be substituted for wheat for bread, since in Christian belief only wheat could undergo transubstantiation.
At another level, Spaniards worried that by eating indigenous foods, which they did not consider nutritious, that not only would they weaken, despite these worries, Spaniards did consume maize and archeological evidence from Florida sites indicate they cultivated it as well. Maize spread to the rest of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates and it was cultivated in Spain just a few decades after Columbuss voyages and spread to Italy, West Africa and elsewhere. The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for the plant and it is known by other names around the world. The word corn outside North America and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, in the United States, Canada and New Zealand, corn primarily means maize, this usage started as a shortening of Indian corn. Indian corn primarily means maize, but can more specifically to multicolored flint corn used for decoration
The Contoocook River is a 71-mile-long river in New Hampshire. It flows from Pool Pond and Contoocook Lake on the Jaffrey/Rindge border to Penacook and it is one of only a few rivers in New Hampshire that flow in a predominantly northward direction. Two picturesque covered bridges in Hopkinton and one in Henniker span the Contoocook and tourists have made the Contoocook popular for fishing and whitewater boating. The name Contoocook came from the Pennacook tribe of Native Americans and means place of the river near pines, other variations of the name include the Abenaki meaning nut trees river or Natick language meaning small plantation at the river. The river gives its name to Contoocook, New Hampshire, a place within the town of Hopkinton. From south to north, Nubanusit Brook begins at Nubanusit Lake in Nelson, the North Branch of the Contoocook starts in Stoddard and joins the main stem in Hillsborough. The Warner River starts in Bradford and joins the Contoocook in Hopkinton, the Blackwater River begins at Pleasant Lake in New London and joins the Contoocook in Hopkinton.
List of New Hampshire rivers NH Department of Environmental Services The Contoocook and North Branch Rivers American Whitewater description of the Freight Train rapids section
Weir Hill Reservation is a 194-acre public park located in the town of North Andover, Massachusetts. The Trustees of Reservations owns and maintains the property, prior to European settlement of the area, the Weir Hill area was used by Algonquian peoples. A1968 archaeological survey identified a campsite at the southeast end of the reservation, the reservation takes its name from these weirs. In the mid 17th century, early settlers cleared the slopes of Weir Hill for grazing sheep, in the 18th and 19th centuries, milldams were built along Cochichewick Brook to lumber- and gristmills. Rising gently above Lake Cochichewick, Weir Hill offers hiking trails pass over the crest of the 305-foot double drumlin. A rail trail runs along part of the hill, overlooking Lake Cochichewick, many North Andover residents use the trail system for cross-country, mountain biking, and its shores to go swimming. Several threatened species can be found on Weir Hill, including the white bog orchid, violet bush clover, beginning with the parks establishment in 1968, Weir Hill has been expanded numerous times since to include more woodlands and conservation area.
The Trustees of Reservations, Weir Hill
The Cockermouth River is a 9. 5-mile-long stream located in central New Hampshire in the United States. It is the longest tributary of Newfound Lake, part of the Pemigewasset River, the river takes its name from the Cockermouth Grant, an early name for a portion of the town of Hebron. The river begins in Province Road State Forest near the boundary of Groton, New Hampshire. The river is paralleled by Sculptured Rocks Road, a very rough dirt road which gradually becomes more passable to automobiles as it proceeds downstream. Continuing east, the Cockermouth River enters the town of Hebron, list of rivers of New Hampshire
The Merrimack River is a 117-mile-long river in the northeastern United States. From Pawtucket Falls in Lowell, onward, the Massachusetts–New Hampshire border is roughly calculated as the three miles north of the river. The Merrimack is an important regional focus in both New Hampshire and Massachusetts, the central-southern part of New Hampshire and most of northeast Massachusetts is known as the Merrimack Valley. Several U. S. naval ships have been named the USS Merrimack, prior to glaciation, the Merrimack continued its southward course far beyond the present day New Hampshire-Massachusetts border to enter the Atlantic Ocean near Boston. Upon the glaciers retreat, debris deposited north of Boston filled the lower Merrimack Valley, the Neville archaeological site is located along the rivers banks in New Hampshire. The total watershed of the river is approximately 4,700 square miles, covering much of southern New Hampshire, at the mouth of the river is the small city of Newburyport. Prior to the construction of the Middlesex Canal, Newburyport was an important shipbuilding city, the river is perhaps best known for the early American literary classic A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers by Henry David Thoreau.
