Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Patron saints of places
The idea of assigning a patron saint to a certain locality harks back to the ancient tutelary deities. This is a list of patron saints of places by nation and town/city. If a place is not listed here, it may be listed in "Patronage of the Blessed Virgin Mary". Kingdom of Bosnia – Gregory the Miracle-Worker and Saint Gregory after 1461. Czechoslovakia – Adalbert of Prague, John of Nepomuk, Ludmila and Methodius, Wenceslas Flanders – Willibrord Lorraine – Nicholas of Myra The Mi'kmaq Nation – Anne Principality and Kingdom of Montenegro – Petar I Petrović Njegoš Prussia – Adalbert of Prague, Dorothy of Montau, Jutta of Kulmsee Moldavia – John of Suceava Kingdom of Serbia – Vitus Kingdom of Yugoslavia – Cyril and Methodius Republic of Genoa – Saint George Duchy of Milan – Saint Ambrose Republic of Venice – Saint Mark Australia Brisbane – Mary MacKillopAustria Graz – Giles Linz – Florian Salzburg – Rupert of Salzburg, Vergilius Vienna – Clemens Maria HofbauerBelgium Affligem – Michael Anderlecht – Guy of Anderlecht Antwerp – Walburga Brecht – Michael Bruges – Andrew the Apostle Brussels – Gudula, Michael Ghent – Bavo, Macarius of Antioch, Pharaildis Lier – Gummarus Mons – Waltrude Oudenarde – Walburga Temse – AmalbergaBrazil Ribeirão Preto – Sebastian Taquaritinga – Sebastian Rio de Janeiro – Sebastian São Paulo – Paul the Apostle Minas Gerais – Our Lady of Abbey Jaboticabal – Our Lady of Mount Carmel Uberlândia – Our Lady of AbbeyCanada Deschambault, Quebec – Joseph St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador – John the Baptist Toronto – Michael Colombia Barranquilla – Nicholas of Tolentino and Saint Roch Bogotá – Elizabeth of Hungary Bucaramanga – Immaculate Conception Buenaventura – Bonaventure Cali – James the Greater Cartagena – Peter Claver Cúcuta – Saint Joseph El Guamo – Saint Lucy Envigado – Gertrude the Great Ibagué – Saint Boniface Ipiales – Our Lady of Las Lajas Medellín – Virgin of Candelaria and Lawrence of Rome Mocoa – Michael Montería – Jerome Neiva – Immaculate Conception Pasto – Virgin of Mercy and John the Baptist Popayán – Ecce homo Santa Fe de Antioquia – Saint Barbara Santa Marta – Martha Soacha – Bernardino of Siena Tunja – James the Greater Valledupar – Ecce homoCroatia Dubrovnik – Blaise Losinj – Gaudentius of Ossero Rab – Christopher Rijeka – Vitus Sibenik – Michael Sisak – Quirinus Split – Duje Zagreb – MaryCuba Caraballo – Paul the Apostle's Conversion Havana, Cuba – ChristopherCzech Republic Brandýs nad Labem-Stará Boleslav – Wenceslas Brušperk – George Brno – Saint Primitivus and Saint Constantius České Budějovice – Saint Auratianus Dobřany – Vitus Frenštát pod Radhoštěm – Martin of Tours Hradec Králové – Clement of Rome Nepomuk – John of Nepomuk Plzeň – Bartholomew Polná – Saint Ligorius Prague – John of Nepomuk, WenceslasDenmark Odense – Saint Alban Slagelse – Michael Aarhus – Saint Clement of RomeEcuador Guayaquil – James the Greater Quito – Francis of Assisi Quito – Santa Maria del CisneEgypt Alexandria – Cyril of AlexandriaFrance Abbeville – Wulfram of Sens Albi – Cecilia Autun – Symphorian Avignon – Agricola of Avignon -, Benezet Baume-les-Messieurs, Fleury-sur-Loire – Drogo Besançon – Ferreolus and Ferrutio Dijon – Benignus of Dijon, Urban of Langres Saint-Fiacre – Fiacre Gap, Hautes-Alpes – Arnulph Limoges – Martial Lourdes – Bernadette of Lourdes Orléans – Joan of Arc Paris – Denis, Genevieve Ploërmel – Saint Armel Plourin – Budoc Toulouse – Saturnin