Template:Sydney Cove Sydney Cove is a small bay on the southern shore of Sydney Harbour Australia, Sydney New south wales. The Aboriginal name for Sydney Cove, as recorded in a number of First Fleet journals and vocabularies, was Warrane War-ran and Wee-rong; this place is significant to both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people as a site of first contact between the Eora and the Berewalgal. Warrane was integral to the everyday lives of the Eora people; the men speared fish from the shoreline. Sydney Cove was named after the 1st Baron Sydney, it was the site chosen by Captain Arthur Phillip, RN between 21 and 23 January 1788 for the British penal settlement, now the city of Sydney, where possession of New South Wales was formally declared on 26 January. Today, the exact site is unmarked, beneath buildings of Circular Quay. Phillip's instructions were to establish the settlement at Botany Bay, a large bay further south of Sydney Cove, discovered by Lieutenant James Cook during his voyage of discovery in 1770, was recommended by the eminent botanist Sir Joseph Banks, who had accompanied Cook, as a suitable site for a settlement.
But Phillip discovered that Botany Bay offered neither a secure anchorage nor a reliable source of fresh water. Sydney Cove offered both of these, being serviced by a freshwater creek, soon to be known as the Tank Stream, it must have been like entering paradise on that summer afternoon when the sea-won convoy passed through the dun and barren headlands into the untouched harbour – the water brilliantly blue, the shores high and wooded without being precipitous, a scattering of islands, sandy beaches, the trees shimmering under the sun. The site of the settlement was Sydney Cove, it was one of the smaller inlets, chosen because it had fresh water and good anchorage for ships close into the land. The Governor's working party had cleared a camping ground beside the creek, which stole silently along through a thick wood, the stillness of which had for the first time since the Creation, been interrupted by the rude sound of the labourer's axe. Today the Tank Stream is encased in a concrete drain beneath the streets of the central business district and all native bushland has been cleared.
The head of the cove is occupied by the Circular Quay ferry terminal. On Bennelong Point at the northern end of the eastern shore of the cove stands the Sydney Opera House. On the western shore is the historic district known as The Rocks. A sample of the dark grey clay of Sydney Cove was collected by Governor Phillip and given to Sir Joseph Banks, who gave it to pottery maker Josiah Wedgwood to test for suitability for making pottery. Wedgwood found it excellent and made a commemorative medal that became known as the Sydney Cove Medallion. Sydney Cove is a focal point for community celebrations, due to its central Sydney location between the Sydney Opera House and the Sydney Harbour Bridge, it is one of the main congregation points for Sydney New Year's Eve. Sydney punchbowls D. Manning Richards. Destiny in Sydney: An epic novel of convicts and Chinese embroiled in the birth of Sydney, Australia. First book in Sydney series. Washington DC: Aries Books, 2012. ISBN 978-0-9845410-0-3 Geographic coordinates: 33°51′31″S 151°12′42″E
Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour, North Harbour and the Lane Cove and Parramatta Rivers, is the ria or natural harbour of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The harbour is an inlet of the Tasman Sea, it is the location of the Sydney Opera Sydney Harbour Bridge. The location of the first European settlement and colony on the Australian mainland, Port Jackson has continued to play a key role in the history and development of Sydney. Many recreational events are based on or around the harbour itself the Sydney New Year's Eve celebrations and the starting point of the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race; the waterways of Port Jackson are managed by the Maritime Services. Sydney Harbour National Park protects a number of islands and foreshore areas, swimming spots, bushwalking tracks and picnic areas; the land around Port Jackson was occupied at the time of the European arrival and colonisation by the Eora clans, including the Gadigal and Wangal. The Gadigal occupied the land stretching along the south side of Port Jackson from what is now South Head, in an arc west to the present Darling Harbour.
The Cammeraygal lived on the northern side of the harbour. The area along the southern banks of the Parramatta River to Rose Hill belonged to the Wangal; the Eora occupied west to Parramatta. The first recorded European discovery of Sydney Harbour was by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook named the inlet after Sir George Jackson, one of the Lord Commissioners of the British Admiralty, Judge Advocate of the Fleet; as the Endeavour sailed past the entrance at Sydney Heads, Cook wrote in his journal "at noon we were...about 2 or 3 miles from the land and abrest of a bay or harbour within there appeared to be a safe anchorage which I called Port Jackson." No-one on the ship recorded seeing any of the Harbour's many islands. This would have been because their line of sight was blocked by the high promontories of South Head and Bradleys Head that shape its dog-leg entrance. However, these islands were known to Captain Arthur Phillip, the First Fleet commander, before he departed England in 1787. Cook had seen the main body of the Harbour in 1770 and, on returning home, he had reported his important discovery to the Admiralty.
