Brazilian cuisine is the set of cooking practices and traditions of Brazil, is characterized by African, Amerindian and European influences. It varies by region, reflecting the country's mix of native and immigrant populations, its continental size as well; this has created a national cuisine marked by the preservation of regional differences. Ingredients first used by native peoples in Brazil include cashews, guaraná, açaí, cumaru and tucupi. From there, the many waves of immigrants brought some of their typical dishes, replacing missing ingredients with local equivalents. For instance, the European immigrants were accustomed to a wheat-based diet, introduced wine, leafy vegetables, dairy products into Brazilian cuisine; when potatoes were not available they discovered how to use the native sweet manioc as a replacement. Enslaved Africans had a role in developing Brazilian cuisine in the coastal states; the foreign influence extended to migratory waves – Japanese immigrants brought most of the food items that Brazilians would associate with Asian cuisine today, introduced large-scale aviaries, well into the 20th century.
Root vegetables such as manioc and fruit like açaí, cupuaçu, papaya, orange, passion fruit and hog plum are among the local ingredients used in cooking. Some typical dishes are feijoada, considered the country's national dish. There is caruru, which consists of okra, dried shrimp, toasted nuts, cooked with palm oil until a spread-like consistency is reached; the national beverage is coffee. Cachaça is distilled from fermented sugar cane must, is the main ingredient in the national cocktail, caipirinha. Cheese buns, salgadinhos such as pastéis, risólis and kibbeh are common finger food items, while cuscuz branco is a popular dessert. There is not an exact single "national Brazilian cuisine", but there is an assortment of various regional traditions and typical dishes; this diversity is linked to the origins of the people inhabiting each dam. For instance, the culinary in Bahia is influenced by a mix of African and Portuguese cuisines. Chili and palm oil are common, but in the Northern states, due to the abundance of forest and freshwater rivers and cassava are staple foods.
In the deep south like Rio Grande do Sul, the influence shifts more towards gaúcho traditions shared with its neighbors Argentina and Uruguay, with many meat based products, due to this region livestock based economy – the churrasco, a kind of barbecue, is a local tradition. In Rio, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais, the Brazilian Feijoada is popular as a Wednesday or Saturday lunch. Consumed is picadinho or rice and beans. In Rio de Janeiro, besides the feijoada, a popular plate is any variation of grilled bovine fillet and beans, farofa and French fries called Filé à Osvaldo Aranha. Seafood is popular in coastal areas, as is roasted chicken; the strong Portuguese heritage endowed the city with a taste for bolinhos de bacalhau, being one of the most common street foods there. In São Paulo, a typical dish is virado à paulista, made with rice, tutu de feijão, sauteed kale, pork. São Paulo is the home of pastel, a food consisting of thin pastry envelopes wrapped around assorted fillings deep fried in vegetable oil.
It is a common belief that they originated when Japanese immigrants adapted the recipe of fried spring rolls to sell as snacks at weekly street markets. In Minas Gerais, the regional dishes include corn, beans, tutu de feijão, local soft ripened traditional cheeses. In Espírito Santo, there is significant Italian and German influence in local dishes, both savory and sweet; the state dish, though, is of Amerindian origin, called moqueca capixaba, a tomato and fish stew prepared in a Panela de Barro. Amerindian and Italian cuisine are the two main pillars of Capixaba cuisine. Seafood dishes in general are popular in Espírito Santo but unlike other Amerindian dishes the use of olive oil is mandatory. Bobó de camarão, Torta Capixaba, Polenta are very popular; the cuisine of this region, which includes the states of Acre, Amapá, Pará, Rondônia and Tocantins, is influenced by indigenous cuisine. In the state of Pará, there are several typical dishes including: Pato no tucupi – one of the most famous dishes from Pará.
It is associated to a great local Roman Catholic celebration. The dish is made with tucupi; the duck, after cooking, is cut into pieces and boile
Sour cream is a dairy product obtained by fermenting regular cream with certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria. The bacterial culture, introduced either deliberately or sours and thickens the cream, its name comes from the production of lactic acid by bacterial fermentation, called souring. Traditionally, sour cream was made by letting cream, skimmed off the top of milk ferment at a moderate temperature, it can be prepared by the souring of pasteurized cream with acid-producing bacterial culture. The bacteria that developed during fermentation thickened the cream and made it more acidic, a natural way of preserving it. Traditional sour cream contains from 18 to 20 percent butterfat and gets its characteristic tang from the lactic acid created by the bacteria. Commercially produced sour cream contains not less than 14 percent milk fat, it may contain milk and whey solids, starch in an amount not exceeding one per cent and rennet derived from aqueous extracts from the fourth stomach of calves, kids or lambs, in an amount consistent with good manufacturing practice.
In addition, according to the Canadian food regulations, the emulsifying, gelling and thickening agents in sour cream are algin, carob bean gum, gelatin, guar gum, pectin, or propylene glycol alginate or any combination thereof in an amount not exceeding 0.5 per cent, mono- and diglycerides, or any combination thereof, in an amount not exceeding 0.3 per cent, sodium phosphate dibasic in an amount not exceeding 0.05 per cent. To obtain sour cream, acids are added to artificially sour the product. Light, or reduced-fat, sour cream contains less butterfat than regular sour cream, because it is made from a mixture of milk and cream rather than just cream. Fat-free "sour cream" contains no cream at all, is made from non-fat milk, modified cornstarch and flavoring agents. Sour cream is not fermented, like many dairy products, must be refrigerated unopened and after use. Additionally, in Canadian regulations, a milk coagulating enzyme derived from Rhizomucor miehei from Mucor pusillus Lindt by pure culture fermentation process or from Aspergillus oryzae RET-1 can be added into sour cream production process, in an amount consistent with good manufacturing practice.
