Just a Minute
Just a Minute is a BBC Radio 4 radio comedy and television panel game chaired by Nicholas Parsons. Its first transmission on Radio 4 was on 22 December three months after the station's launch; the Radio 4 programme won a Gold Sony Radio Academy Award in 2003. The object of the game is for panellists to talk for sixty seconds on a given subject, "without hesitation, repetition or deviation"; the comedy comes from attempts to keep within the banter among the participants. In 2011 comedy writer David Quantick ascribed Just a Minute's success to its "insanely basic" format, stating, "It's so blank that it can be filled by people as diverse as Paul Merton and Graham Norton, who don't have to adapt their style of humour to the show at all."Throughout its half-century history, the show has, in addition to its popularity in the UK, developed an international following through its broadcast on the BBC World Service and, more on the internet. The idea for the game came to Ian Messiter, he recalled Percival Parry Jones, a history master from his days at Sherborne School who, upon seeing the young Messiter daydreaming in a class, instructed him to repeat everything he had said in the previous minute without hesitation or repetition.
To this, Messiter added a rule disallowing players from deviating from the subject, as well as a scoring system based on panellists' challenges. The format was first used in One Minute Please, chaired by Roy Plomley, broadcast on BBC radio between 1951 and 1957. Whilst the fundamental rules were the same, the game was played in two teams of three rather than with four individual contestants. Other early incarnations of the show, all created by Messiter, include a 1952 version on South African radio, a television version on the DuMont network in the United States; the pilot for the show was recorded in 1967, featuring Clement Freud, Derek Nimmo, Beryl Reid and Wilma Ewart as panellists. The chairman was planned to be Jimmy Edwards but he was unavailable on Sundays, the proposed recording dates, was replaced by Nicholas Parsons, supposed to be a panel member. Parsons did not want the job and only reluctantly took it, just for the pilot episode. After the show settled in, again he found himself in the role of a straight man for the panellists.
Although executives at the BBC disliked the pilot, its producer, David Hatch, threatened to resign if he could not oversee a full series. Not wishing to lose Hatch, the BBC acquiesced; the show's theme music is Frédéric Chopin's piano Waltz in No. 1, nicknamed the "Minute Waltz". The recording used for the theme is of David Haines. In 2018, Nicholas Parsons was unable to attend the recording of two editions of the programme as he had the flu; this broke his uninterrupted run of fifty years as a performer on the programme. The episodes were recorded on 1 April 2018 with Gyles Brandreth standing in for Parsons and were broadcast on 4 and 11 June 2018; the panellists are invited, in rotation, to speak for one minute on a given subject, without "hesitation, repetition or deviation". Over the years, the application of these rules has been inconsistent, their interpretation is the focus of much of the comic interplay between those appearing, who challenge the chairman's rulings. In the early years the rules were more complicated, as special rules were sometimes tried out in addition, on a one-off basis: a ban on the word "is" might apply in a round, for example.
But the three basic rules have always applied. "Hesitation" is watched strictly: a momentary pause in speaking can give rise to a successful challenge, as can tripping over one's words. Pausing during audience laughter or applause can be challenged. "Repetition" means the repetition of any word or phrase again and again, although challenges based upon common words such as "and" are rejected except in extreme cases. Words contained in the given subject are now exempt unless repeated many times in quick succession, although this was a addition to the rules. Skillful players use synonyms to avoid repeating themselves. Letters may not be repeated. "Deviation" meant deviating from the given subject, but evolved to include "deviating from the English language as we know it", "deviation from grammar as we understand it", deviating from the truth, deviating from logic. Leaps into the surreal are allowed. A panellist scores one point for making a correct challenge against whoever is speaking, or the speaker gets a point if the challenge is deemed incorrect.