An explanation of Cook's discovery was first proposed in the book Lying for the Admiralty. While the Endeavour was anchored in Botany Bay, Cook may have followed one of the ancient Aboriginal tracks that connect Botany Bay to Port Jackson, a distance of some ten kilometres; the Admiralty had ordered Cook to conceal strategically valuable discoveries, so he omitted the main Harbour from his journal and chart. Eighteen years on 21 January 1788, after arriving at Botany Bay, Governor Arthur Phillip took a longboat and two cutters up the coast to sound the entrance and examine Cook's Port Jackson. Phillip first stayed over night at Camp Cove moved down the harbour, landing at Sydney Cove and Manly Cove before returning to Botany Bay on the afternoon of 24 January. Phillip returned to Sydney Cove in HM Armed Tender Supply on 26 January 1788, where he established the first colony in Australia to become the city of Sydney. In his first dispatch from the colony back to England, Governor Phillip noted that:...we had the satisfaction of finding the finest harbour in the world, in which a thousand sail of the line may ride in the most perfect security...
The Great White Fleet, the United States Navy battle fleet, arrived in Port Jackson in August 1908 by order of U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt. From 1938, seaplanes landed in Sydney Harbour on Rose Bay, making this Sydney's first international airport. In 1942, to protect Sydney Harbour from a submarine attack, the Sydney Harbour anti-submarine boom net was constructed, it spanned the harbour from Green Point, Watsons Bay to the battery at Georges Head, on the other side of the harbour. On the night of 31 May 1942, three Japanese midget submarines entered the harbour, one of which became entangled in the western end of the boom net's central section. Unable to free their submarine, the crew detonated charges. A second midget submarine came to grief in the two crew committing suicide; the third submarine fired two torpedoes at USS Chicago before leaving the harbour. In November 2006, this submarine was found off Sydney's Northern Beaches; the anti-submarine boom net was demolished soon after World War II, all that remains are the foundations of the old boom net winch house, which can be viewed on Green Point, Watsons Bay.
Today, the Australian War Memorial has on display a composite of the two midget submarines salvaged from Sydney Harbour. The conning tower of one of the midget submarines is on display at the RAN Heritage Centre, Garden Island, Sydney. Fort Denison is a former penal site and defensive facility occupying a small island located north-east of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Sydney Harbour. There are fortifications at elsewhere, some of which are now heritage listed; the earliest date from the 1830s, were designed to defend Sydney from seaborn attack or convict uprisings. There are four historical fortifications located between Taronga Zoo and Middle Head, they are: the Middle Head Fortifications, the Georges Head Battery, the Lower Georges Heights Commanding Position and a small fort located on Bradleys Head, known as the Bradleys Head Fortification Complex; the forts were built from sandstone quarried on site and consist of various tunnels, underground rooms, open batteries and casemated batteries, shell rooms, gunpowder magazines and trenches.
Geologically, Port Jackson is a drowned river v
Darling Harbour is a harbour adjacent to the city centre of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It is a large recreational and pedestrian precinct, situated on western outskirts of the Sydney central business district. Named Long Cove, the locality extends northwards from Chinatown, along both sides of Cockle Bay to King Street Wharf 3 on the east, to the suburb of Pyrmont on the west. Cockle Bay is just one of the waterways that makes up Darling Harbour, which opens north into the much larger Port Jackson; the precinct and its immediate surroundings are administered independently of the local government area of the City of Sydney, by Property NSW. Darling Harbour is named after Lieutenant-General Ralph Darling, Governor of New South Wales from 1825 to 1831; the area was known as Long Cove, but was referred to as Cockle Bay until 1826 when Governor Darling renamed it after himself. The name Cockle Bay has been restored in reference to the headwaters of the harbour, it was part of the commercial port of Sydney, including the Darling Harbour Railway Goods Yard.
