Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Government of South Australia
The Government of South Australia referred to as the South Australian Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of South Australia. The Government of South Australia, a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1856 as prescribed in its Constitution, as amended from time to time. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, South Australia has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Constitution of Australia regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. Under the Australian Constitution, South Australia ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. South Australia is governed according to the principles of the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom. Legislative power rests with the Parliament of South Australia, which consists of the South Australian Legislative Council and the South Australian House of Assembly, with general elections held every four years.
Executive power rests formally with the executive council, which consists of the governor and senior ministers. In practice, executive power is exercised by the premier of South Australia and the cabinet, who are appointed by the governor, but who hold office by virtue of their ability to command the support of a majority of members of the House of Assembly. Judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court of South Australia and a system of subordinate courts, but the High Court of Australia and other federal courts have overriding jurisdiction on matters which fall under the ambit of the Australian constitution; the current ministry of the South Australian Government comprises the following Liberal members: The South Australian Government delivers services, determines policy and regulations, including legal interpretation, by a number of agencies grouped under areas of portfolio responsibility. Each portfolio is led by a government minister, a member of the Parliament; as of July 2016 there were twenty one lead agencies, called government departments, that consist of: Attorney-General's Department Auditor-General's Department Department for Communities and Social Inclusion Department for Correctional Services Country Fire Service Courts Administration Authority Defence SA Department for Education and Child Development Electoral Commission of South Australia Department of Environment and Natural Resources Department for Health and Ageing Legal Services Commission South Australian Metropolitan Fire Service Department of Planning and Infrastructure Department of the Premier and Cabinet Department of Primary Industries and Regions Department of Treasury and Finance SAFECOM South Australia Police Department of State Development State Emergency ServiceA range of other agencies support the functions of these departments.
South Australian Forestry Corporation trading as ForestrySA South Australian Water Corporation trading as SA Water List of South Australian government agencies List of South Australian Ministries Government of South Australia website The Constitution of South Australia
Thomas Mann was a noted British trade unionist. Self-educated, Mann became a successful organiser and a popular public speaker in the labour movement. Mann was born on 15 April 1856 in Grange Road, now a suburb of Coventry, the son of a clerk who worked at a colliery, he attended school from the ages of six to nine began work doing odd jobs on the colliery farm. A year he became a trapper, a labour-intensive job that involved clearing blockages from the narrow airways in the mining shafts. In 1870, the colliery was forced to close and the family moved to Birmingham. Mann soon found work as an engineering apprentice, he attended public meetings addressed by Annie Besant and John Bright, this began his political awareness. He completed his apprenticeship in 1877 and moved to London, however he was unable to find work as an engineer and took a series of unskilled jobs. In 1879, Mann found work in an engineering shop. Here he was introduced to socialism by the foreman, decided to improve his own education.
His reading included the works of Henry George and John Ruskin. In 1881 he joined the Amalgamated Society of Engineers, took part in his first strike. In 1884, he joined the Social Democratic Federation in Battersea. Here he met John Burns and Henry Hyde Champion, who encouraged him to publish a pamphlet calling for the working day to be limited to eight hours. Mann formed an organisation, the Eight Hour League, which pressured the Trades Union Congress to adopt the eight-hour day as a key goal. After reading the Communist Manifesto in 1886, Mann became a communist, he now believed the main purpose of the labour movement should be to overthrow capitalism, rather than just to ameliorate the condition of workers under it. He organised the SDF in the north of England, he managed Keir Hardie's electoral campaign in Lanark before returning to London in 1888, where he worked in support of the Bryant and May match factory strike. With Burns and Champion, he began producing a journal, the Labour Elector, in 1888.
Along with Burns and Ben Tillett, Mann was one of the leading figures in the London dock strike of 1889. He was responsible for organising relief for their families. With the support of other unions and various organisations, the strike was successful. Following the strike, Mann was elected President of the newly formed Dock, Wharf and General Labourers' Union, with Tillett as General Secretary. Tillett and Mann wrote a pamphlet called New Unionism, which advanced the utopian ideal of a co-operative commonwealth. Mann was elected to the London Trades and Labour Council and as secretary of the National Reform Union, was a member of the Royal Commission on Labour from 1891 to 1893. In 1894, he was a founding member of the Independent Labour Party and became the party Secretary in 1894, he was an unsuccessful candidate for the party in the 1895 General Election. In 1896 he was beaten in the election for Secretary of the Amalgamated Society of Engineers, he helped create the International Transport Workers' Federation, was its first President.
He was deported from a number of European countries for organising trade unions. Mann's religious belief was as strong as his politics, he was an Anglican and organised support from Christian organisations like the Salvation Army during a number of strikes. In 1893 there were rumours, he advocated the co-operative model of economic organisation, but resisted alliance between the ILP and other socialist organisations in Britain, like the Fabians. In 1895, the Fabian Beatrice Webb criticised Mann's absolutism and described his goal derogatorily as, "a body of men all professing the same creed and all working in exact uniformity to the same end". Philip Snowden, a member of the ILP, liked Mann but was critical of his inability to stay with any one party or organisation for more than a few years. In 1902, Mann emigrated to Australia, to see if that country's broader electoral franchise would allow more "drastic modification of capitalism". Settling in Melbourne, he was active in Australian trade unions and became an organiser for the Australian Labor Party.
However, he grew disillusioned with the party, believing it was being corrupted by the nature of government and concerned only with winning elections. He felt that the federal Labour MPs were unable and unwilling to change society, their prominence within the movement was stifling and over-shadowing organised labour, he founded the Victorian Socialist Party. Returning to Britain in 1910, Mann wrote The Way to Win, a pamphlet that argued that socialism could be achieved only through trade unionism and co-operation, that parliamentary democracy was inherently corrupt, he founded the Industrial Syndicalist Education League, worked as an organiser for Ben Tillett. He led the 1911 Liverpool General Transport Strike. In 1912 he was convicted under the Incitement to Mutiny Act 1797 of publishing an article in The Syndicalist, as an'Open Letter to British Soldiers', urging them to refuse to shoot at strikers, he was opposed to Britain's involvement in World War I on socialist and religious grounds and addressed pacifist rallies.
On 10 June 1913 he spoke at Wednesbury Market Place in support of strikers in the Great Black Country Trades Dispute, which lasted for two months and threatened government preparations for World War I. Mann returned to the area again on 3 July. In 1917, he joined the successor to the Social Democratic Federation, the British Socialist Party, which had affiliated to the Labour Party the previous year. In 1919, he again ran
The Barrier Highway is a highway in New South Wales and South Australia signposted as part of route A32. The Barrier Highway starts at Nyngan, it heads west past Hermidale and Boppy Mountain to a mining town. It continues to Wilcannia where it crosses the Darling River. Further west it passes through Broken Hill and enters South Australia, turning southwest towards Adelaide, it joins Main North Road at Giles Corner between Tarlee. Route A32 continues on Main North Road to Gawler where it joins Route A20; the area traversed by the Barrier Highway is remote and sparsely settled. The name of the highway is derived from the Barrier Ranges, an area of moderately high ground in the far west of New South Wales, which the highway traverses. Highways in Australia List of highways in New South Wales List of highways in South Australia
A mineral is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound that occurs in pure form. A rock may consist of a single mineral, or may be an aggregate of two or more different minerals, spacially segregated into distinct phases. Compounds that occur only in living beings are excluded, but some minerals are biogenic and/or are organic compounds in the sense of chemistry. Moreover, living beings synthesize inorganic minerals that occur in rocks. In geology and mineralogy, the term "mineral" is reserved for mineral species: crystalline compounds with a well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure. Minerals without a definite crystalline structure, such as opal or obsidian, are more properly called mineraloids. If a chemical compound may occur with different crystal structures, each structure is considered different mineral species. Thus, for example and stishovite are two different minerals consisting of the same compound, silicon dioxide; the International Mineralogical Association is the world's premier standard body for the definition and nomenclature of mineral species.
As of November 2018, the IMA recognizes 5,413 official mineral species. Out of more than 5,500 proposed or traditional ones; the chemical composition of a named mineral species may vary somewhat by the inclusion of small amounts of impurities. Specific varieties of a species sometimes have official names of their own. For example, amethyst is a purple variety of the mineral species quartz; some mineral species can have variable proportions of two or more chemical elements that occupy equivalent positions in the mineral's structure. Sometimes a mineral with variable composition is split into separate species, more or less arbitrarily, forming a mineral group. Besides the essential chemical composition and crystal structure, the description of a mineral species includes its common physical properties such as habit, lustre, colour, tenacity, fracture, specific gravity, fluorescence, radioactivity, as well as its taste or smell and its reaction to acid. Minerals are classified by key chemical constituents.
Silicate minerals comprise 90% of the Earth's crust. Other important mineral groups include the native elements, oxides, carbonates and phosphates. One definition of a mineral encompasses the following criteria: Formed by a natural process. Stable or metastable at room temperature. In the simplest sense, this means. Classical examples of exceptions to this rule include native mercury, which crystallizes at −39 °C, water ice, solid only below 0 °C. Modern advances have included extensive study of liquid crystals, which extensively involve mineralogy. Represented by a chemical formula. Minerals are chemical compounds, as such they can be described by fixed or a variable formula. Many mineral groups and species are composed of a solid solution. For example, the olivine group is described by the variable formula 2SiO4, a solid solution of two end-member species, magnesium-rich forsterite and iron-rich fayalite, which are described by a fixed chemical formula. Mineral species themselves could have a variable composition, such as the sulfide mackinawite, 9S8, a ferrous sulfide, but has a significant nickel impurity, reflected in its formula.
Ordered atomic arrangement. This means crystalline. An ordered atomic arrangement gives rise to a variety of macroscopic physical properties, such as crystal form and cleavage. There have been several recent proposals to classify amorphous substances as minerals; the formal definition of a mineral approved by the IMA in 1995: "A mineral is an element or chemical compound, crystalline and, formed as a result of geological processes." Abiogenic. Biogenic substances are explicitly excluded by the IMA: "Biogenic substances are chemical compounds produced by biological processes without a geological component and are not regarded as minerals. However, if geological processes were involved in the genesis of the compound the product can be accepted as a mineral."The first three general characteristics are less debated than the last two. Mineral classification schemes and their definitions are evolving to match recent advances in mineral science. Recent changes have included the addition of an organic class, in both the new Dana and the Strunz classification schemes.
The organic class includes a rare group of minerals with hydrocarbons. The IMA Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names adopted in 2009 a hierarchical scheme for the naming and classification of mineral groups and group names and established seven commissions and four working groups to review and classify minerals into an official listing of their published names. According to these new r
Broken Hill is an inland mining city in the far west of outback New South Wales, Australia. It is near the border with South Australia on the crossing of the Barrier Highway and the Silver City Highway, in the Barrier Range, it is 315 m above sea level, with a hot desert climate, an average rainfall of 235 mm. The closest major city is Adelaide, the capital of South Australia, more than 500 km to the southwest and linked via route A32; the town has a high historical importance in Australia's mining and economic history after the discovery of silver ore led to the opening of various mines, thus establishing Broken Hill's recognition as a prosperous mining town well into the 1990s. Despite experiencing a slowing economic situation into the late 1990s and 2000s, Broken Hill itself was listed on the National Heritage List in 2015 and remains Australia's longest running mining town. Broken Hill has been referred to as "The Silver City", less as the "Oasis of the West", the "Capital of the Outback".
Although over 1,100 km west of Sydney and surrounded by semi-desert, the town has prominent park and garden displays and offers a number of attractions, such as the Living Desert Sculptures. The town has a high potential for solar power, given its extensive daylight hours of sunshine; the Broken Hill Solar Plant, completed in 2015, is one of the largest in the Southern Hemisphere. Unlike the rest of New South Wales, Broken Hill observes Australian Central Standard Time, the same time zone used in South Australia and the Northern Territory; this is because at the time the Australian dominions adopted standard time, Broken Hill's only direct rail link was with Adelaide, not Sydney. Broken Hill is regarded as part of South Australia for the purposes of postal parcels rates, telephone charges. Broken Hill used to be a break of gauge station where the state railway systems of South Australia and New South Wales met. Broken Hill is Australia's longest-lived mining city. In 1844, the explorer Charles Sturt saw and named the Barrier Range, at the time referred to a "Broken Hill" in his diary.
Silver ore was discovered on this broken hill in 1883 by a boundary rider named Charles Rasp. The "broken hill" that gave its name to Broken Hill comprised a number of hills that appeared to have a break in them; the broken hill no longer exists. The area was known as Willyama. Prior to Sturt's naming, the surrounding area was referred to by the local Aboriginal population as the "Leaping Crest". Broken Hill's massive orebody, which formed about 1,800 million years ago, has proved to be among the world's largest silver–lead–zinc mineral deposits; the orebody is shaped like a boomerang plunging into the earth at its ends and outcropping in the centre. The protruding tip of the orebody stood out as a jagged rocky ridge amongst undulating plain country on either side; this was known as the broken hill by early pastoralists. Miners called the ore body the Line of Lode. A unique mineral identified from Broken Hill has been named Nyholmite after Ron Nyholm. Lead with the isotope signature of the Broken Hill deposits has been found across the entire continent of Antarctica in ice cores dating back to the late nineteenth century.
The earliest human settlers in the area around Broken Hill are thought to have been the Wiljakali Indigenous Australians, once thought to have only intermittently lived in the area because of the lack of permanent water sources, but it has since been found that the Indigenous Clans of the area were able to survive on underground water holes and wells that were unknown to the European settlers. Many of these waterholes are still kept secret from non-Indigenous people; as in much of Australia, a combination of white settler disease and aggression drove them from their lands. The first whites to visit the area was Surveyor General of New South Wales, Major Thomas Mitchell, in 1841. Three years in 1844, the explorer Charles Sturt saw and named the Barrier Range while searching for an inland sea. Burke and Wills passed through the area on their famous 1860–61 expedition, setting up a base camp at nearby Menindee. Pastoralists first began settling the area in the 1850s, the main trade route to the area was along the Darling River.