If a witty interjection amuses the audience, but is not a correct challenge, at the chairman's discretion the challenger can be awarded an extra point. A player who makes a correct challenge takes over the subject for the remainder of the minute, or until he or she is challenged; the person speaking when the whistle blows after 60 seconds scores a point. An extra point is awarded, it is rare for a panellist to speak within the three cardinal rules for any substantial length of time, whilst both remaining coherent and being amusing. Therefore, to speak for the full minute without being challenged is a special achievement. However, if a panellist is speaking fluently on a subject, staying reasonably within the three rules, seem
A swizzle stick is a small stick used to stir drinks. The original swizzle sticks were created in the 18th century at a rum plantation in the West Indies, they were used to stir up Bermudian cocktails called Rum Swizzles and were made from the branch of the Quararibea turbinata. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, stir sticks made of glass were created to shake out the bubbles from champagne, whose carbonation caused indigestion for some drinkers. Swizzle sticks became ornate with the advent of themed establishments such as the Tiki bar and are sometimes kept as a souveneir or collected. Quararibea turbinata "The International Swizzle Sticks Collector Association". "Swizzle stick to detect drugs". BBC News. August 7, 2001. Retrieved 2008-07-11
A shot glass is a small glass designed to hold or measure spirits or liquor, either imbibed straight from the glass or poured into a cocktail. An alcoholic beverage served in a shot glass and consumed in one gulp, may be known as a "shooter". Shot glasses decorated with a wide variety of toasts, humorous pictures, or other decorations and words are popular souvenirs and collectibles as merchandise of a brewery; the word "shot", meaning a drink of alcohol, has been used since at least the 17th century, while reference to a shot as a small drink of spirits is known in the U. S. since at least the 1920s. The phrase "shot glass" has been in use since at least 1940; some of the earliest small whiskey glasses in America from the late 1700s to early 1800s were called "whiskey tasters" or "whiskey tumblers" and were hand blown. They are thick, similar to today's shot glasses, but will show a pontil mark or scar on the bottom, or will show a cupped area on the bottom where the pontil mark was ground and polished off.
Some of these glasses have hand-applied handles and decorations hand cut by a grinding wheel. In the early to mid-1800s, glass blowers began to use molds and several different patterns of "whiskey tasters" in several different colors were being made in molds; these glasses are thick like today's shot glass but they will have rough pontiled bottoms from being hand blown into the mold. By the 1870s to 1890s as glass making technology improved, the rough pontiled bottoms disappeared from glasses and bottles. Just before Prohibition in the U. S. in the late 1800s to early 1900s, thin-sided mass-produced whiskey glasses were common. Many of these glasses feature etched advertising on them. After Prohibition, these were replaced by shot glasses with thick sides; these glasses are for those wary of heavy drinking. Their bottoms are sturdy and thick so they give the illusion of a plain shot glass when in reality they only hold half as much liquid. A basic shot glass with fluting featured on the base of the glass.
Pony glasses can only hold about an ounce of fluid each but are used while mixing drinks into a larger glass. Tall shot glasses are narrower, they only hold a standard 1.5 ounces of liquid. In a rounded shot glasses the walls of the glass curve is down leaving a 10 centimeter difference between the lip of the glass and the bottom rim of the glass, they are popular in Europe. A jigger or measure is a bartending tool used to measure liquor, then poured into a glass or cocktail shaker; the term jigger in the sense of a small cup or measure of spirits or wine originates in the U. S. in the early 19th century. It was slang for the special cup used for it. Many references from the 1800s describe the "jigger boss" providing jiggers of whiskey to Irish immigrant workers who were digging canals in the U. S. Northeast; the style of double-ended jigger common today, made of stainless steel with two unequal sized opposing cones in an hourglass shape, was patented in 1893 by Cornelius Dungan of Chicago. One cone measures a regulation single shot, the other some fraction or multiple—with the actual sizes depending on local laws and customs.
A contemporary jigger measure in the U. S. holds 1.5 US fluid ounces, while the jiggers used in the U. K. are 25 ml or sometimes 35 ml. Jiggers may hold other amounts and ratios, can vary depending on the region and date of manufacture. In the U. S. up until Prohibition, a jigger was known to be about half a gill, or 2 US fluid ounces, but starting in the latter part of the 20th century, it is interpreted to be 1.5 US fluid ounces. A shot glass graduated in smaller units such as half-ounces, tablespoons, or millilitres, they are useful for precise measurement of cocktail ingredients, as well as in cooking recipes that call for multiples of a smaller unit, allowing the dispensing of the amount in a single measure. Alcoholic spirits measure Alcohol measurements The Shotglass collectors website
A bartender is a person who formulates and serves alcoholic or soft drink beverages behind the bar in a licensed establishment. Bartenders usually maintain the supplies and inventory for the bar. A bartender can mix classic cocktails such as a Cosmopolitan, Old Fashioned, Mojito. Bartenders are usually responsible for confirming that customers meet the legal drinking age requirements before serving them alcoholic beverages. In certain countries, such as Canada, the United Kingdom, Sweden, bartenders are required to refuse more alcohol to drunk customers. Bartending was a profession with a low reputation, it was perceived through the lens of ethical issues and various legal constraints related to the serving of alcohol. The pioneers of bartending as a serious profession appeared in the 19th century. "Professor" Jerry Thomas established the image of the bartender as a creative professional. Harry Johnson established the first bar management consulting agency. At the turn of the 20th century less than half the bartenders in London were women, such as Ada Coleman.
