French Broad River
The French Broad River flows 218 miles from near the town of Rosman in Transylvania County, North Carolina, into the state of Tennessee. Its confluence with the Holston River at Knoxville is the beginning of the Tennessee River; the river flows through the counties of Transylvania, Buncombe and Madison in North Carolina, Cocke, Jefferson and Knox in Tennessee, drains large portions of the Pisgah National Forest and the Cherokee National Forest. The headwaters of the French Broad River are near the town of Rosman in Transylvania County, North Carolina, just northwest of the Eastern Continental Divide near the northwest border of South Carolina, they spill from a 50-foot waterfall called Courthouse Falls at the terminus of Courthouse Creek near Balsam Grove. The waterfall feeds into a creek that becomes the North Fork, which joins the West Fork west of Rosman. South of Rosman, the stream is joined by the Middle Fork and East Fork to form the French Broad River. From there it flows northeast through the Appalachian Mountains into Henderson, Buncombe counties.
In Buncombe County, the river flows through the city of Asheville, where it receives the water of the Swannanoa River. Downstream of Asheville, the river proceeds north through Madison County, where it flows through its county seat, Marshall. After passing through the mountain resort of Hot Springs in the Bald Mountains, the river enters Cocke County, Tennessee. In Cocke County, the river passes through the community of Del Rio, receives the waters of both the Pigeon River and the Nolichucky River northwest of Cocke's county seat, Newport; the river enters the slack waters of Douglas Lake, created by the Tennessee Valley Authority's Douglas Dam in Sevier County 32 miles upstream from the river's mouth. Near Sevierville, at Kodak, the French Broad River receives the flow of the Little Pigeon River, which drains much of the Tennessee section of the Great Smoky Mountains. After flowing through a wide gap in Bays Mountain, it enters Knox County, it joins the Holston River to form the Tennessee at a place known as "Forks of the River" at the eastern edge of Knoxville.
North Fork West Fork East Fork Middle Fork Pigeon River Nolichucky River Mills River Davidson River Swannanoa River Little River The French Broad River is believed to be one of the oldest in the world based on dating of rocks. Jeff Wilcox of UNC-Asheville described it as "a meandering river, which form in flat landscapes." He said this meant the river predated the Appalachian Mountains and was lifted up as the mountains formed eroding the rocks it passed through. The French Broad River was named by European settlers centuries ago because it was one of the two broad rivers in western North Carolina; the one which flowed into land claimed by France at that time was named the "French Broad River", whereas the other, which stayed in land claimed by England – the Colony of North Carolina – was named the "English Broad River".. The Indigenous Americans of this area, the Cherokee Indians, called it different names: Poelico, Agiqua in the mountains, Tahkeeosteh from Asheville down and Zillicoah above Asheville.
The French called borrowing one of the Cherokee names. Douglas Dam, built on the lower French Broad by the Tennessee Valley Authority during the 1940s, is one of the larger TVA developments on a tributary of the Tennessee River. In 1987, the North Carolina General Assembly established the French Broad River State Trail as a blueway which follows the river for 67 miles; the paddle trail is a part of North Carolina State Trails Program, a section of the NC Division of Parks and Recreation. A system of launch point locations was created along the river for the trail; the portion of the French Broad River in Tennessee was designated a state scenic river by the Tennessee Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. 33 miles of the river in Cocke County, starting at the North Carolina border and extending downstream to the place where it flows into Douglas Lake, are designated as a Class III, Partially Developed River. The following is a partial list of crossings of the French Broad from Brevard to the confluence with the Tennessee River.
