Narborough Railway Line
Narborough Railway Line or Narborough Railway Embankment is a 7.9-hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest south-east of King's Lynn in Norfolk. It is a former railway embankment, now a nature reserve managed by the Norfolk Wildlife Trust, it is 1 kilometre south of Narborough, on the A47 going east from King's Lynn to Swaffham, it can be entered by a car park west of the reserve. It was documented in 1847 as an area with lots of chalk and flints; the area is made of chalk grassland, which grew when Great Eastern Railways engineers cleared the area. The underlying chalk was only exposed; the Lynn and Dereham Railway, which weaved a 26.5-mile route to East Dereham via Narborough and Swaffham, was given the Royal Assent on 21 July 1845. It opened in stages between 1846 and 1848; this became part of the Great Eastern Railway. Only the section of line between King's Lynn and Narborough was opened under the L&DR, on 17 October 1846; the remainder of the line was opened in stages by the L&DR's immediate successor, the East Anglian Railway.
The East Anglian Line was opened after three and a half years of construction. Narborough joined this, went to Lynn expanded to Narborough and to Swaffham; the railway was first used by the post office to deliver post around Norfolk. The railway operated between Dereham and King's Lynn and was closed in 1960; the railway was on the King's Lynn to Norwich line. In 1958, Narborough Railway Line hired their first full-time stationmaster, Rod Lock, who at the time was a relief stationmaster for the whole of Norfolk, he had to deal with the severe 1958 blizzards. At Narborough Railway Line there are 26 species of butterfly recorded and there are a large quantity of birds in the summer months; the reserve is closed. The most common birds are blackcap and common whitethroat. In the summer there are turtle doves and in the winter there are blackbirds and redwing. In the earlier half of the year, these are popular sights: grizzled skipper, brown argus, purple hairstreak, small scabious, kidney vetch, grayling, large thyme, marjoram autumn gentian and carline thistle.
In the half of the year, purging buckthorns are popular
Roydon Common is a 194.9-hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest east of King's Lynn in Norfolk. It is a Grade I Nature Conservation Review site, a National Nature Reserve and a Ramsar site, it is part of the Roydon Common and Dersingham Bog Special Area of Conservation and Roydon Common and Grimston Warren nature reserve, managed by the Norfolk Wildlife Trust, The common is described by Natural England as "one of the best examples in Britain of a lowland mixed valley mire". It has diverse habitats, including wet acid heath, calcareous fen and dry heath on acid sands. There are rare plants and insects, including the black darter dragonfly. Uncommon plant species include black bogrush, marsh fern, bog asphodel, common cotton-grass, all three species of sundew and sphagnum moss; the common supports some uncommon dragonfly species such as the broad-bodied chaser. Many species of flowers grow in grassy clearings on the drier ground which attract butterflies such as green and purple hairstreaks and brown argus.
There is access by footpaths including one from Pott Row which runs along the southern boundary
Site of Special Scientific Interest
A Site of Special Scientific Interest in Great Britain or an Area of Special Scientific Interest in the Isle of Man and Northern Ireland is a conservation designation denoting a protected area in the United Kingdom and Isle of Man. SSSI/ASSIs are the basic building block of site-based nature conservation legislation and most other legal nature/geological conservation designations in the United Kingdom are based upon them, including national nature reserves, Ramsar sites, Special Protection Areas, Special Areas of Conservation; the acronym "SSSI" is pronounced "triple-S I". Sites notified for their biological interest are known as Biological SSSIs, those notified for geological or physiographic interest are Geological SSSIs. Sites may be divided into management units, with some areas including units that are noted for both biological and geological interest. Biological SSSI/ASSIs may be selected for various reasons, which for Great Britain is governed by published SSSI Selection Guidelines. Within each area, a representative series of the best examples of each significant natural habitat may be notified, for rarer habitats all examples may be included.
Sites of particular significance for various taxonomic groups may be selected —each of these groups has its own set of selection guidelines. Conservation of biological SSSI/ASSIs involves continuation of the natural and artificial processes which resulted in their development and survival, for example the continued traditional grazing of heathland or chalk grassland. In England, the designating body for SSSIs, Natural England, selects biological SSSIs from within natural areas which are areas with particular landscape and ecological characteristics, or on a county basis. In Scotland, the designating authority is Scottish Natural Heritage. In the Isle of Man the role is performed by the Department of Environment and Agriculture. Geological SSSI/ASSIs are selected by a different mechanism to biological ones, with a minimalistic system selecting one site for each geological feature in Great Britain. Academic geological specialists have reviewed geological literature, selecting sites within Great Britain of at least national importance for each of the most important features within each geological topic.