During the Great Depression, the eastern part of Darling Harbour became known as The Hungry Mile, a reference to the waterside workers searching for jobs along the wharves. Much of the land had been the site of the NSW Railways central marshalling yards and freight consolidation centre; the Enquiry into the NSW industry, including rail/road competition, under Commissioner Gavan McDonell, found that this centre was inefficient, should be moved, the land used for other public purposes. These recommendations were acted upon and by the mid-to-late 1980s, when the area had become derelict it was redeveloped as a pedestrian and tourist precinct as an initiative of New South Wales Minister for Public Works, Laurie Brereton; the Sydney Convention & Exhibition Centre at Darling Harbour was a venue of the 2000 Summer Olympic Games and a key meeting venue of APEC Australia 2007. Darling Harbour has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Harbour Promenade: Darling Harbour Woodward Water Feature The Darling Harbour precinct is home to a number of major public facilities and attractions, including: Harbourside Shopping Centre, which includes Kingpin Bowling Alley, M9 Laser Skirmish, as well as Australia's first retail Jet flight simulator.
Cockle Bay Wharf Paddy's Markets Chinese Garden of Friendship Tumbalong Park Darling Quarter Playground Australian National Maritime Museum The Star Casino & Entertainment Complex The Darling Hotel & Spa Powerhouse Museum Sydney Aquarium Madame Tussauds Sydney Wildlife World Aboriginal Centre Sega World Sydney International Convention Centre Sydney, opened in December 2016. Darling Harbour is accessible via various modes of public transport; the precinct is served by the Dulwich Hill Line of Sydney's light rail network, with access via Paddy's Markets, Convention and Pyrmont Bay stations. Ferry wharves including Barangaroo and Pyrmont Bay provide access to the Inner Harbour ferry services to Circular Quay and other suburbs; the Goods Line is a park and pedestrian pathway connecting Darling Harbour to Railway Square and Central station. The nearest train station is Town Hall. East Darling Harbour is part of a massive urban renewal development. Plans for the 18-hectare site include half business and residential developments, while the other half to be reserved for open public space.
The state government of NSW declared plans for "Globe Street", a street designed to become Australia's and Asia Pacific's centre for corporate trade. The urban renewal development is not expected to be completed until 2020. East Darling Harbour will be known as Barangaroo; the Sydney Convention & Exhibition Centre site was replaced by the new International Convention Centre Sydney, opened in December 2016. The new site will include a 40,000-square-metre exhibition facility, is being developed by a consortium comprising AEG Ogden, Lend Lease, Capella Capital and Spotless Facilities Services, with AEG Ogden playing the role of venue operator.. Other new facilities within the Darling Harbour region include the opened ICC Theatre, an 8,000 seat mixed purpose venue for concerts and intimate shows, replacing the Sydney Entertainment Centre, a gallery, an upcoming new 25 story multi purpose venue called The Ribbon which will be replacing the Imax Theatre which closed and was demolished in late 2016, will include a newer, updated Imax theatre.
This area was the site of the Sydney Port Authority and featured an Overseas Passenger Terminal, used by the Pacific Dawn of the P&O Australia fleet and the Sun Princess, operated by Princess Cruises. The passenger terminal is now in White Bay and the container terminal has closed. Darling Harbour is the location of the season residence on MTV's reality TV show, The Real World: Sydney, which aired in late 2007; the house has a large "Darling Harbour" sign along its edge, the World Tower high rise building can be seen behind it.20th Century Fox's 1995 film Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie was shot in Sydney, featured some scenes filmed in Darling Harbour. Seven's Saturday morning TV Music Show Eclipse Music TV is filmed weekly at the precinct's shopping centre, Harbourside. On 27 August 2010, the soap opera Neighbours filmed scenes in the harbour and on board the cruise ship, Pacific Jewel. Canadian post-hardcore band Silverstein recorded a song entitled "Darling Harbour" on their Transitions EP.