"Barmaids", as they were called, were the daughters of tradesmen or mechanics or young women from the "better-born" classes, "thrown upon their own resources" and needed an income. The bartending profession was a second occupation, used as transitional work for students to gain customer experience or to save money for university fees; the reason for this is because bartenders in tipping countries such as Canada and the United States, can make significant money from their tips. This view of bartending as a career is changing around the world and bartending has become a profession by choice rather than necessity, it includes specialized education — European Bartender School operates in 23 countries. Cocktail competitions such as World Class and Bacardi Legacy have recognised talented bartenders in the past decade and these bartenders, others, spread the love of cocktails and hospitality throughout the world. Kathy Sullivan owner of Sidecar Bartending expressed the difficulties with becoming a prolific bartender, comparing you to the drink you make: “In drinks you want balance.
And you have to be balanced physically and mentally.”. In the United Kingdom, bar work is not regarded as a long-term profession, but more as a second occupation, or transitional work for students to gain customer experience or to save money for university fees; as such, it therefore has a high turnover. The high turnover of staff due to low wages and poor employee benefits results in a shortage of skilled bartenders. Whereas a career bartender would know drink recipes, serving techniques, alcohol contents, correct gas mixes and licensing law and would have cordial relations with regular customers, short-term staff may lack these skills; some pubs prefer experienced staff, although pub chains tend to accept inexperienced staff and provide training. Tipping bartenders in the United Kingdom is uncommon, not considered mandatory but is appreciated by the bartender; the appropriate way to tip a bartender in the UK is to say'have one for yourself', encouraging the bartender to buy themselves a drink with one's money, where a bartender may instead opt to add a modest amount to a bill to take in cash at the end of their shift.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics data on occupations in the United States, including that of bartender, publishes a detailed description of the bartender's typical duties and employment and earning statistics by those so employed, with 55% of a bartender's take-home pay coming in the form of tips. Bartenders may learn while on the job. Bartenders in the United States may work in a large variety of bars; these include hotel bars, restaurant bars, sports bars, gay bars, piano bars, dive bars. Growing in popularity is the portable bar, which can be moved to different venues and special events. Bar-back, a bartender's assistant Hospitality List of bartenders List of public house topics List of restaurant terminology Tavern Media related to Bartenders at Wikimedia Commons
A cylinder has traditionally been a three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes. It is the idealized version of a solid physical tin can having lids on bottom; this traditional view is still used in elementary treatments of geometry, but the advanced mathematical viewpoint has shifted to the infinite curvilinear surface and this is how a cylinder is now defined in various modern branches of geometry and topology. The shift in the basic meaning has created some ambiguity with terminology, it is hoped that context makes the meaning clear. In this article both points of view are presented and distinguished by referring to solid cylinders and cylindrical surfaces, but keep in mind that in the literature the unadorned term cylinder could refer to either of these or to an more specialized object, the right circular cylinder; the definitions and results in this section are taken from the 1913 text and Solid Geometry by George Wentworth and David Eugene Smith. A cylindrical surface is a surface consisting of all the points on all the lines which are parallel to a given line and which pass through a fixed plane curve in a plane not parallel to the given line.
Any line in this family of parallel lines is called an element of the cylindrical surface. From a kinematics point of view, given a plane curve, called the directrix, a cylindrical surface is that surface traced out by a line, called the generatrix, not in the plane of the directrix, moving parallel to itself and always passing through the directrix. Any particular position of the generatrix is an element of the cylindrical surface. A solid bounded by a cylindrical surface and two parallel planes is called a cylinder; the line segments determined by an element of the cylindrical surface between the two parallel planes is called an element of the cylinder. All the elements of a cylinder have equal lengths; the region bounded by the cylindrical surface in either of the parallel planes is called a base of the cylinder. The two bases of a cylinder are congruent figures. If the elements of the cylinder are perpendicular to the planes containing the bases, the cylinder is a right cylinder, otherwise it is called an oblique cylinder.
