The village of Brigham, near the town of Cockermouth, England, has existed as a settlement since neolithic times. Brigham was an early centre of Christianity in Cumbria; the church of St Bridget's, was a Norman building, is situated at the far north of the village, known as Low Brigham. A disused quarry is situated in the centre of the village, above which runs the main street of High Brigham; the quarry is bisected by the road called Stang Lonning. Until the closure of the Cockermouth and Workington Railway in 1966, Brigham had a railway station. At one time there was a second station serving the hamlet of Broughton Cross, 1 km west of the main village; the village gave its name to HMS Brigham, a Ham class minesweeper. The ship's bell from this vessel is now in St Bridget's Church of England primary school in the village; until a more modern fire alarm system was installed, this bell was rung as the fire alarm for the school. The family of Bounty mutineer Fletcher Christian are buried in the graveyard at St. Bridget's.
Fletcher himself and raised in the township of Eaglesfield within Brigham parish, christened at St. Bridget's, is thought to be buried on Pitcairn Island, though some have claimed that he returned secretly to England; the village has its own Church of St. Bridget's, with just over 100 pupils. There is no longer a Post Office in Brigham, though there is still a village store, a hairdressing salon and a social club. Brigham used to have 3 local pubs. Newer housing estates known as High Rigg and The Hill are at the west and east of the village.'Brigham' is'homestead near the bridge'.'Brycg' is OE for'bridge'. Most common surnames in Brigham at the time of the United Kingdom Census of 1881, by order of incidence: 1. Graham 2. Robinson 3. Watson 4. Moore 5. Hodgson 6. Walker 6. Black 8. Thompson 9. Fox 10. Harrison 10. Bell Listed buildings in Brigham, Cumbria David Bradbury, "Pages From Brigham's History" Whitehaven, Past Presented ISBN 978-1-904367-33-8 Cumbria County History Trust: Brigham Media related to Brigham, Cumbria at Wikimedia Commons
1918 United Kingdom general election
The 1918 United Kingdom general election was called after the Armistice with Germany which ended the First World War, was held on Saturday, 14 December 1918. The governing coalition, under Prime Minister David Lloyd George, sent letters of endorsement to candidates who supported the coalition government; these were nicknamed "Coalition Coupons", led to the election being known as the "coupon election". The result was a massive landslide in favour of the coalition, comprising the Conservatives and Coalition Liberals, with massive losses for Liberals who were not endorsed. Nearly all the Liberal M. P.s without coupons were defeated, although party leader H. H. Asquith managed to return to Parliament in a by-election, it was the first general election to include on a single day all eligible voters of the United Kingdom, although the vote count was delayed until 28 December so that the ballots cast by soldiers serving overseas could be included in the tallies. It resulted in a landslide victory for the coalition government of David Lloyd George, who had replaced H. H. Asquith as Prime Minister in December 1916.
They were both Liberals and continued to battle for control of the party, fast losing popular support and never regained power. It was the first general election to be held after enactment of the Representation of the People Act 1918, it was thus the first election in which women over the age of 30, all men over the age of 21, could vote. All women and many poor men had been excluded from voting. Women showed enormous patriotism, supported the coalition candidates, it was the first parliamentary election in which women were able to stand as candidates following the Parliament Act 1918, believed to be one of the shortest Acts of Parliament given Royal Assent. The Act was passed shortly, it followed a report by Law Officers that the Great Reform Act 1832 had specified parliamentary candidates had to be male and that the Representation of the People Act passed earlier in the year did not change that. One women, Nina Boyle, had presented herself for a by election earlier in the year in Keighley but had been turned down by the returning officer on technical grounds.
The election was noted for the dramatic result in Ireland, which showed clear disapproval of government policy. The Irish Parliamentary Party were completely wiped out by the Irish republican party Sinn Féin, who vowed in their manifesto to establish an independent Irish Republic, they refused to take their seats in Westminster, instead forming a breakaway government and declaring Irish independence. The Irish War of Independence began soon after the election. Lloyd George's coalition government was supported by the majority of the Liberals and Bonar Law's Conservatives. However, the election saw a split in the Liberal Party between those who were aligned with Lloyd George and the government and those who were aligned with Asquith, the party's official leader. On 14 November it was announced that Parliament, sitting since 1910 and had been extended by emergency wartime action, would dissolve on 25 November, with elections on 14 December. Following confidential negotiations over the summer of 1918, it was agreed that certain candidates were to be offered the support of the Prime Minister and the leader of the Conservative Party at the next general election.