Darling Harbour Darling Hotel & Spa Johnson, Wayne. A History of Sydney's Daring Harbour. Sydney
The First Fleet was the 11 ships that departed from Portsmouth, England, on 13 May 1787 to found the penal colony that became the first European settlement in Australia. The Fleet consisted of two Royal Navy vessels, three store ships and six convict transports, carrying between 1,000 and 1,500 convicts, seamen, civil officers and free people, a large quantity of stores. From England, the Fleet sailed southwest to Rio de Janeiro east to Cape Town and via the Great Southern Ocean to Botany Bay, arriving over the period of 18 to 20 January 1788, taking 250 to 252 days from departure to final arrival. Convicts were transported to the Thirteen Colonies in North America, but after the American War of Independence ended in 1783, the newly formed United States refused to accept further convicts. On 6 December 1785, Orders in Council were issued in London for the establishment of a penal colony in New South Wales, on land claimed for Britain by explorer James Cook in his first voyage to the Pacific in 1770.
The First Fleet was commanded by Commodore Arthur Phillip, given instructions authorising him to make regulations and land grants in the colony. The ships arrived at Botany Bay between 18 and 20 January 1788; the cost to Britain of outfitting and despatching the Fleet was £84,000. The First Fleet included two Royal Navy escort ships, the ten-gun sixth-rate vessel HMS Sirius under the command of Captain John Hunter, the armed tender HMS Supply commanded by Lieutenant Henry Lidgbird Ball. Ropes, agricultural equipment and a miscellany of other stores were needed. Items transported included tools, agricultural implements, spirits, medical supplies, surgical instruments, leg irons and a prefabricated wooden frame for the colony's first Government House; the party had to rely on its own provisions to survive until it could make use of local materials, assuming suitable supplies existed, grow its own food and raise livestock. Scale models of all the ships are on display at the Museum of Sydney; the models were built by ship makers Lynne and Laurie Hadley, after researching the original plans and British archives.
The replicas of the Supply, Scarborough, Prince of Wales, Lady Penrhyn, Alexander, Sirius and Golden Grove are made from Western Red or Syrian Cedar. Nine Sydney harbour ferries built in the mid-1980s are named after First Fleet vessels; the unused names are Lady Prince of Wales. The people of the fleet included seamen and their families, government officials, a large number of convicts, including women and children. All had been tried and convicted in Great Britain and all of them in England. However, many are known to have come to England from other parts of Great Britain and from Ireland. Further identifications are made on the basis of the surname, for example as an Irish name; the convicts had committed a variety of crimes, including theft, fraud and robbery, for which they had variously been sentenced to penal transportation for 7 years, 14 years, or the term of their natural life. The six convict transports. Most of the families of the marines travelled aboard the Prince of Wales. A number of people on the First Fleet kept diaries and journals of their experiences, including the surgeons, officers and ordinary seamen.
There are at least eleven known manuscript Journals of the First Fleet in existence as well as some letters. The exact number of people directly associated with the First Fleet will never be established, as accounts of the event vary slightly. A total of 1,420 people have been identified as embarking on the First Fleet in 1787, 1,373 are believed to have landed at Sydney Cove in January 1788. In her biographical dictionary of the First Fleet, Mollie Gillen gives the following statistics: While the names of all crew members of Sirius and Supply are known, the six transports and three storeships may have carried as many as 110 more seamen than have been identified – no complete musters have survived for these ships; the total number of persons embarking on the First Fleet would, therefore, be 1,530 with about 1,483 reaching Sydney Cove. Other sources indicate that the passengers consisted of 10 civil officers, 212 marines, including officers, 28 wives and 17 children of the marines, 81 free people, 504 male convicts and 192 female convicts.
According to the first census of 1788 as reported by Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney, the white population of the colony was 1,030 and the colony consisted of 7 horses, 29 sheep, 74 swine, 6 rabbits, 7 cattle. The following statistics were provided by Governor Phillip: David Collins' book An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales gives the following details: The Alexander, of 453 tons, had on board 192 male convicts; the Scarborough, of 418 tons, had on board 205 male convicts. The Charlotte, of 346 tons, had on 20 female convicts.
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
Scarborough (1782 ship)
Scarborough was a double-decked, three-masted, ship-rigged, copper-sheathed, barque that participated in the First Fleet, assigned to transport convicts for the European colonisation of Australia in 1788. The British East India company chartered Scarborough to take a cargo of tea back to Britain after her two voyages transporting convicts, she spent much of her career as a West Indiaman, trading between London and the West Indies, but did perform a third voyage in 1801-02 to Bengal for the EIC. In January 1805 she repelled a French privateer of superior force in a single-ship action, before foundering in April. Scarborough spent her first four years transporting timber from the North America, she first enters Lloyd's Register in 1783. Her entry gives her burthen as 600 tons, her master as "Scorbdle", her owner as T. Hooper, her trade as "London Transport"; the next year J. Marshall replaced Scorbdale as master. In 1787 south London shipbroker William Richards chartered Scarborough for the First Fleet voyage at a rate of 12 shillings per ton per month.