Transylvania and Henderson counties Patton Bridge Crab Creek Road Blantyre Road Etowah School Road in Etowah McLean Bridge in Etowah Johnson Bridge Fannings Bridge Butler Bridge Kings Bridge Boylston Highway at the Asheville Regional Airport Buncombe County/Asheville Glenn Bridge Long Shoals Road in Skyland Blue Ridge Parkway Interstate 26 Interstate 40 at the Biltmore Estate Carrier Bridge in Asheville Haywood Road in Asheville Smith Bridge in Asheville Bowen Bridge Douglas Lake to Knoxville Interstate 40 and Swann Bridge over Douglas Lake James D. Hoskins Bridge in Dandridge Douglas Dam Road TN 66 at Sevierville Several golf cart path bridges over the Cain Islands Doctor JH Gammondale Bridg
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Blue Ridge Mountains
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains range. The mountain range is located in the eastern United States, extends 550 miles southwest from southern Pennsylvania through Maryland, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia; this province consists of northern and southern physiographic regions, which divide near the Roanoke River gap. To the west of the Blue Ridge, between it and the bulk of the Appalachians, lies the Great Appalachian Valley, bordered on the west by the Ridge and Valley province of the Appalachian range; the Blue Ridge Mountains are noted for having a bluish color. Trees put the "blue" in Blue Ridge, from the isoprene released into the atmosphere, thereby contributing to the characteristic haze on the mountains and their distinctive color. Within the Blue Ridge province are two major national parks – the Shenandoah National Park in the northern section, the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the southern section – and eight national forests including George Washington and Jefferson National Forests, Cherokee National Forest, Pisgah National Forest, Nantahala National Forest and Chattahoochee National Forest.
The Blue Ridge contains the Blue Ridge Parkway, a 469-mile long scenic highway that connects the two parks and is located along the ridge crest-lines with the Appalachian Trail. Although the term "Blue Ridge" is sometimes applied to the eastern edge or front range of the Appalachian Mountains, the geological definition of the Blue Ridge province extends westward to the Ridge and Valley area, encompassing the Great Smoky Mountains, the Great Balsams, the Roans, the Blacks, the Brushy Mountains and other mountain ranges; the Blue Ridge extends as far north into Pennsylvania as South Mountain. While South Mountain dwindles to mere hills between Gettysburg and Harrisburg, the band of ancient rocks that form the core of the Blue Ridge continues northeast through the New Jersey and Hudson River highlands reaching The Berkshires of Massachusetts and the Green Mountains of Vermont; the Blue Ridge contains the highest mountains in eastern North America south of Baffin Island. About 125 peaks exceed 5,000 feet in elevation.
The highest peak in the Blue Ridge is Mt. Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet. There are 39 peaks in North Tennessee higher than 6,000 feet. Southern Sixers is a term used by peak baggers for this group of mountains; the Blue Ridge Parkway runs 469 miles along crests of the Southern Appalachians and links two national parks: Shenandoah and Great Smoky Mountains. In many places along the parkway, there are metamorphic rocks with folded bands of light-and dark-colored minerals, which sometimes look like the folds and swirls in a marble cake. Most of the rocks that form the Blue Ridge Mountains are ancient granitic charnockites, metamorphosed volcanic formations, sedimentary limestone. Recent studies completed by Richard Tollo, a professor and geologist at George Washington University, provide greater insight into the petrologic and geochronologic history of the Blue Ridge basement suites. Modern studies have found that the basement geology of the Blue Ridge is made of compositionally unique gneisses and granitoids, including orthopyroxene-bearing charockites.
Analysis of zircon minerals in the granite completed by John Aleinikoff at the U. S. Geological Survey has provided more detailed emplacement ages. Many of the features found in the Blue Ridge and documented by Tollo and others have confirmed that the rocks exhibit many similar features in other North American Grenville-age terranes; the lack of a calc-alkaline affinity and zircon ages less than 1,200 Ma suggest that the Blue Ridge is distinct from the Adirondacks, Green Mountains, the New York-New Jersey Highlands. The petrologic and geochronologic data suggest that the Blue Ridge basement is a composite orogenic crust, emplaced during several episodes from a crustal magma source. Field relationships further illustrate that rocks emplaced prior to 1,078–1,064 Ma preserve deformational features; those emplaced post-1,064 Ma have a massive texture and missed the main episode of Mesoproterozoic compression. The Blue Ridge Mountains began forming during the Silurian Period over 400 million years ago.
320 Mya, North America, Europe collided, pushing up the Blue Ridge. At the time of their emergence, the Blue Ridge were among the highest mountains in the world and reached heights comparable to the much younger Alps. Today, due to weathering and erosion over hundreds of millions of years, the highest peak in the range, Mount Mitchell in North Carolina, is only 6,684 feet high – still the highest peak east of the Rockies; the English who settled colonial Virginia in the early 17th century recorded that the native Powhatan name for the Blue Ridge was Quirank. At the foot of the Blue Ridge, various tribes including the Siouan Manahoacs, the Iroquois, the Shawnee hunted and fished. A German physician-explorer, John Lederer, first reached the crest of the Blue Ridge in 1669 and again the following year. At the Treaty of Albany negotiated by Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood, of Virginia with the Iroquois between 1718 and 1722, the Iroquois ceded lands they had conquered south of the Potomac River and east of the Blue Ridge to the Virginia Colony.