To these candidates a letter, known as the Coalition Coupon, was sent, indicating the government's endorsement of their candidacy. 159 Liberal, 364 Conservative, 20 National Democratic and Labour, 2 Coalition Labour candidates received the coupon. For this reason the election is called the Coupon Election.80 Conservative candidates stood without a coupon. Of these, 35 candidates were Irish Unionists. Of the other non-couponed Conservative candidates, only 23 stood against a Coalition candidate; the Labour Party, led by William Adamson, fought the election independently, as did those Liberals who did not receive a coupon. The election was not chiefly fought over what peace to make with Germany, although those issues played a role. More important was the voters' evaluation of Lloyd George in terms of what he had accomplished so far and what he promised for the future, his supporters emphasised. Against his strong record in social legislation, he called for making "a country fit for heroes to live in".
This election was known as a khaki election, due to the immediate postwar setting and the role of the demobilised soldiers. The coalition won the election with the Conservatives the big winners, they were the largest party in the governing majority. Lloyd George remained Prime Minister, despite the Conservatives outnumbering his pro-coalition Liberals; the Conservatives welcomed his leadership on foreign policy as the Paris Peace talks began a few weeks after the election. An additional 47 Conservatives, 23 of whom were Irish Unionists, won without the coupon but did not act as a separate block or oppose the government except on the issue of Irish independence. While most of the pro-coalition Liberals were re-elected, Asquith's faction was reduced to just 36 seats and lost all their leaders from parliament. Nine of these MPs subsequently joined the Coalition Liberal group; the remainder became bitter enemies of Lloyd George. The Labour Party increased its vote share and surpassed the total votes of either Liberal party.
Labour became the Official Opposition for the first time, but they lacked an official leader and so the Leader of the Opposition for the next fourteen months was the stand-in Liberal leader Donald Maclean (Asquith
Wilfrid Lawson (MP for Cockermouth)
Wilfrid Lawson of Brayton Hall, Cumberland was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1659 and 1660. Lawson was the second son of Sir Wilfrid Lawson, 1st Baronet, of Isell and his wife Jane Musgrave, daughter of Sir Edward Musgrave, 1st Baronet of Hayton CastleIn 1659, Lawson was elected Member of Parliament for Cockermouth in the Third Protectorate Parliament. In 1660, he was re-elected MP for Cockermouth in the Convention Parliament. In 1678 he was appointed High Sheriff of Cumberland Lawson's father conferred the estate of Brayton on him, so founding the Brayton line of Lawsons upon whom the baronetcy descended in 1743 on the death of Sir Mordaunt Lawson, 5th Baronet of Isell. Lawson died before his father, he had married daughter of William James of Washington, County Durham. They had two sons and Alfred
Henry Capell, 1st Baron Capell of Tewkesbury
Henry Capell, 1st Baron Capell of Tewkesbury KB, PC was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1660 and 1692. He was created Baron Capell. Henry Capell was born in Hertfordshire, he was the son of 1st Baron Capell of Hadham and Elizabeth Morrison. He was baptised on 6 March 1638, his father was raised to the peerage in 1641 and he died fighting for the King in the civil wars in 1649 as one of the commanders of the Colchester garrison. Henry's eldest brother was 1st Earl of Essex. Capel founded the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. Capel was elected Member of Parliament for Tewkesbury in the Convention Parliament, he was invested as a Knight of the Order of the Bath, on 23 April 1661. In 1661, he was re-elected MP for Tewkesbury in the Cavalier Parliament, he was a member of the Irish Privy Council, from April 1673 to March 1684/85. Capell was re-elected MP for Tewkesbury in the two elections of 1679, was a member of the English Privy Council, from 22 April 1679 to 31 January 1680, was First Lord of the Admiralty, between 1679 and 1680.
In 1689, Capell was elected MP for Cockermouth and was Lord of the Treasury, between 1689 and 1690. He was invested again as Privy Councillor, on 14 February 1689, he was elected MP for Tewkesbury in 1690, sat until 11 April 1692, when he was ennobled as Baron Capell of Tewkesbury, in the County of Gloucester. One year he became Lord Justice of Ireland and in turn a Privy Councillor of Ireland, in June 1693. In 1695 and 1696, Capell was Lord Deputy of Ireland, his term as Lord Deputy wasn't considered successful because of him being a firm Whig and presiding over an administration, divided between Whigs and Tories, he did nothing to help this situation change. Capell died aged 58 in Chapelizod, County Dublin, was buried on 8 September 1696 in Little Hadham, Hertfordshire; the barony died with him. On 16 February 1659, Capell married daughter of Richard Bennet; the marriage was childless, but did bring part of what became Kew Palace into the Capell family, leading to its becoming known as Capel House
Charles Stewart Parnell
Charles Stewart Parnell was an Irish nationalist politician who served from 1875 as Member of Parliament in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, whose party held the balance of power in the House of Commons during the Home Rule debates of 1885-1890. Born into a powerful Anglo-Irish Protestant landowning family, he was a land reform agitator, founder in 1879 of the Irish National Land League, he became leader of the Home Rule League, operating independently of the Liberals, winning great influence by his balancing of constitutional and economic issues, by his skillful use of parliamentary procedure. He was imprisoned in Kilmainham Gaol in 1882 but released when he renounced violent extra-Parliamentary action; the same year, he reformed the Home Rule League as the Irish Parliamentary Party, which he controlled minutely as Britain's first disciplined democratic party. The hung parliament of 1885 saw him hold the balance of power between William Gladstone's Liberals and Lord Salisbury's Conservatives.
His power was one factor in Gladstone's adoption of Home Rule as the central tenet of the Liberal Party. His reputation peaked in 1889–90 when letters published in The Times linking him to the Phoenix Park killings of 1882 were shown to have been forged by Richard Pigott. However, the Irish Parliamentary Party split in 1890 after the revelation of Parnell's long adulterous love affair, causing many English Liberals to refuse to work with him, strong opposition from Catholic bishops, he headed a small minority faction until his death in 1891. Parnell is celebrated as the best organiser of a political party up to that time, one of the most formidable figures in parliamentary history. Many believe that Home Rule could have been achieved without bloodshed, if he had not been brought down by personal circumstances. Charles Stewart Parnell was born in County Wicklow, the third son and seventh child of John Henry Parnell, a wealthy Anglo-Irish landowner, his American wife Delia Tudor Stewart of Bordentown, New Jersey, daughter of the American naval hero, Admiral Charles Stewart.
There were eleven children in all: six girls. Admiral Stewart's mother, Parnell's great-grandmother, belonged to the Tudor family, so Parnell had a distant relationship with the British Royal Family. John Henry Parnell himself was a cousin of one of Ireland's leading aristocrats, Viscount Powerscourt, the grandson of a Chancellor of the Exchequer in Grattan's Parliament, Sir John Parnell, who lost office in 1799 when he opposed the Act of Union; the Parnells of Avondale were descended from a Protestant English merchant family, which came to prominence in Congleton, early in the 17th century where as Baron Congleton two generations held the office of Mayor of Congleton before moving to Ireland. The family produced a number of notable figures, including Thomas Parnell, the Irish poet, Henry Parnell, 1st Baron Congleton, the Irish politician. Parnell's grandfather William Parnell, who inherited the Avondale Estate in 1795, was a liberal Irish MP for Wicklow from 1817–1820. Thus, from birth, Charles Stewart Parnell possessed an extraordinary number of links to many elements of society.
Parnell belonged to the Church of Ireland, disestablished in 1871 though in years he began to drop away from formal church attendance. Yet it was as a leader of Irish Nationalism. Parnell's parents separated when he was six, as a boy he was sent to different schools in England, where he spent an unhappy youth, his father died in 1859 and he inherited the Avondale estate, while his older brother John inherited another estate in Armagh. The young Parnell studied at Magdalene College, Cambridge but, due to the troubled financial circumstances of the estate he inherited, he was absent a great deal and never completed his degree. In 1871, he joined his elder brother John Howard Parnell, who farmed in Alabama, on an extended tour of the United States, their travels took them through the South and the brothers neither spent much time in centres of Irish immigration nor sought out Irish-Americans. In 1874, he became High Sheriff of Wicklow, his home county in which he was an officer in the Wicklow militia.
He was noted as an improving landowner who played an important part in opening the south Wicklow area to industrialisation. His attention was drawn to the theme dominating the Irish political scene of the mid-1870s, Isaac Butt's Home Rule League formed in 1873 to campaign for a moderate degree of self-government, it was in support of this movement that Parnell first tried to stand for election in Wicklow, but as high sheriff was disqualified. He failed again in 1874 as home rule candidate in a County Dublin by-election. Historian Kevin Flynn reports: When Gladstone came to know him in years, he was astonished to find that Parnell was ignorant of the basic facts of Irish history; the romantic vision that characterised Young Ireland and the Fenians escaped him completely. He knew little of figures like Sarsfield, Tone or Emmett and appeared unsure of who won the Battle of the Boyne. Flynn argues that the
Cockermouth is an ancient market town and civil parish in the Borough of Allerdale in Cumbria, England, so named because it is at the confluence of the River Cocker as it flows into the River Derwent. The mid-2010 census estimates state that Cockermouth has a population of 8,204, increasing to 8,761 at the 2011 Census. A part of Cumberland, Cockermouth is situated outside the English Lake District on its northwest fringe. Much of the architectural core of the town remains unchanged since the basic medieval layout was filled in the 18th and 19th centuries; the regenerated market place is now a central historical focus within the town and reflects events during its 800-year history. The town is prone to flooding and has experienced severe floods in 2005, 2009, 2015. Cockermouth, is "the mouth of the River Cocker", it has been noted on lists of unusual place names. Cockermouth owes its existence to the confluence of the rivers Cocker and Derwent, being the lowest point at which the resultant fast flowing river powered by the Lake District could be bridged.
Cockermouth is situated a few minutes travelling distance from lakes such as Buttermere, Crummock Water and Bassenthwaite. Cockermouth has a temperate climate, influenced by the Irish Sea and its low-lying elevation. Cockermouth receives below average rainfall compared with the UK average. Temperatures are round about average compared with other parts of the UK; the nearest weather station for which online records are available is Aspatria, about 7 miles north-northeast of the town centre. The hottest temperatures recorded in the area were 31.3 °C at Lorton on 19 July 2006 and 31.1 °C at Aspatria during August 1990, with the coldest being −13.9 °C during January 1982 at Aspatria and −13.8 °C at Lorton on 8 December 2010. West Cumbria gets little snow in comparison with the Lake District and Eastern Cumbria. Owing to its proximity to the Irish Sea and its low height above sea level; the Romans built a fort at Derventio Carvetiorum, now the adjoining village of Papcastle, to protect the river crossing on a major route for troops heading towards Hadrian's Wall.
The main town developed under the Normans who, after occupying the former Roman fort, built Cockermouth Castle closer to the river crossing: little remains today of the castle thanks to the efforts of Robert the Bruce. The market town developed its distinctive medieval layout, of a broad main street of burgesses' houses, each with a burgage plot stretching to a "back lane": the Derwent bank on the north and Back Lane, on the south; the layout is preserved, leading the British Council for Archaeology to say in 1965 that it was worthy of special care in preservation and development. The town market pre-dates 1221. Market charters were granted in 1221 and 1227 by King Henry III, although this does not preclude the much earlier existence of a market in the town. In recent times, the trading farmers market now only occurs seasonally, replaced by weekend continental and craft markets. In the days when opening hours of public houses were restricted, the fact that the pubs in Cockermouth could open all day on market days made the town a popular destination for drinkers on Bank Holiday Mondays.
The Market Bell remains as a reminder of this period. While the 1761 and Castle pub have been renovated to reveal medieval stonework and 16th and 18th-century features. Much of the centre of the town is of medieval origin rebuilt in Georgian style with Victorian infill; the tree lined Kirkgate offers examples of unspoilt classical late 17th and 18th-century terraced housing, cobbled paving and curving lanes which run steeply down to the River Cocker. Most of the buildings are of traditional slate and stone construction with thick walls and green Skiddaw slate roofs. Many of the facades lining the streets are frontages for historic housing in alleyways and lanes to the rear. Examples of Georgian residences may be found near the Market Place, St. Helens Street, at the bottom of Castlegate Drive and Kirkgate. Cockermouth lays claim to be the first town in Britain to have piloted electric lighting. In 1881 six powerful electric lamps were set up to light the town, together with gas oil lamps in the back streets.
Service proved intermittent, there was afterwards a return to gas lighting. In 1964, Cockermouth was named one of 51'Gem Towns' in the UK, by the Council for British Archaeology; this recognised the importance of the historic buildings, the need to manage traffic management and the urban development. The centre of Cockermouth retains much of its historic character and the renovation of Market Place has been completed, now with an artistic and community focus; the Kirkgate Centre is the town's major cultural focus and offers regular historical displays by the Cockermouth Museum Group in addition to holding major cultural events including theatre, international music and world cinema. The tree-lined main street boasts a statue of Lord Mayo an MP for Cockermouth, who became British Viceroy of India and whose subsequent claim to fame was that he was assassinated; the renovated arts and cultural zone in the 13th century Market Place has undergone something of a "regeneration" following European Union funding, is now pedestrian-friendly adorned with stone paving and roadways, underground lighting and controversial seating in bright colours to reflect the area's facades.
Pavement art and stonework commemorate eclectic histori
Dovenby is a small settlement in Cumbria, England. It is on the A594 road and is 4 kilometres northwest of the town of Cockermouth.'Dovenby' is'Dufan's bȳ' or'Dufan's hamlet or village'.'Bȳ' is late Old English, from Old Norse'býr'. The personal name'Dufan' "is of Irish origin, a diminutive of'dubh','black', but it is on record from Iceland." Listed buildings in Bridekirk Media related to Dovenby at Wikimedia Commons Cumbria County History Trust: Dovenby