He selected her after first consulting with David Collins. Both marine officers would sail with the Fleet to Australia, Tench as a captain of marines and Collins as judge-advocate for the new colony, she was the second-largest transport selected for the Fleet after Alexander. After selection, Scarborough sailed to Deptford dockyard to be refitted for convict transportation under the supervision of Naval Agent George Teer; the height between decks was increased to 6 feet 2 inches amidships and between 6 feet 1 inch and 5 feet 11 inches fore and aft, two windsails were brought aboard to improve the flow of air in the convict quarters. Bulkheads were fitted to separate convict quarters from those of the marines and crew, space set aside for stores and a sick bay. An Osbridge machine was installed to filter Scarborough's drinking water during the voyage to New South Wales. Teer was satisfied with Scarborough's fitout. Better than any other set of transports I have had any directions in."Scarborough's crew as a convict transport was 35 men including her master, three mates, a boatswain and a ship's surgeon.
On her first convict voyage, as part of the First Fleet, her master was John Marshall and her surgeon was Dennis Considen. She left Portsmouth on 13 May 1787, carrying 208 male convicts, together with officers and 34 other ranks of the New South Wales Marine Corps. On the way Marshall suspected. An informer named two ringleaders, whom Marshall transferred to HMS Sirius. There they received 24 lashes each and were again transferred, this time to Prince of Wales, she arrived at Port Jackson, Sydney, on 26 January 1788. On leaving Port Jackson on 6 May 1788, in company with Charlotte, she travelled to China. On 17 May 1788 the two ships landed at Lord Howe Island for birds and vegetables sailed for Whampoa. En route, the ships became the first European vessels to pass among the Marshall and Gilbert islands. Further north, they made landfall on Tinian in the Northern Marianas, where both ships were forced to anchor; the long sea voyage had depleted Scarborough's stores, scurvy had become rampant among her crew.
Fifteen of the sickest men were brought ashore on Tinian and housed in tents on the dunes, while the remainder of the crew foraged for food. While anchored off Tinian, both vessels were nearly blown onto shore by strong winds, but disaster was averted when their captains decided to cut the anchor ropes and raise sail to move off shore. After several weeks recovery on Tinian, Scarborough's crew had returned to sufficient health for the voyage to resume. In easy sailing weather and Charlotte reached Macau on 9 September and Whampoa shortly afterwards. There the EIC chartered them as an "extra ship", they made ready to sail to England. Departing Whampoa on 17 December, the ships reached St. Helena by 20 March 1789 and arrived in England on 15 June. Scarborough returned to New South Wales with the notorious Second Fleet. In company with Surprize and Neptune, she sailed from England with 253 male convicts on 19 January 1790, her master was again John Marshall and the surgeon was Augustus Jacob Beyer.
On 18 February several convicts plotted a mutiny. They chose as their leader one Samuel Burt; the plotters were interrogated, several were flogged. Others were chained to the deck. Scarborough arrived at the Cape of Good Hope on 13 April 1790, spent 16 days there, taking on provisions, eight male convicts from HMS Guardian, wrecked after striking an iceberg, she and Neptune parted from Surprize in heavy weather and arrived at Port Jackson on 28 June 160 days out from England. During the voyage 68 or 73 convicts died and 96 were sick when landed. After landing, a total of 124 convicts who had arrived in Port Jackson succumbed to disease, she brought with her two officers and 38 soldiers. Scarborough returned to England via China. Scarborough's Pacific voyages had left her decrepit and in need of repairs to her hull. In 1792 she was re-sheeted to remove damage caused by shipworm, was set to work plying a trade route between London and St. Petersburg. Further repairs were undertaken in 1795 and 1798.
In 1800 to 1801, under Captain J. Scott, she shuttled back and forth between London and the Caribbean, carrying trade goods and provisions for British colonies including St. Vincents, with extensive repairs between voyages. In 1801 Lloyd's
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear