click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Cocidius

In Romano-British religion, Cocidius was a deity worshipped in northern Britain. The Romans equated him with Mars, god of war and hunting, with Silvanus, god of forests and wild fields. Like Belatucadros, he was worshipped by lower-ranked Roman soldiers as well as by the Britons for whom he was a tribal god - a genius loci. Rivet and Smith note that the name may be related to British Celtic cocco-,'red', suggesting that statues of the god might have been painted red:; the figure discovered in the 1980s in the Otterburn Training Area is known as the Red One. Fanocodi was a Roman place-name mentioned in the Ravenna Cosmography for a location close to the Solway Estuary. There are dedications to Cocidius around Hadrian's Wall and Cumbria, including the forts at Birdoswald and Bewcastle. Another inscription, at Ebchester, refers to him as Cocidius Vernostonus, Cocidius of the alder tree. A 2000-year-old carving of Cocidius was found in 2006 near Chesters Fort on Hadrian's Wall; this was dubbed the little man and shows a figure with its arms flung wide and legs braced against the ground.

Although the gender is not depicted, the shape and accessories are male, with a shield in the left hand, a sword in the right, a scabbard hanging from the belt around his tunic. This is one of at least nine representations known in the Hadrian's Wall corridor, a further 25 or so inscriptions dedicated to him. Most of these are along the western portion of the Wall, the most spectacular being found at Yardhope, where a figure in bas-relief brandishes spear and shield on a vertical rock-face at the entrance to a small shrine. Vernostonos an epithet of Cocidius

Ethics (Spinoza)

Ethics, Demonstrated in Geometrical Order known as the Ethics, is a philosophical treatise written in Latin by Benedict de Spinoza. It was written between 1664 and 1665 and was first published posthumously in 1677; the book is the most ambitious attempt to apply the method of Euclid in philosophy. Spinoza puts forward a small number of definitions and axioms from which he attempts to derive hundreds of propositions and corollaries, such as "When the Mind imagines its own lack of power, it is saddened by it", "A free man thinks of nothing less than of death", "The human Mind cannot be destroyed with the Body, but something of it remains, eternal." The first part of the book addresses the relationship between the universe. Tradition held that God exists outside of the universe, created it for a reason, could have created a different universe if he chose. Spinoza denies each point. According to Spinoza, God is the natural world. Spinoza lays out his argument in a series of "propositions,", he starts with the proposition that “there cannot exist in the universe two or more substances having the same nature or attribute.”

He follows this by arguing that objects and events must not be caused if they occur, but be prevented if they do not, such as by a logical contradiction- if something is non-contradictory, there is no reason that it should not exist. Spinoza begins to reason from these starting ideas. If an object exists, it must be infinite, because otherwise another, object would have to exist and take up the remaining parts of its finite attributes- something, impossible according to earlier proposition. Spinoza uses the Ontological Argument as justification for the existence of God and argues that God must possess all attributes infinitely. Since no two things can share attributes, “besides God no substance can be granted or conceived.”As with many of Spinoza's claims, what this means is a matter of dispute. Spinoza claims that the things that make up the universe, including human beings, are God's "modes"; this means. The nature of this dependence is disputed; some scholars say. Others say. Either way, the modes are logically dependent on God's essence, in this sense: everything that happens follows from the nature of God, just like how it follows from the nature of a triangle that its angles are equal to two right angles.

Since God had to exist with the nature he has, nothing that has happened could have been avoided, if God has fixed a particular fate for a particular mode, there is no escaping it. As Spinoza puts it, "A thing, determined by God to produce an effect cannot render itself undetermined." God's creation of the universe is not much less one motivated by a purpose. The second part focuses on body. Spinoza attacks several Cartesian positions: that the mind and body are distinct substances that can affect one another. Spinoza denies each of Descartes's points. Regarding, Spinoza argues that the mind and the body are a single thing, being thought of in two different ways; the whole of nature can be described in terms of thoughts or in terms of bodies. However, we cannot mix these two ways of describing things, as Descartes does, say that the mind affects the body or vice versa. Moreover, the mind's self-knowledge is not fundamental: it cannot know its own thoughts better than it knows the ways in which its body is acted upon by other bodies.

Further, there is no difference between contemplating an idea and thinking that it is true, there is no freedom of the will at all. Sensory perception, which Spinoza calls "knowledge of the first kind", is inaccurate, since it reflects how our own bodies work more than how things are. We can have a kind of accurate knowledge called "knowledge of the second kind", or "reason"; this encompasses knowledge of the features common to all things, includes principles of physics and geometry. We can have "knowledge of the third kind", or "intuitive knowledge"; this is a sort of knowledge that, relates particular things to the nature of God. In the third part of the Ethics, Spinoza argues that all things, including human beings, strive to persevere in their being; this is taken to mean that things try to last for as long as they can. Spinoza explains. Our mind is in certain cases active, in certain cases passive. In so far as it has adequate ideas it is active, in so far as it has inadequate ideas, it is passive.

The fourth part analyzes human passions, which Spinoza sees as aspects of the mind that direct us outwards to seek what gives pleasure and shun what gives pain. The "bondage" he refers to is domination by these passions or "affects". Spinoza considers how the affects, can torment people and make it impossible for mankind to live in harmony with one another; the fifth part argues that reason can govern the affects in the pursuit of virtue, which for Spinoza is self-preservation: only with the aid of reason can humans distinguish the passions that aid virtue from those that are harmful. By reason, we can see things as they are, sub specie aeternitatis

1996 S.League

The 1996 S. League was the 1st season of the S. League, the top professional football league in Singapore; the S. League came into existence as a result of a fragmenting of relations between Singapore and Malaysian football associations. A dispute over the division of gate receipts for the Singapore representative in the Malaysian Premier League saw Singapore withdraw from the competition in 1995, ending a footballing connection between the two nations that stretched back to 1921, with the first participation of a Singapore team in the Malaya Cup; the semi-professional FAS Premier League was founded in 1988, but had failed to find support amongst the local communities and media. The S. League was therefore created to fill the need to have a professional football league within Singapore; the Football Association of Singapore invited applications for clubs to compete in the newly formed league. Eight successful applications were made, these eight teams took part in a two-stage league season, with the winner of each stage qualifying for the end of season championship decider.

The first half of the season was known as the Tiger Beer Series and the second half was known as the Pioneer Series. Geylang United defeated Singapore Armed Forces FC in the end of season Championship Playoff to be crowned the 1st S. League champions. Eight sides took part in the first S. League campaign; these former Premier League clubs were Balestier United FC who changed their name upon joining the S. League to Balestier Central and the former Singapore Premier League powerhouse Geylang International, winners of six back-to-back Premier League titles, who renamed themselves Geylang United for the first S. League season; the rest were clubs drawn from the amateur National Football League: Police, Singapore Armed Forces, Tampines Rovers, Tiong Bahru United and Wellington Football Club, who renamed themselves Woodlands Wellington. Sembawang Rangers were formed from a merger between two NFL sides, Gibraltar Crescent and Sembawang Sports Club; the Geylang United victory in the Championship Playoff saw them qualify for the 1997–98 Asian Club Championship.

This was the first Singaporean representation in the Asian Club Championship since 1991–92, when Geylang International participated in 1st Round qualifying. Geylang were comfortably defeated by 1996 J. League champions Kashima Antlers in the first round of the East Asian half of the competition, Kashima finishing with an 8–2 aggregate win. Ong, Henry. "Singapore 1996". RSSSF. Retrieved 8 May 2014

World Long Distance Mountain Running Championships

The World Long Distance Mountain Running Championships, is an annual international mountain running competition organised by the World Mountain Running Association. The race is a one-day long-distance running contest for both sexes which has individual and national team aspects; the host for the event changes on an annual basis, with the minimum requirements for the challenge being that the course is no longer than 45 kilometres in distance, includes an uphill ascent of at least 1.6 km, has a rough duration of between one hour and forty-five minutes and four hours for the elite men. The challenge does not take place on specially-made courses, but rather it is incorporated into pre-existing, traditional races; the competition was first held in 2004 on a course from Sierre to Zinal. Since its inception, the challenge has been hosted at competitions including the Three Peaks Race in the United Kingdom, Switzerland's Jungfrau Marathon, the Pikes Peak Marathon in the United States; the event has significant variance in its level of participation: the 2007 race at the Jungfrau Marathon attracted over 4200 runners of fifty nationalities, while at the 2011 of the competition there were 405 runners representing a total of 18 countries.

The 2013 version hosted by the Maraton Karkonoski in Poland, showcased 700 athletes from 22 countries and 16 WMRA Athletic Federation countries. The men's race was won by Mitja Kosovelj of Slovenia in 3:07:36; the women's race was won by Antonella Confortola of Italy in 3:44:51. Italy took Gold in women's team competitions. World Mountain Running Championships European Mountain Running Championships Event page at WMRA

Lotta Comunista

Lotta Comunista is a political party born in Italy that does not recognize parliamentary dynamics for the party's strategy in the current historical period, thus describes itself as unparliamentary. It is a revolutionary and internationalist party founded by Arrigo Cervetto and Lorenzo Parodi in 1965, inspired by the theory and practice of Marx and Lenin; the origins of this organization go back to the 1950s, when some former partisans of GAAP who supported the FCL, who were subsequently expelled from FAI because they became Leninists, subsequently joined the group called Azione Comunista. It had been expelled from the Italian Communist Party as a result of the position it had taken in favor of the 1956 Hungarian insurgents, who were harshly repressed by the Soviets. Stalinism was defined as the reactionary policy of the counterrevolution after the death of Lenin; the group protested against the positions of the Italian Communist Party, considered dependent on the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and dominated by the foreign policy of the USSR.