Tours – Gatianus of Tours, Martin of Tours Vannes – PaternusGermany Aachen – Mary, Matthias Augsburg – Afra, Ulric Berlin – Benno, Otto of Bamberg, Hedwig of Silesia Bonn – Cassius of Narni, Adelaide Bremen – Oscar Brunswick – Andrew, Blaise, Christopher Cologne – Cunibert, Ursula Dresden – Benno Düsseldorf – Apollinaris of Ravenna Dormagen – Michael Hamburg – Oscar Hanover – Matthias Frankfurt am Main – Helen Freiburg im Breisgau – George Koblenz – Mary Konstanz – Pelagius of Constance Lübeck – Nicholas Mainz – Alban of Mainz, Boniface Munich – Benno Münster – Ludger of Utrecht Nuremberg – Sebaldus Regensburg – Wolfgang, Emmeram Stuttgart – Christopher Trier – Maximinus, Peter Würzburg – Burchard of Würzburg Zeitz – MichaelGreece Agios Nikolaos, Crete – Nicholas Athens – Dionysius the Areopagite Cephallonia – Gerasimus of Cephallonia Corfu – Arsenius of Corfu, Spyridon Corinth – Dionysius of Corinth Heraklion – Menas Katerini – Catherine Larissa – Achillius of Larissa Lefkada – Spyridon Patras – Andrew Piraeus – Spyridon Skiathos – Mary Skopelos – Riginos Sparta – Nikon the Metanoeite Syros – Nicholas Thessaloniki – Demetrius of Thessaloniki Tinos – Pelagia Zakynthos – Dionysios of ZakynthosHaiti Port-au-Prince – Our Lady of the Assumption Cap-Haïtien – Our Lady of the Assumption Les Cayes – Our Lady of the Assumption Jacmel – St James the Less and St Philip the ApostleHungary Budapest – Gül Baba Dunakeszi – Michael Szentendre – AndrewIndia Calcutta – Saint Teresa of CalcuttaIreland Clonmacnoise – Ciaran the Younger Cloyne – Colman of Cloyne Cork – Finbarr Dublin – Laurence O'Toole Fahan – Mura Ferns – Aeden of Ferns Kilbarry/Tarmonberry – Saint Berach Kilmallock, County Limerick – Mochelloc Limerick – Munchin Ross – FachananItaly Abruzzi – Saint Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows Amalfi – Andrew the Apostle Ancona – Judas Cyriacus Aosta – Gratus of Aosta Aquila – Maximus of Aquila Assisi – Francis of Assisi Bari – Nicholas, Sabinus Benevento – Arthelais, Barbatus of Benevento Bergamo – Alexander of Bergamo Bologna – Saint Petronius Brescia – Faustinus and Jovita Brindisi – Lawrence of Brindisi Caltanissetta – Michael Capriate San Gervasio – Alexander of Bergamo Castellabate – Constabilis Castelplanio – Joseph Catania – Agatha, Aloysius Gonzaga Cervignano d'Adda – Alexander of Bergamo Como – Abundius Cuneo – Michael Craco – Vincenzo Martyr Fabriano – Adrian of Nicomedia Ferrara – George Florence – J
Ciudad de Mendoza is the capital of the province of Mendoza in Argentina. It is located in the northern-central part of the province, in a region of foothills and high plains, on the eastern side of the Andes; as of the 2010 census, Mendoza had a population of 115,041 with a metropolitan population of 1,055,679, making Greater Mendoza the fourth largest census metropolitan area in the country. Ruta Nacional 7, the major road running between Buenos Aires and Santiago, runs through Mendoza; the city is a frequent stopover for climbers on their way to Aconcagua and for adventure travelers interested in mountaineering, horse riding and other sports. In the winter, skiers come to the city for easy access to the Andes. Two of the main industries of the Mendoza area are Argentine wine; the region around Greater Mendoza is the largest wine-producing area in Latin America. As such, Mendoza is one of the nine Great Wine Capitals, the city is an emerging enotourism destination and base for exploring the region's hundreds of wineries located along the Argentina Wine Route.