This treaty made the Blue Ridge the new demarcation point between the areas and tribes subject to the Six Nati
Great Smoky Mountains National Park
Great Smoky Mountains National Park is an American national park and a UNESCO World Heritage Site that straddles the ridgeline of the Great Smoky Mountains, part of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which are a division of the larger Appalachian Mountain chain. The border between Tennessee and North Carolina runs northeast to southwest through the centerline of the park. Great Smoky Mountains is the most visited national park in the United States with over 11.3 million recreational visitors in 2016. The Appalachian Trail passes through the center of the park on its route from Maine to Georgia; the park was chartered by the United States Congress in 1934 and dedicated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1940; the park encompasses 522,419 acres, making it one of the largest protected areas in the eastern United States. The main park entrances are located along U. S. Highway 441 at the towns of Gatlinburg and Cherokee, North Carolina. Great Smoky Mountains was the first national park whose land and other costs were paid for in part with federal funds.
Before the arrival of European settlers, the region was part of the homeland of the Cherokees. Frontiers people began settling the land in early 19th century. In 1830 President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, beginning the process that resulted in the forced removal of all Indian tribes east of the Mississippi River to what is now Oklahoma. Many of the Cherokee left, but some, led by renegade warrior Tsali, hid out in the area, now the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; some of their descendants now live in the Qualla Boundary to the south of the park. As white settlers arrived, logging grew as a major industry in the mountains, a rail line, the Little River Railroad, was constructed in the late-19th Century to haul timber out of the remote regions of the area. Cut-and-run-style clearcutting was destroying the natural beauty of the area, so visitors and locals banded together to raise money for preservation of the land; the U. S. National Park Service wanted a park in the eastern United States, but did not have much money to establish one.
Though Congress had authorized the park in 1926, there was no nucleus of federally owned land around which to build a park. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. contributed $5 million, the U. S. government added $2 million, private citizens from Tennessee and North Carolina pitched in to assemble the land for the park, piece by piece. Mountain homesteaders and loggers were evicted from the land. Farms and timbering operations were abolished to establish the protected areas of the park. Travel writer Horace Kephart, for whom Mount Kephart was named, photographers Jim Thompson and George Masa were instrumental in fostering the development of the park. Former Governor Ben W. Hooper of Tennessee was the principal land purchasing agent for the park, established on 15 June 1934. During the Great Depression, the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Works Progress Administration, other federal organizations made trails, fire watchtowers, other infrastructure improvements to the park and Smoky Mountains, it was a site for filming of parts of Disney's hit 1950s TV series, Davy Crockett, King of the Wild Frontier.
This park was designated an International Biosphere Reserve in 1976, was certified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983, became a part of the Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve in 1988. A 75th anniversary re-dedication ceremony was held on 2 September 2009. Among those in attendance were all four US Senators, the three US Representatives whose districts include the park, the governors of both states, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar. Tennessee native and actress Dolly Parton attended and performed; the majority of rocks in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park are Late Precambrian rocks that are part of the Ocoee Supergroup. This group consists of metamorphosed sandstones, phyllites and slate. Early Precambrian rocks are not only the oldest rocks in the park but the dominant rock type in sites such as the Raven Fork Valley and upper Tuckasegee River between Cherokee and Bryson City, they consist of metamorphic gneiss and schist. Cambrian sedimentary rocks can be found among the bottom of the Foothills to the northwest and in limestone coves such as Cades Cove.
One of the most visited attractions in the mountains is Cades Cove, a window or an area where older rocks made out of sandstone surround the valley floor of younger rocks made out of limestone. The oldest rocks in the Smokies are the Precambrian gneiss and schists which were formed over a billion years ago from the accumulation of marine sediments and igneous rock. In the Late Precambrian, the primordial ocean expanded and the more recent Ocoee Supergroup rocks formed from the accumulation of eroding land mass onto the continental shelf. In the Paleozoic Era, the ocean deposited a thick layer of marine sediments which left behind sedimentary rock. During the Ordovician Period, the collision of the North American and African tectonic plates initiated the Alleghenian orogeny that created the Appalachian range. During the Mesozoic Era rapid erosion of softer sedimentary rocks re-exposed the older Ocoee Supergroup formations. Elevations in the park range from about 875 feet to 6,643 feet at the summit of Clingmans Dome.