If the bases are disks the cylinder is called a circular cylinder. In some elementary treatments, a cylinder always means a circular cylinder; the height of a cylinder is the perpendicular distance between its bases. The cylinder obtained by rotating a line segment about a fixed line that it is parallel to is a cylinder of revolution. A cylinder of revolution is a right circular cylinder; the height of a cylinder of revolution is the length of the generating line segment. The line that the segment is revolved about is called the axis of the cylinder and it passes through the centers of the two bases; the bare term cylinder refers to a solid cylinder with circular ends perpendicular to the axis, that is, a right circular cylinder, as shown in the figure. The cylindrical surface without the ends is called an open cylinder; the formulae for the surface area and the volume of a right circular cylinder have been known from early antiquity. A right circular cylinder can be thought of as the solid of revolution generated by rotating a rectangle about one of its sides.
These cylinders are used in an integration technique for obtaining volumes of solids of revolution. A cylindric section is the intersection of a cylinder's surface with a plane, they are, in general and are special types of plane sections. The cylindric section by a plane that contains two elements of a cylinder is a parallelogram; such a cylindric section of a right cylinder is a rectangle. A cylindric section in which the intersecting plane intersects and is perpendicular to all the elements of the cylinder is called a right section. If a right section of a cylinder is a circle the cylinder is a circular cylinder. In more generality, if a right section of a cylinder is a conic section the solid cylinder is said to be parabolic, elliptic or hyperbolic respectively. For a right circular cylinder, there are several ways. First, consider planes that intersect a base in at most one point. A plane is tangent to the cylinder; the right sections are circles and all other planes intersect the cylindrical surface in an ellipse.
If a plane intersects a base of the cylinder in two points the line segment joining these points is part of the cylindric section. If such a plane contains two elements, it has a rectangle as a cylindric section, otherwise the sides of the cylindric section are portions of an ellipse. If a plane contains more than two points of a base, it contains the entire base and the cylindric section is a circle. In the case of a right circular cylinder with a cylindric section, an ellipse, the eccentricity e of the cylindric section and semi-major axis a of the cylindric section depend on the radius of the cylinder r and the angle α between the secant plane and cylinder axis, in the following way: e = cos α, a = r sin α. If the base of a circular cylinder has a radius r and the cylinder has height h its volume is given by V = πr2h; this formula holds. This formula may be established by using Cavalieri's principle. In more generality, by the same principle, the volume of an
A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, is a fleshy drupe. The cherry fruits of commerce are obtained from cultivars of a limited number of species such as the sweet cherry and the sour cherry; the name'cherry' refers to the cherry tree and its wood, is sometimes applied to almonds and visually similar flowering trees in the genus Prunus, as in "ornamental cherry" or "cherry blossom". Wild cherry may refer to any of the cherry species growing outside cultivation, although Prunus avium is referred to by the name "wild cherry" in the British Isles. Many cherries are members of the subgenus Cerasus, distinguished by having the flowers in small corymbs of several together, by having smooth fruit with only a weak groove along one side, or no groove; the subgenus is native to the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with two species in America, three in Europe, the remainder in Asia. Other cherry fruits called bird cherries; the English word cherry derives from Old Northern French or Norman cherise from the Latin cerasum, referring to an ancient Greek region, Kerasous near Giresun, from which cherries were first thought to be exported to Europe.
The indigenous range of the sweet cherry extends through most of Europe, western Asia, parts of northern Africa, the fruit has been consumed throughout its range since prehistoric times. A cultivated cherry is recorded as having been brought to Rome by Lucius Licinius Lucullus from northeastern Anatolia known as the Pontus region, in 72 BC. Cherries were introduced into England at Teynham, near Sittingbourne in Kent, by order of Henry VIII, who had tasted them in Flanders. Cherries arrived in North America early in the settlement of Brooklyn, New York when the region was under Dutch sovereignty. Trades people leased or purchased land to plant orchards and produce gardens, "Certificate of Corielis van Tienlioven that he had found 12 apple, 40 peach, 73 cherry trees, 26 sage plants.. Behind the house sold by Anthony Jansen from Salee to Barent Dirksen... ANNO 18th of June 1639." The cultivated forms are of the species sweet cherry to which most cherry cultivars belong, the sour cherry, used for cooking.