On March 2, 1561, Pedro del Castillo founded the city and named it Ciudad de Mendoza del Nuevo Valle de La Rioja after the governor of Chile, Don García Hurtado de Mendoza. Before the 1560s the area was populated by tribes known as the Puelches; the Huarpes devised a system of irrigation, developed by the Spanish. This allowed for an increase in population; the system is still evident today in the wide trenches, which run along all city streets, watering the 100,000 trees that line every street in Mendoza. It is estimated that fewer than 80 Spanish settlers lived in the area before 1600, but prosperity increased due to the use of indigenous and slave labor, the Jesuit presence in the region; when nearby rivers were tapped as a source of irrigation in 1788 agricultural production increased. The extra revenues generated from this, the ensuing additional trade with Buenos Aires, no doubt led to the creation of the state of Cuyo in 1813 with José de San Martín as governor, it was from Mendoza that San Martín and other Argentinian and Chilean patriots organized the army with which they won the independence of Chile and Peru.
Mendoza suffered a severe earthquake in 1861. The city was rebuilt, incorporating innovative urban designs that would better tolerate such seismic activity. Mendoza was rebuilt with large squares and wider streets and sidewalks than any other city in Argentina. Avenue Bartolomé Mitre and additional small squares are examples of that design. Tourism, wine production, more the exploitation of hard commodities such as oil and uranium ensure Mendoza's status as a key regional center. Important suburbs such as Godoy Cruz, Guaymallén, Las Heras, Luján de Cuyo and Maipú have in recent decades far outpaced the city proper in population. Comprising half the metro population of 212,000 in 1947, these suburbs grew to nearly ⅞ of the total metro area of over 1,000,000 by 2015, making Mendoza the most dispersed metro area in Argentina. Mendoza has several museums, including the Museo Cornelio Moyano, a natural history museum, the Museo del Área Fundacional on Pedro del Castillo Square; the Museo Nacional del Vino, focusing on the history of winemaking in the area, is 17 kilometres southeast of Mendoza in Maipú.
The Casa de Fader, a historic house museum, is an 1890 mansion once home to artist Fernando Fader in nearby Mayor Drummond, 14 kilometres south of Mendoza. The mansion is home to many of the artist's paintings; the Fiesta Nacional de la Vendimia occurs in early March each year. Part of the festivities include a beauty pageant, where 17 beauty queens from each department of Mendoza Province compete, one winner is selected by a panel of about 50 judges; the queen of Mendoza city's department acts as host for the other queens. In 2008, National Geographic listed Mendoza as one of the top 10 historic destinations in the world. Mendoza has a number of universities, including the major Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, as well as University of Mendoza, a branch of Universidad Congreso, Aconcagua University, UTN and Champagnat University. Mendoza is a popular place to learn Spanish, there are a number of Spanish language schools, including Intercultural, Green Fields and SIMA; the city is centered around Plaza Independencia with Avenida Sarmiento running through its center east-west, with the east side pedestrianized.
Other major streets, running perpendicular to Sarmiento, include Bartolomé Mitre, San Martín, 9 de Julio, those running parallel include Colón, Las Heras. Four smaller plazas, San Martín, Chile and España, are located 2 blocks off each corner of Independence Plaza. Unique to Mendoza are the exposed stone ditches small canals, which run alongside many of the roads supplying water to the thousands of trees; the Parque General San Martín was designed by Carlos Thays. Its grounds include the Mendoza Zoological Park and a football stadium, it is the home of the Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. A view of the city is available from the top of Cerro de la Gloria. Mendoza is 380 km from Santiago, Chile. Gov. Francisco Gabrielli International Airport serves Mendoza, with flights to/from Buenos Aires taking less than 2 hours and less than 1 hour to/from Santi
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
Tarija or San Bernardo de la Frontera de Tarixa is a city in southern Bolivia. Founded in 1574, Tarija is the largest city & capital and municipality within the Tarija Department, with an airport offering regular service to primary Bolivian cities, as well as a regional bus terminal with domestic and international connections, its climate is semi-arid with mild temperatures in contrast to the harsh cold of the Altiplano and the year-round humid heat of the Amazon Basin. Tarija has a population of 234,442; the name of Tarija is said to come from Francisco de Tarija or Tarifa, researched information disproves that probability. Members of the first group of Spaniards to enter the valley where present-day Tarija is situated, stated that the name of Tarija was in use; this group did not include anyone by the name of Francisco de Tarija. Similar-sounding toponyms exist for surrounding places, such as Taxara. In 1826 the citizens of Tarija voted to become part of Bolivia. In 1807, Tarija had become separated from Upper Peru to become part of the jurisdiction of Salta, but because of its close ties to what became Bolivia, it returned to its original jurisdiction.
In 1899, Argentina renounced its claims in exchange for the Puna de Atacama. The valley that Tarija is situated in was first occupied by Western Hemispheric indigenous groups, such as the Churumatas and the Tomatas. Subsequently, the Inca Empire – administered by the Quechua civilization – conquered the land and dispersed the Churumatas and other local groups over wide territories of the Andes. Mitimaes is the Quechuan name that the Incas used for the resisting ethnic groups they uprooted and dispersed geographically; when the Spanish first arrived to the valley of Tarija they encountered several stone roads, most the remnants of pre-Incaic cultures, such as that of the Churumatas. However, during that period, the presence of indigenous peoples remained sparse within the valley. Several of the pre-Incaic roads and trials have been preserved, function as a walking trail for Tarijeños. Tarija has a semi-arid climate; the summers are warm and humid, while "winters” are dry, with any rainfall, temperatures warm during the day and cooler at night.
All the annual precipitation is received during the southern-hemisphere summer months. Freezes occur from May to October. Tarija's main plaza is surrounded by restaurants of various cuisines, local handicraft shops, internet cafes. Within immediate walking distance is the public market, a university campus, a number of tourist sights including the Paleontology Museum of Tarija City; the city includes higher-end restaurants as well as fast food restaurants like McRonalds and Homeros. Tarija's nightlife, including dance clubs, is popular with tourists. From Tarija, primary destinations and land routes coincide with the cardinal directions: Paraguay/the Gran Chaco, to the east via Yacuiba; the route to the altiplano and Potosí is much safer, as of December 2012. A new tunnel bypasses the mountain just west of the city of Tarija; the San Jacinto Dam is located a few kilometers south of Tarija, the Chorros de Jurina falls is located a few kilometers northwest from the city. Tarija's land and climate are adequate for wine production.
The Festival of Wine is held annually in Tarija. Tarija is regarded by Bolivian nationals and tourists alike as the "Bolivian Andalusia"; the Guadalquivir River that borders the city was named after the Spanish river of the same name. Residents of Tarija call themselves Chapacos, regardless of ethnic background. Although the origin of the name is uncertain, there is a hypothesis that it is a variation of chacapa, the name of an indigenous settlement in the region during early colonial times. During Bolivia's post-revolutionary period, the Chapacos voted in favor of being annexed by Bolivia instead of Argentina. For that reason, Tarijeños have been included among Bolivia's most patriotic people. However, the modern culture is isolated from the rest of urban Bolivia, in recent times, many Tarijeñans feel much more connected to Tarija itself than to the rest of Bolivia, their local creed is reflected in a famous, folkloric Cueca song, titled "Chapaco Soy". Reykjavík, Iceland Cobija, Bolivia Grimstad, Norway Brasschaat, Belgium Glasgow, United Kingdom Salta, Argentina Cannes, France Arica, Chile Seville, Spain Los Angeles, U.
S. Tarija City Guide Tarija profile
A national dish is a culinary dish, associated with a particular country. A dish can be considered a national dish for a variety of reasons: It is a staple food, made from a selection of locally available foodstuffs that can be prepared in a distinctive way, such as fruits de mer, served along the west coast of France, it contains a particular'exotic' ingredient, produced locally, such as the South American paprika grown in the European Pyrenees. It is served as a festive culinary tradition that forms part of a cultural heritage—for example, barbecues at summer camp or fondue at dinner parties—or as part of a religious practice, such as Korban Pesach or Iftar celebrations, it has been promoted as a national dish, by the country itself, such as the promotion of fondue as a national dish of Switzerland by the Swiss Cheese Union in the 1930s. National dishes are part of a nation's self-image. During the age of European empire-building, nations would develop a national cuisine to distinguish themselves from their rivals.