Within the park a total of sixteen mountains reach higher than 5,000 feet. The wide range of elevations mimics the latitudinal changes found throughout the entire eastern United States. Indeed, ascending the mountains is comparable to a trip from Tennessee to Canada. Plants and animals common
U.S. Route 25E
U. S. Route 25E is the eastern branch of U. S. Route 25 from Newport, where US 25 splits into US 25E and US 25W, to North Corbin, where the two highways rejoin; the road, continues as US 25E for 2 miles until it joins Interstate 75 in North Corbin. All of US 25E in Tennessee is now a National Scenic Byway. A portion of US 25E in Tennessee is designated as Appalachian Development Corridor S; the corridor follows US 25E between I-81 in White State Route 63 in Harrogate. US 25E has been included in the U. S. Highway System since the system's inception in 1926. US 25E is concurrent with unsigned Tennessee State Route 32 for its entire length in Tennessee. Northbound US 25 and westbound US 70 leave Newport concurrent with one another. At an intersection west of town, US 25 splits into two highways: US 25E, which heads north from this point, US 25W, which continues west along US 70. US 25E crosses over Douglas Lake south of Baneberry. Between White Pine and Witt, the highway has an interchange with Interstate 81.
North of the Interstate, the road widens out to four lanes, receives the Appalachian Development designation "Corridor S". US 25E intersects US 11E east of Morristown, it crosses Cherokee Lake. Near Bean Station, US 25E joins US 11W; the two roads split 3 miles west of Bean Station, US 25E continues northwest to Tazewell. Northwest of Tazewell, the road bridges the Powell River, passes through Harrogate. In the town of Cumberland Gap, Tennessee, US 25E serves as the western terminus of US 58. US 25E used that highway en route to the Cumberland Gap prior to 1996, however, it now uses a new highway leading to the Cumberland Gap Tunnel, freeing up a portion of road that US 58 now uses. US 25E passes through the tunnel, emerging on the other side in Kentucky. US 25E remains a multilane divided highway for its entire extent in Kentucky. Upon departing the tunnel, the road heads west to the town of Middlesboro, where it intersects KY 74. US 25E turns north at Middlesboro toward the county seat of Bell County.
In Pineville, the route is the western terminus of US 119. US 25E departs Pineville and heads northwest, indirectly serving Tinsley via KY 92, crossing into Knox County, bypassing Flat Lick to the west; the route makes an S-shaped curve, dipping south turning back northwest as it approaches Barbourville. After serving the east side of Barbourville, the highway passes near Heidrick and runs through Baileys Switch. Between Baileys Switch and Gray, US 25E turns more east–west. After running through Gray, the route serves as the northern terminus of KY 3041; the road reunites with US 25W north of Corbin, the unsuffixed US 25 continues to points north. However, the US 25E designation continues west to Interstate 75, where it ends at Exit 29. Before the Cumberland Gap Tunnel was opened in 1996, US 25E passed through the Cumberland Gap in Virginia. Prior to the U. S. highway system's arrival, Virginia's State Highway 10 began at the Cumberland Gap and proceeded to Bristol. A short spur south to Tennessee was soon added, becoming State Route 107 in the 1923 renumbering and State Route 100 in the 1928 renumbering.
Early U. S. Highway planning assigned the number U. S. Route 411 to SR 10 through Cumberland Gap to Kentucky, no number to SR 107. By the final 1926 plan, US 411 was truncated to Cumberland Gap, US 25E ran from Tennessee to Kentucky along SR 10 and SR 107; the State Route numbers were dropped in the 1933 renumbering. The Cumberland Gap Tunnel opened in 1996 bypassing Cumberland Gap and Virginia. U. S. Route 58 was moved to a new alignment, meeting US 25E in Tennessee, US 25E was decommissioned through Virginia; as it lay within the boundaries of the Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, the National Park Service now controls the former road, decided to return it to its pre-pavement state. The pavement was torn up, old US 25E is now a dirt path; the northern section of US 25E from the Kentucky State line to Tazewell, along with the junctioning Tennessee SR-33 between Tazewell and Knoxville, were the inspiration for the song "The Ballad of Thunder Road", in which a moonshiner runs illegal whiskey from Kentucky to Tennessee along this route.