The Merrimack is listed as one of the Navigable Waters of the United States, subject to Section 10, the etymology of the name of the Merrimack River - from which all subsequent uses derive, such as the name of the Civil War ironclad - remains uncertain. There is some evidence that it is Native American, in 1604 the natives of New England told Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts, who was leading a colony of French language speakers to Acadia, of a beautiful river to the south. The French promptly pronounced its name as Merremack. In 1605 Samuel de Champlain followed this lead, found the river, the French and their name did not remain on the Merrimack. These were all members of a nation of Algonquian speakers known as the Nipmuck, according to Joseph B. the rivers rapids. Potter was an authority on Native American affairs in colonial New England, by contrast, in A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers, Henry David Thoreau implies that its name signifies the Sturgeon River. William Woods New Englands Prospect of 1634 calls the river the Merrimacke and it hosts, he says, Sturgeon and Basse, and divers other kinds of fish.
Merrimac, settled in 1638 and originally part of Amesbury, was called West Amesbury until 1876, at time it adopted its current name. Merrimack, New Hampshire, was incorporated in 1746, spelling its name Marrymac in the record of its first town meeting. It is referred to as Merrimac into the early 19th century, in the 1810 decennial census, it was spelled Merrimac, in 1914, US Congressman John Jacob Rogers petitioned that the official spelling be Merrimack. Reports of total rainfall vary, but most areas appear to have received around a foot of rain with some receiving as much as 17 inches
The alewife is an anadromous species of herring found in North America. It is one of the typical North American shads, attributed to the subgenus Pomolobus of the genus Alosa and it is best known for its invasion of the Great Lakes by using the Welland Canal to bypass Niagara Falls. Here its population surged, peaking between the 1950s and 1980s to the detriment of native species of fish, and Pacific salmon were introduced to control them. As a marine fish, the alewife is a US National Marine Fisheries Service Species of Concern, Alewives reach a maximum length of about 40 centimeters, but have an average length of about 25 centimeters. The front of the body is deep and larger than other fish found in the same waters, in Atlantic Canada it is known as the gaspereau. In southwestern Nova Scotia, it is called a kiack, the word gaspereau comes from the Acadian French word gasparot, first mentioned by Nicolas Denys. William Francis Ganong, New Brunswick biologist and historian, Gaspereau, name of a common salt-water fish of Acadia, first used, so far as I can find, by Denys in 1672.
Nowhere can I find any clue to its origin and it seems not to be Indian. Acadians named two rivers after the fish, the Gaspereau River in Nova Scotia and the Gaspereaux River in New Brunswick, in the Southeast US, when sold and used as bait, the fish is often referred to as LY. There are anadromous and landlocked forms, the landlocked form is called a sawbelly or mooneye. Adult alewives are preferred bait for the lobster fishery in Maine. It is used for consumption, usually smoked. It is caught using large dip nets to scoop the fish out of shallow, constricted areas on its migratory streams, Alewives are perhaps best known for their invasion of the Great Lakes by using the Welland Canal to bypass Niagara Falls. Alewives colonized the Great Lakes and became abundant mostly in Lake Huron and they reached their peak abundance by the 1950s and 1980s. Alewives grew in number unchecked because of the lack of a top predator in the lakes, for a time, which often exhibit seasonal die-offs, washed up in windrows on the shorelines of the Great Lakes.
Their control was the impetus for the introduction of various Pacific salmon species to act as predators on them and this caused the development of a salmon/alewife fish community, popular with many sport anglers. Alewives, have been implicated in the decline of many native Great Lakes species through competition and predation, the species is a common predator of numerous native and non-native zooplankton taxa Alewife populations have seen big declines throughout much of their range. In response to the trend for alewife, the states of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Virginia
Lumber, or timber is wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber may refer to currently un-needed furniture, as in Lumber room, or an awkward gait, ultimately derived from the look of unfashionable, Lumber may be supplied either rough-sawn, or surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for furniture-making and it is available in many species, usually hardwoods, but it is readily available in softwoods, such as white pine and red pine, because of their low cost. Lumber is mainly used for structural purposes but has other uses as well. It is classified more commonly as a softwood than as a hardwood, in Australia, New Zealand and Britain, the term timber describes sawn wood products, such as floor boards. In the United States and Canada, generally timber describes standing or felled trees, before they are milled into boards, Timber there describes sawn lumber not less than 5 inches in its smallest dimension.