It was considered in collusion with Italian capitalism. This situation would have strengthened the geopolitical structure, emerging and so that would have prevented emergence and development of Marxist and internationalist forces. In 1965, after a phase of theoretical clarification within the group, it assumed the name of Lotta Comunista that continued the line of abstention strategy against the participation of the party in elections and to what is defined as "bourgeois parliamentary democracy." Unlike other extra-parliamentary groups, Lotta Comunista has never implemented or supported forms of armed struggle during the 1960s and 1970s. The party thinks that a revolution cannot take place if an ideology is not well-established locally and internationally otherwise the revolution will degenerate into state capitalism like Stalinism or a social democracy. So it is devoted only to peaceful propaganda of Marxist ideas, waiting for an event of global reach, like a world war to start a revolution.

The goal of the party is to take root at the organizational level in neighborhoods and universities of some European countries to ensure that a significant proportion of the European working class, in the near future, can be found in the Leninist party. It will be a reference and a guide on how to face the gigantic upheavals that capitalism is leading worldwide. Capitalism, according to Lotta Comunista's thesis, is in fact unable to maintain a world order. According to these claims, the capitalist system of production throws world society into a situation of chaos on a cyclical basis, it creates armed conflict to redefine the market, but, in turn, the general crisis of capitalism gives communists the opportunity to exploit the wars generated by capitalism to promote the proletarian revolution. On this aspect, the thesis of Lotta Comunista refers to the teachings of Lenin outlined in his April Theses. One of the fundamental points of the Lotta Comunista's policy is the so-called "correct and consistent application of Marxism."

Lotta Comunista has always rejected the idea that the Soviet Union, in its satellite countries and Asia, had achieved a form of communism or socialism. Instead they think that the Soviet Union, after Lenin's death, had taken shape as a true aristocracy of bureaucrats constituting a form of capitalism directed and controlled by the ruling political class or state capitalism. Stalin betrayed the revolution not only by highlighting his personal power, but by theorizing the possibility of development of a communist system in a single country in a world dominated by capitalist powers, contrary to what was said by Lenin and Marxists in general. Historiography indicates Lenin as the source of this internationalist concept, it is true that the definition, coined by Stalin to the Congress of the CPSU in 1923, happened at a time that Lenin was weakened by disease and unable to communicate. In which case, the version of a paternity Stalinist historiography remains the most reliable; the featured characteristic of state capitalism created by Stalin, over the savagery in the repression and espionage, was the autarchic closure that he justified by theorizing an imaginary division of the world market into two blocks.

Guido La Barbera, one of the current leaders of Lotta Comunista, said that Stalinism overcame an inherent weakness and chronic capital investing in war, heavy industry and not in developing economic and social infrastructure. On 7 November of each year, Lotta Comunista celebrates the anniversary of the October Revolution. On May 1, defined by Lotta Comunista not as "Labor Day" but as a day of international struggle of workers, Lotta Comunista celebrates the "First May Internationalist" with demonstrations and initiatives in the cities where it is present as an organized political party; the headquarters of Lotta Comunista are located in Genoa but the party operates in more industrial and university realities and it opened several offices abroad in France, Russia and Greece and Brazil. The purpose of Lotta Comunista is to entrench a Leninist party in some locales of key European cities such as the Italian industrial triangle and the Ile de France in Paris. Lotta Comunista publishes and disseminates the namesake monthly, founded in 1965, self-financed.

Editions Lotta Comunista, coll

Fumiya Hayakawa

Fumiya Hayakawa is a Japanese football player. Hayakawa was born in Niigata on January 12, 1994. Being recruited from Albirex Niigata as a youngster, he joined University of Tsukuba for four years. After graduating from university, he joined Albirex Niigata in 2016. In February, he debuted in opening match in 2016 season; however he was diagnosed with leukemia in April. Hayakawa began his fight against the disease, he returned as player from 2019 season. In June 2011, Hayakawa was elected Japan U-17 national team for 2011 U-17 World Cup, he played full time in all 5 scored 3 goals. Fumiya Hayakawa – FIFA competition record Fumiya Hayakawa at J. League Profile at Albirex Niigata