Both species originate in western Asia. Some other species, although having edible fruit, are not grown extensively for consumption, except in northern regions where the two main species will not grow. Irrigation, spraying and their propensity to damage from rain and hail make cherries expensive. Nonetheless, demand is high for the fruit. In commercial production, sour cherries, as well as sweet cherries sometimes, are harvested by using a mechanized'shaker'. Hand picking is widely used for sweet as well as sour cherries to harvest the fruit to avoid damage to both fruit and trees. Common rootstocks include Mazzard, Mahaleb and Gisela Series, a dwarfing rootstock that produces trees smaller than others, only 8 to 10 feet tall. Sour cherries require no pollenizer. A cherry tree will take three to four years once it's planted in the orchard to produce its first crop of fruit, seven years to attain full maturity. Like most temperate-latitude trees, cherry trees require a certain number of chilling hours each year to break dormancy and bloom and produce fruit.
The number of chilling hours required depends on the variety. Because of this cold-weather requirement, no members of the genus Prunus can grow in tropical climates. Cherries can grow in most temperate latitudes. Cherries blossom in April and the peak season for the cherry harvest is in the summer. In southern Europe in June, in North America in June, in England in mid-July, in southern British Columbia in June to mid-August. In many parts of North America, they are among the first tree fruits to flower and ripen in mid-Spring. In the Southern Hemisphere, cherries are at their peak in late December and are associated with Christmas.'Burlat' is an early variety which ripens during the beginning of December,'Lapins' ripens near the end of December, and'Sweetheart' finish later. The cherry can be a difficult fruit tree to grow and keep alive. In Europe, the first visible pest in the growing season soon after blossom is the black cherry aphid, which causes leaves at the tips of branches to curl, with the blackfly colonies exuding a sticky secretion which promotes fungal growth on the leaves and fruit.
At the fruiting stage in June/July, the cherry fruit fly lays its eggs in the immature fruit, whereafter its larvae feed on the cherry flesh and exit through a small hole, which in turn is the entry point for fungal infection of the cherry fruit after rainfall. In addition, cherry trees are susceptible to bacterial canker, cytospora canker, brown rot of the fruit, root rot from overly wet soil, crown rot, several viruses; the following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit: See cherry blossom and Prunus for ornamental trees. In 2014, world production of sweet cherries was 2.25 million tonnes, with Turkey producing 20% of this total. Other major producers of sweet cherries were Iran. World production of sour cherries in 2014 was 1.36 million tonne
A juicer known as juice extractor, is a tool used to extract juice from fruits, leafy greens and other types of vegetables in a process called juicing. It crushes, and/or squeezes the juice out of the pulp; some types of juicers can function as a food processor. Most of the twin gear and horizontal masticating juicers have attachments for crushing herbs and spices, extruding pasta, noodles or bread sticks, making baby food and nut butter, grinding coffee, making nut milk, etc. Reamers are used for squeezing juice from citrus such as grapefruits, lemons and oranges. Juice is extracted by pressing or grinding a halved citrus along a juicer's ridged conical center and discarding the rind; some reamers are stationary and require a user to press and turn the fruit, while others are electrical, automatically turning the ridged center when fruit is pressed upon. A centrifugal juicer cuts up the vegetable with a flat cutting blade, it spins the produce at a high speed to separate the juice from the pulp.
A masticating juicer known as cold press juicer or slow juicer uses a single auger to compact and crush produce into smaller sections before squeezing out its juice along a static screen while the pulp is expelled through a separate outlet. Triturating juicers have twin augers to press produce. A juicing press, such as a fruit press or wine press, is a larger scale that are used in agricultural production; these presses can be mobile. A mobile press has the advantage; the process is used for apples and involves a stack of apple mash, wrapped in fine mesh cloth, pressed under approx 40 tonnes. These machines have now been introduced to North America. A stovetop steam juice extractor is a pot to generate steam that used to heat a batch of berries in a perforated pot stacked on top of a juice collecting container, above the steam pot; the juice is extracted without mechanical means so it is remarkably clear and because of the steam heating it is pasteurized for long term storage. Smoothie Vegetable juice Juicero