The latter includes the often partly finished lumber used in timber-frame construction, remanufactured lumber is the result of secondary or tertiary processing/cutting of previously milled lumber. Specifically, it is cut for industrial or wood-packaging use. Lumber is cut by ripsaw or resaw to create dimensions that are not usually processed by a primary sawmill, resawing is the splitting of 1-inch through 12-inch hardwood or softwood lumber into two or more thinner pieces of full-length boards. For example, splitting a ten-foot 2×4 into two ten-foot 1×4s is considered resawing, structural lumber may be produced from recycled plastic and new plastic stock. Its introduction has been opposed by the forestry industry. Blending fiberglass in plastic lumber enhances its strength, logs are converted into timber by being sawn, hewn, or split. Sawing with a rip saw is the most common method, because sawing allows logs of lower quality, with grain and large knots. There are various types of sawing, Plain sawn —A log sawn through without adjusting the position of the log, quarter sawn and rift sawn—These terms have been confused in history but generally mean lumber sawn so the annual rings are reasonably perpendicular to the sides of the lumber.
Boxed heart—The pith remains within the piece with some allowance for exposure, heart center—the center core of a log. Free of heart center —A side-cut timber without any pith, free of knots —No knots are present. Dimensional lumber is lumber that is cut to standardized width and depth, carpenters extensively use dimensional lumber in framing wooden buildings. Common sizes include 2×4, 2×6, and 4×4, the length of a board is usually specified separately from the width and depth
A fish is any member of a group of animals that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfish and cartilaginous, tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered obsolete or paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods, because in this manner the term fish is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology. The traditional term pisces is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification, the earliest organisms that can be classified as fish were soft-bodied chordates that first appeared during the Cambrian period. Although they lacked a true spine, they possessed notochords which allowed them to be more agile than their invertebrate counterparts, fish would continue to evolve through the Paleozoic era, diversifying into a wide variety of forms.
Many fish of the Paleozoic developed external armor that protected them from predators, the first fish with jaws appeared in the Silurian period, after which many became formidable marine predators rather than just the prey of arthropods. Fish are abundant in most bodies of water and they can be found in nearly all aquatic environments, from high mountain streams to the abyssal and even hadal depths of the deepest oceans. With 33,100 described species, fish exhibit greater species diversity than any group of vertebrates. Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide, especially as food and subsistence fishers hunt fish in wild fisheries or farm them in ponds or in cages in the ocean. They are caught by fishers, kept as pets, raised by fishkeepers. Fish have had a role in culture through the ages, serving as deities, religious symbols, fish do not represent a monophyletic group, and therefore the evolution of fish is not studied as a single event. Early fish from the record are represented by a group of small, jawless.
Jawless fish lineages are mostly extinct, an extant clade, the lampreys may approximate ancient pre-jawed fish. The first jaws are found in Placodermi fossils, the diversity of jawed vertebrates may indicate the evolutionary advantage of a jawed mouth. It is unclear if the advantage of a hinged jaw is greater biting force, improved respiration, fish may have evolved from a creature similar to a coral-like sea squirt, whose larvae resemble primitive fish in important ways. The first ancestors of fish may have kept the form into adulthood. Fish are a group, that is, any clade containing all fish contains the tetrapods
Little Suncook River
The Little Suncook River is a 4. 0-mile-long river located in central New Hampshire in the United States. It is a tributary of the Suncook River, part of the Merrimack River watershed, the Little Suncook begins at the outlet of Northwood Lake in the town of Epsom, New Hampshire. Flowing west, it passes through Bixby Pond, passes the villages of Epsom and Gossville, U. S. Route 4 parallels the Little Suncook for the rivers entire length. List of rivers of New Hampshire
Baboosic Brook is a 12. 7-mile-long stream located in southern New Hampshire in the United States. It is a tributary of the Souhegan River, which flows to the Merrimack River, Baboosic Brook begins at the outlet of Baboosic Lake in the town of Amherst, New Hampshire. The brook takes a course through the towns of Amherst, Bedford. Tributaries include Joe English Brook, Pulpit Brook, McQuade Brook, list of rivers of New Hampshire