According to Zilkia Janer, a lecturer on Latin American culture at Hofstra University, it is impossible to choose a single national dish unofficially, for countries such as Mexico, China or India because of their diverse ethnic populations and cultures. The cuisine of such countries cannot be represented by any single national dish. Furthermore, because national dishes are so interwoven into a nation's sense of identity, strong emotions and conflicts can arise when trying to choose a country's national dish. In Latin America, dishes may be claimed or designated as a "plato nacional", although in many cases, recipes transcend national borders with only minor variations. Both Peru and Ecuador claim ceviche as their national dish. Stews of meat and root vegetables are the platos nacionales of several countries in Central America, South America, the Caribbean: Colombian ajiaco, as well as the sancocho of the Dominican Republic and Panama, are examples of platos nacionales. Janer observes that this sharing of the same plato nacional by different countries calls into question the idea that every country has a unique national dish, special to that country.
The identification of Latin American national dishes is stronger among expatriate communities in North America. In Latin American countries, the plato nacional is part of the cuisine of rural and peasant communities, not part of the everyday cuisine of city dwellers. In expatriate communities, the dish is reclaimed in order to retain the sense of national identity and ties to one's homeland, is proudly served in homes and restaurants. By this show of national identity, the community can resist social pressures that push for homogenization of many ethnically and culturally diverse communities into a single all-encompassing group identity, such as Latino or Hispanic American; this is not a definitive list of national dishes, but rather a list of some foods that have been suggested to be national dishes. Afghanistan: Kabuli Palaw Albania: Tavë kosi Algeria: Couscous, chakhchoukha Andorra: Escudella Angola: Muamba de galinha Antigua and Barbuda: Pepperpot, Fungee Argentina: Asado, Locro, Choripán Armenia: Khash, Dolma, Khorovats Aruba: Keshi yena Australia: Vegemite on toast, Meat pie, Roast lamb, Austria: Wiener Schnitzel Azerbaijan: Dolma, qutab Bahamas: Crack conch with peas and rice Bahrain: Machboos Bangladesh: Rice and Ilish, Shorshe Ilish, Machh bhaja, Machher Jhol, Chicken Korma Barbados: Cou-Cou and Flying Fish Belarus: Draniki Belgium: Moules-frites, Belgian waffle, frites Belize: Boil up, Fry jack Benin: Kuli Kuli Bermuda: Bermuda fish chowder Bhutan: Ema datshi Bolivia: Salteñas Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosnian pot, Ćevapi Botswana: Seswaa Brazil: Feijoada Brunei: Ambuyat Bulgaria: Banitsa, Bob chorba, Shopska salad Burkina Faso: Riz Gras Burundi: Boko-Boko Cambodia: Amok trey, Samlor Kako Cameroon: Ndolé Canada: Poutine, Nanaimo bar, Butter tarts, Kraft Dinner, Tourtière, Peameal Bacon Cape Verde: Cachupa Central African Republic: Cassava fufu, Peanut soup Chad: Boule Chile: Empanada, Pastel de choclo China, People's Republic of: Peking Duck, chinese fried rice, Mao's braised pork Hong Kong: Crispy fried chicken Macau: Minchee Colombia: Sancocho, Bandeja paisa Comoros: Langouste a la Vanille Democratic Republic of the Congo: Poulet à la Moambé Republic of the Congo: Poulet Moambé, Poulet Yassa Costa Rica: Gallo pinto Croatia: Zagorski Štrukli, Brudet, Istrian stew Cuba: Ropa vieja, Moros y cristianos Cyprus: Souvla Czech Republic: Vepřo knedlo zelo, Svíčková Denmark: Stegt Flæsk, Bøfsandwich, Frikadeller and Smørrebrød Greenland: Kiviak, suaasat Djibouti: Skoudehkaris Dominica: Mountain chicken, Fish broth Dominican Republic: La Bandera ("The Flag".