U. S. Roads portal Kentucky portal Tennessee portal US 25 at KentuckyRoads.com Kentucky Transportation Cabinet Tennessee Department of Transportation
Greene County, Tennessee
Greene County is a county located on the eastern border of the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 68,831, its county seat is Greeneville, the current county mayor is David Loy Crum. Greene County comprises TN Micropolitan Statistical Area. Greene County developed from the "Nolichucky settlement," established by pioneer Jacob Brown on land leased in the early 1770s from the Cherokee people; the Nolichucky settlement was aligned with the Watauga settlement, centered in modern Elizabethton. After the United States became independent, Greene County was formed in 1783 from the original Washington County, North Carolina, part of the former Washington District; the county is named for Major General Nathanael Greene, a major general in the Continental Army from Rhode Island. John Crockett, father of Davy Crockett, his wife settled in the county near Limestone. Davy Crockett was born there in 1786. At the time, the area was part of the extra-legal state Franklin. Greene County is the home of the oldest college in Tennessee.
Revolutionary War veteran, state legislator, Col. Joseph Hardin made Greene County his home for a period of time, serving as justice of the peace and as one of the original trustees of Tusculum College; as with yeomen farmers in much of East Tennessee, those in Greene County were Unionist and opposed to secession on the eve of the Civil War. In Tennessee's Ordinance of Secession referendum on June 8, 1861, Greene Countians voted against secession by a vote of 2,691 to 744. Following the vote, the second session of the East Tennessee Convention convened in Greeneville, it called for a Union-aligned state to be formed in East Tennessee. A railroad bridge near Mosheim was among those destroyed by the East Tennessee bridge-burning conspiracy in November 1861. Several of the conspirators who had taken part in the burning of this bridge were captured and executed by Confederate supporters, including Jacob Hensie, Henry Fry and Henry Harmon, noted local potter Alex Haun. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 624 square miles, of which 622 square miles is land and 2.0 square miles is water.
Most of Greene County is located within the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, a range characterized by long, narrow ridges alternating with similarly-shaped valleys. Bays Mountain, a prominent ridge in this range, forms much of Greene's northern border with Hawkins County; the extreme southeastern part of Greene County is located within the Blue Ridge Mountains a subrange of the Blue Ridge known as the Bald Mountains. This range straddles Greene's border with North Carolina, includes the county's two highest points: Gravel Knob, which rises to over 4,840 feet, 4,844-foot Camp Creek Bald. Greene County is drained by the Nolichucky River; this river is impounded by Nolichucky Dam south of Greeneville. Hawkins County Washington County Unicoi County Madison County, North Carolina Cocke County Hamblen County Andrew Johnson National Cemetery Andrew Johnson National Historic Site Appalachian Trail Cherokee National Forest Bible Covered Bridge State Historic Site Joachim Bible Refuge David Crockett Birthplace State Park Lick Creek Bottoms Wildlife Management Area Nolichucky Wildlife Management Area Rocky Fork State Park Earnest Farms Historic District Greeneville Historic District Maden Hall Farm Members of the county commission are elected by geographic district.
They are as follows: District 1: Baileyton, Cross Anchor, Hardin's & Greeneville Charles Tim White Dale Tucker Wade McAmis District 2: Chuckey, Afton & Jockey. Brad Peters Zachary "Zak" Neas Joshua Arrowood District 3: Tusculum & Afton Sharron Collins Robin Quillen Jason Cobble District 4: Courthouse, Sunnyside and Flag Branch George Clemmer Eddie Jennings Lyle Parton District 5: South Greene, Caney Branch, Middle School & DeBusk Pamela Carpenter Gerald Miller Tim Shelton District 6: Mosheim, Mohawk, McDonald, Mt. Carmel & Warrensburg Frank Waddell Josh Keterson John Waddle District 7: Greeneville, Orebank & Glenwood Harold "Butch" Patterson James Randolph Paul Burkey As of the census of 2000, there were 62,909 people, 25,756 households, 18,132 families residing in the county; the population density was 101 people per square mile. There were 28,116 housing units at an average density of 45 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.42% White, 2.11% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.43% from other races, 0.56% from two or more races.