Each of these sites is described, with most published in the Geological Conservation Review series, so becomes a GCR site. All GCR sites are subsequently notified as geological SSSIs, except some that coincide with designated biological SSSI management units. A GCR site may contain features from several different topic blocks, for example a site may contain strata containing vertebrate fossils, insect fossils and plant fossils and it may be of importance for stratigraphy. Geological sites fall into two types, having different conservation priorities: exposure sites, deposit sites. Exposure sites are where quarries, disused railway cuttings, cliffs or outcrops give access to extensive geological features, such as particular rock layers. If the exposure becomes obscured, the feature could in principle be re-exposed elsewhere. Conservation of these sites concentrates on maintenance of access for future study. Deposit sites are features which are limited in extent or physically delicate—for example, they include small lenses of sediment, mine tailings and other landforms.
If such features become damaged they cannot be recreated, conservation involves protecting the feature from erosion or other damage. Following devolution, legal arrangements for SSSIs and ASSIs differ between the countries of the UK; the Isle of Man ASSI system is a separate entity. Scottish Natural Heritage publishes a summary of the SSSI arrangements for SSSI owners and occupiers which can be downloaded from the SNH website. Legal documents for all SSSIs in Scotland are available on the SSSI Register, hosted by The Registers of Scotland. Further information about SSSIs in Scotland is available on the SNH website; the decision to notify an SSSI is made by the relevant nature conservation body for that part of the United Kingdom: Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Natural England, Scottish Natural Heritage or Natural Resources Wales. SSSIs were set up by the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949, but the current legal framework for SSSIs is provided in England and Wales by the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, amended in 1985 and further amended in 2000, in Scotland by the Nature Conservation Act 2004 and in Northern Ireland by the Nature Conservation and Amenity Lands Order 1985.
SSSIs are covered under the Water Resources Act 1991 and related legislation. An SSSI may be made on any area of land, considered to be of special interest by virtue of its fauna, geological or physiographical / geomorphological features. SSSI notification can cover any "land" within the area of the relevant nature conservation body, including dry land, land covered by freshwater; the extent to which an SSSI/ASSI may extend seawards differs between countries. In Scotland an SSSI may include the intertidal land down to mean low water spring or to the extent of the local planning authority area, thus only limited areas of estuaries and coastal waters beyond MLWS may be included. In England, Natural England may notify an SSSI over estuarial waters and further adjacent waters in certain circumstances (section 28 of The
East Wretham Heath
East Wretham Heath is a 141.1-hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest south-east of Thetford in Norfolk. It is a Nature Conservation Review site, Grade I, it is managed by the Norfolk Wildlife Trust, it is part of the Breckland Special Area of Special Protection Area. The principal ecological interest of this site lies in areas of Breckland grassland and two meres, which are supplied by ground water, fluctuate irregularly; these conditions have led to unusual plants communities which are tolerant of alternate wetting and drying, such as reed canary grass and amphibious bistort. There is public access to the reserve
Hethel Old Thorn
Hethel Old Thorn is a 0.025-hectare nature reserve south-west of Norwich in Norfolk. It is managed by the Norfolk Wildlife Trust; this is the smallest wildlife trust nature reserve in Britain, consisting of one ancient hawthorn tree, which may date to the thirteenth century. In 1755 its girth was recorded as 9 feet 1 inch, it has now decayed to a much smaller size, but it is still healthy
Syderstone Common is a 43.7-hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest west of Fakenham in Norfolk. An area of 24-hectare is managed by the Norfolk Wildlife TrustThe common has heath and grassland areas in the valley of the River Tat. Pools on sand and gravel provide suitable habitats for five species of breeding amphibians, including the nationally rare natterjack toad; the site is open to the public
Upton Broad and Marshes
Upton Broad and Marshes is a 195.4-hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest east of Norwich in Norfolk. It is a Nature Conservation Review site, Grade I and a larger area of 318-hectare is managed by the Norfolk Wildlife Trust, it is part of the Broadland Ramsar site and Special Protection Area, The Broads Special Area of Conservation. This is described by Natural England as "an outstanding example of unreclaimed wetland and grazing marsh", its rich invertebrate fauna includes eighteen species of freshwater snail, an outstanding variety of dragonflies and damselflies, including the nationally rare Norfolk hawker. The site is open to the public