Argentine National Anthem
The "Argentine National Anthem" is the national anthem of Argentina. Its lyrics were written by the Buenos Aires-born politician Vicente López y Planes and the music was composed by the Spanish musician Blas Parera; the work was adopted as the sole official song on May 11, 1813, three years after the May Revolution. Some first, quite different, anthems were composed from 1810; the present, much shorter, anthem comprises only the first and last verses and the chorus of the 1813 Patriotic March, omitting much emotional text about the struggle for independence from Spain. The third Argentine national anthem was named "Marcha Patriótica" renamed "Canción Patriótica Nacional", "Canción Patriótica", it has been called "Himno Nacional Argentino" since it was published with that name in 1847. The first Argentine national anthem was the "Patriotic March", published on 15 November 1810 in the Gazeta de Buenos Ayres, it had lyrics by music by Blas Parera. This original composition made no reference to the name of Argentina or an independentist will, talked instead about Spain being conquered by France in the Peninsular War, the absolutist restoration begun by the Council of Regency, the need to keep the republican freedoms achieved so far in the Americas: "Spain was victim / of the plotting Gaul / because to the tyrants / she bent her neck / If there treachery / has doomed a thousands cities / let sacred freedom and union reign here / Let the father to the sons / be able to say / enjoy rights / that I did not enjoy".
In mid-1812, the ruling triumvirate ordered the Buenos Aires Cabildo to commission a national anthem. Cayetano Rodríguez, a Franciscan friar, wrote a text, approved on 4 August; the Catalan musician Blas Parera, music director of the local theater, set it to music and performed it for the first time with the orchestra he conducted on 1 November. Less than a year the Assembly of Year XIII estimated that the song was not effective enough to serve as a national anthem. On 6 March 1813 several poets were asked to submit lyrics; the poem by the lawyer Vicente López y Planes was unanimously considered the best. It was approved as the "sole national march" on May 11, 1813. Parera was asked to compose a new musical setting around the same date, he must have finished the piece in a few days. Oral tradition has it that the premiere took place on May 14, 1813 at the home of the aristocrat Mariquita Sánchez de Thompson, but there is no documentary evidence of that. If this episode is true Parera, contrary to certain misconceptions and under no visible coercion.
The published song sheet is dated 14 May 1813. He again conducted the official premiere in the theater on May 28, was paid 200 pesos; the composition was known as Canción Patriótica Nacional, simply as Canción Patriótica, but in Juan Pedro Esnaola's early arrangement, dated around 1848, it appeared under the title Himno Nacional Argentino, the name has been retained until today. In the complete version of the Anthem of May it is noted that the political vision portrayed is not only Argentine, but Latin American; the lyrics are ardently pro-independence and anti-Spanish, as the country was at that time fighting for its independence from Spain. The song became popular immediately. Within ten years documented performances took place throughout Argentina, in Chile and Colombia until they had their own national anthems. Different versions emerged. In 1860 Esnaola was commissioned to create an official version, he took the task to heart, making many changes to the music, including a slower tempo, a fuller texture, alterations to the melody, enrichment of the harmony.
In 1927 a committee produced a historicist version that undid several of Esnaola's changes, but introduced new problems in the sung line. After a heated public debate fueled by the newspaper La Prensa, this version was rejected and, following the recommendations of a second committee, Esnaola's arrangement was reinstated. In 1944 it was confirmed as the official state anthem. Throughout the 19th century the anthem was sung in its entirety. However, once harsh feelings against Spain had dissipated, the country had become home to many Spanish immigrants, a modification was introduced by a decree of President Julio Argentino Roca on March 30, 1900: "Without producing alterations in the lyrics of the National Anthem, there are in it verses that describe the concept that nations universally have regarding their anthems in peaceful times, that harmonize with the serenity and dignity of thousands of Spanish that share our living, those that can and must be preferred to be sung in official parties, for they respect the traditions and the law in no offense to anyone, the President of the Republic decrees that: In official or public parties, as well as in public schools, shall be sung only the first and last verses and the chorus of the National Song sanctioned by the General Assembly on May 11, 1813."
The song includes a line that has given rise to controversy: Buenos--Ayres se pone á la frente De los pueblos de la ínclita union. In the manuscript and an early printed song-sheet the word opone is used.