1.02% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 25,756 households out of which 29.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.70% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.60% were non-families. 25.80% of all househ
The Appalachian National Scenic Trail known as the Appalachian Trail or the A. T. is a marked hiking trail in the Eastern United States extending between Springer Mountain in Georgia and Mount Katahdin in Maine. The trail is about 2,200 miles long, though the exact length changes over time as parts are modified or rerouted; the Appalachian Trail Conservancy describes the Appalachian Trail as the longest hiking-only trail in the world. More than 2 million people are said to take a hike on part of the trail at least once each year; the idea of the Appalachian Trail came about in 1921. The trail itself was completed in 1937 after more than a decade of work, although improvements and changes continue, it is maintained by 31 trail clubs and multiple partnerships, managed by the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, the nonprofit Appalachian Trail Conservancy. Most of the trail is in forest or wild lands, although some portions traverse towns and farms, it passes through 14 states: Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine.
Thru-hikers attempt to hike the trail in its entirety in a single season. The number of thru-hikes per year has increased with 715 northbound and 133 southbound thru-hikes reported for 2017. Many books, documentaries and fan organizations are dedicated to the pursuit; some hike from one end to the other turn around and thru-hike the trail the other way, known as a "yo-yo". An extension known as the International Appalachian Trail continues northeast, crossing Maine and cutting through Canada to Newfoundland, with sections continuing in Greenland, through Europe, into Morocco. Other separate extensions continue the southern end of the Appalachian range in Alabama and continue south into Florida, creating what is known as the Eastern Continental Trail; the Appalachian Trail, the Continental Divide Trail, the Pacific Crest Trail form what is known as the Triple Crown of Hiking in the United States. The trail was conceived by Benton MacKaye, a forester who wrote his original plan—called "An Appalachian Trail, A Project in Regional Planning"—shortly after the death of his wife in 1921.
MacKaye's idea detailed a grand trail that would connect a series of farms and wilderness work/study camps for city-dwellers. In 1922, at the suggestion of Major William A. Welch, director of the Palisades Interstate Park Commission, his idea was publicized by Raymond H. Torrey with a story in the New York Evening Post under a full-page banner headline reading "A Great Trail from Maine to Georgia!" The idea was adopted by the new Palisades Interstate Park Trail Conference as their main project. On October 7, 1923, the first section of the trail, from Bear Mountain west through Harriman State Park to Arden, New York, was opened. MacKaye called for a two-day Appalachian Trail conference to be held in March 1925 in Washington, D. C; this meeting inspired the formation of the Appalachian Trail Conference. A retired judge named Arthur Perkins and his younger associate Myron Avery took up the cause. In 1929, a member of the Connecticut Forest and Park Association and its Blue Blazed Trails committee, found Ned Anderson, a farmer in Sherman, who took on the task of mapping and blazing the Connecticut leg of the trail.
It ran from Dog Tail Corners in Webatuck, New York, which borders Kent, Connecticut, at Ashley Falls, 50 miles through the northwest corner of the state, up to Bear Mountain at the Massachusetts border. Anderson's efforts helped spark renewed interest in the trail, Avery was able to bring other states on board. Upon taking over the ATC, Avery adopted the more practical goal of building a simple hiking trail, he and MacKaye clashed over the ATC's response to a major commercial development along the trail's path. Avery reigned as Chairman of the ATC from 1932 to 1952. Avery became the first to walk the trail end-to-end, though not as a thru-hike, in 1936. In August 1937, the trail was completed to Sugarloaf Mountain in Maine, the ATC shifted its focus toward protecting the trail lands and mapping the trail for hikers. Many of the trail's present highlights were not part of the trail in 1937: Roan Mountain, North Carolina and Tennessee. Except for places where the Civilian Conservation Corps was brought in, the original trail climbed straight up and down mountains, creating rough hiking conditions and a treadway prone to severe erosion.
The ATC's trail crews and volunteer trail-maintaining clubs have relocated or rehabilitated miles of trail since that time. In 1936, a 121-day Maine to Georgia veteran's group funded and supported thru-hike was reported to have been completed, with all but three miles of the new trail cleared and blazed, by six Boy Scouts from New York City and their guides; the completed thru-hike was much recorded and accepted by the Appalachian Long Distance Hikers Association. In 1938, the trail sustained major damage from a hurricane; this happened right before the start of World War II