Broken Hill was founded in 1883 by boundary rider Charles Rasp, who patrolled the Mount Gipps fences. In 1883 he discovered what he thought was tin; the orebody they came from proved to be the richest of its kind in the world. Rasp and six associates founded the Broken Hill Proprietary Company BHP Billiton, now BHP again, in 1885 as the Syndicate of Seven. By 1915 BHP had realised that its ore reserves were limited and begun to diversify into steel production. Mining at the BHP mines at Broken Hill ceased 28 February 1939. BHP was not the only mining operation at Broken Hill though, mining continued at the southern and northern ends of the Line of Lode; the southern and northern operations are run by Perilya Limited, who plan to open further mines along the Line of Lode. The Battle of Broken Hill took place on New Year's Day 1915 when two Afghan men fired upon a trainload of people who were headed to a New Years Day picnic. Since Australia was at war at the time with the Ottoman Empire, the men were first thought to be Turkish, but were identified as being from the British colony of India.
They killed wounded six, before they were killed by a group of policemen and soldiers. In 1918, the Italian Ambassador to Australia, Emilio Eles, with the help of the Australian p
Fowlers Bay, South Australia
Fowlers Bay Yalata, is a town and locality in the Australian state of South Australia located about 658 kilometres north-west of the state capital, Adelaide. Situated on the Nullarbor Plain, it was once an active port and a gateway to the western reaches of the continent, but fell into decline in the 1960s. At the 2016 census, the localities of Fowlers Bay and Coorabie shared a population of 51; the coastline around Fowlers Bay was first mapped in 1627 by a Dutch sea captain. His ship was the Golden Seahorse. Fowlers Bay was named on 28 January 1802 by Matthew Flinders after his first lieutenant, Robert Fowler. Edward John Eyre set up base camp here in 1840 during his epic journeys across the Nullarbor Plain. By this time the area was well-known to American and French whaling ships. In the 1860s, the first pastoral leases were established by William Swan and Robert Barr Smith, forming Yalata station, a farming property whose boundaries extended from the Head of the Bight in the west to Streaky Bay in the east.
The town was surveyed in March 1890 and proclaimed as the Town of Yalata on 10 July 1890. Its name was changed to Fowler's Bay on 19 September 1940 to agree with the bay and to prevent dual naming; the town is on Port Eyre at the western end of the larger Fowlers Bay. Yalata now refers to a nearby township. Boundaries for the locality of Fowlers Bay which include the town were created on 8 February 2001. Fowlers Bay contains one place listed on the South Australian Heritage Register - Whale Bone Area and the Point Fowler Structure. Today Fowlers Bay is located in the Pastoral Unincorporated Area of South Australia; the town does not receive reticulated water. It is a popular overnight destination between Nundroo and Penong, its fishing facilities and surrounding historical ruins gives the town some interest for tourists and sightseers. There are no sealed roads to Fowlers Bay and visitors should seek advice before driving across the saltwater bog behind the town. Visually the town is dominated by a large sand dune.
Southern right whales have recolonised into the area in recent years, with the bay providing a small but ideal sanctuary. Bottlenose dolphins and Australian sea lions may be found; the ruins of the homestead of the Yalata station can be found several kilometres from the town. There is a small cemetery on the outskirts of the town. Fowlers Bay is located within the federal Division of Grey, the state electoral district of Flinders and the Pastoral Unincorporated Area of South Australia. In the absence of a local government authority, the community in Fowlers Bay receives municipal services from a state government agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Fowlers Bay has a cool semi-arid climate, with moderating influences from the Great Australian Bight. Summers are warm to warm and rainless, although when hot northerly winds from the interior occur extreme heat may result. Winters are pleasant, although windy, damp though not wet. Three-fifths of the meagre annual rainfall of around 300 millimetres or 12 inches occurs between May and August, but only three months have exceeded 115 millimetres or 4.53 inches: June 1890 with 169.1 millimetres, August 1915 with 122.5 millimetres and May 1956 with 130.8 millimetres.
The wettest year has been 1890 with the driest 1959 with 89.1 millimetres. The highest recorded temperature was 48.4 °C and the lowest −3.2 °C. Fowlers Bay Conservation Park Fowlers Bay - Nullarbor Travel Guide Australia The Township of Yalata Photos of Fowlers Bay cemetery and its headstones