Sour cream is sold with an expiration date stamped on the container, though whether this is a "sell by", a "best by" or a "use by" date varies with local regulation. Refrigerated unopened sour cream can last for 1–2 weeks beyond its sell by date while refrigerated opened sour cream lasts for 7–10 days. Cultured cream. Processed sour cream can include any of the following additives and preservatives: grade A whey, modified food starch, sodium phosphate, sodium citrate, guar gum, calcium sulfate, potassium sorbate, locust bean gum. Milk is made up of 3.0-3.5% protein, the main proteins in cream are caseins and whey proteins, caseins are globular proteins with phosphoserine residue. Of the total fraction of milk proteins, caseins make up 80% while the whey proteins make up 20%. There are four main classes of caseins; these casein proteins form a multi molecular colloidal particle known as a casein micelle. The proteins mentioned have an affinity to bind with other casein proteins, or to bind with calcium phosphate, this binding is what forms the aggregates.
The casein micelles are aggregates of β-caseins, α-caseins, α-caseins, that are coated with κ-caseins. The proteins are held together by small clusters of calcium phosphate, the micelle contains lipase, minor ions, plasmin enzymes, along with entrapped milk serum. Casein micelles are rather porous structures, ranging in the size of 50-250 nm in diameter and the structures on average are 6-12% of the total volume fraction of milk; the structure is porous in order to be able to hold a sufficient amount of water, its structure assists in the reactivity of the micelle. The formation of casein molecules into the micelle is unusual due to β-casein's large amount of propyl residues and because κ-caseins only contain one phosphorylation residue. Due to κ-caseins being glycoproteins, they are stable in the presence of calcium ions so the κ-caseins are on the outer layer of the micelle to protect the non glycoproteins β-caseins, α-caseins, α-caseins from precipitating out in the presence of excess calcium ions.
Casein micelles are not heat sensitive particles, they are pH sensitive. The colloidal particles are stable at the normal pH of milk, 6.5-6.7, the micelles will precipitate at the isoelectric point of milk, a pH of 4.6. The proteins that make up the remaining 20% of the fraction of proteins in cream are known as whey proteins. Whey proteins are widely referred to as serum proteins, used when the casein proteins have been precipitated out of solution; the two main components of whey proteins in milk are α-lactalbumin. The remaining whey proteins in milk are. Whey proteins are much more water-soluble than casein proteins; the main biological function of β-lactoglobulin in milk is to serve as a way to transfer vitamin A, the main biological function of α-lactalbumin in lactose synthesis. The whey proteins are resistant to acids and proteolytic enzymes; however whey proteins are heat sensitive proteins, the heating of milk will cause the denaturation of the whey proteins. The denaturation of these proteins happens in two steps.
The structures of β
Ginger is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or ginger, is used as a spice and a folk medicine. It is a herbaceous perennial which grows annual pseudostems about a meter tall bearing narrow leaf blades; the inflorescences bear pale yellow with purple flowers and arise directly from the rhizome on separate shoots. Ginger is in the family Zingiberaceae, to which belong turmeric and galangal. Ginger originated in Island Southeast Asia and was domesticated first by the Austronesian peoples, it was transported with them throughout the Indo-Pacific during the Austronesian expansion, reaching as far as Hawaii. Ginger was one of the first spices exported from the Orient, ginger arrived in Europe during the spice trade, was used by ancient Greeks and Romans; the distantly related dicots in the genus Asarum are called wild ginger because of their similar taste. The English origin of the word, "ginger", is from the mid-14th century, from Old English gingifer, from Medieval Latin gingiber, from Greek zingiberis, from Prakrit singabera, from Sanskrit srngaveram, from srngam "horn" and vera- "body", from the shape of its root.
The word was readopted in Middle English from Old French gingibre. Ginger originated from Island Southeast Asia, it does not exist in its wild state. The most ancient evidence of its domestication is among the Austronesian peoples where it was among several species of ginger cultivated and exploited since ancient times; the other notable gingers they cultivated included turmeric, white turmeric, bitter ginger, among others. The rhizomes and the leaves were eaten directly; the leaves were used to weave mats. Aside from these uses, ginger had religious significance among Austronesians, being used in rituals for healing and for asking protection from spirits, they were used in the blessing of Austronesian ships. Ginger was carried with them in their voyages as canoe plants during the Austronesian expansion, starting from around 5,000 BP, they introduced them to the Pacific Islands in prehistory, long before any contact with other civilizations. Reflexes of the Proto-Malayo-Polynesian word *laqia is still found in Austronesian languages all the way to Hawaii.
They presumably introduced it to India along with other Southeast Asian food plants and Austronesian sailing technologies, during early contact by Austronesian sailors with the Dravidian-speaking peoples of Sri Lanka and South India at around 3,500 BP. It was carried by Austronesian voyagers into Madagascar and the Comoros in the 1st millennium CE. From India, it was carried by traders into the Middle East and the Mediterranean by around the 1st century CE, they were grown in southern India and the Greater Sunda Islands during the spice trade, along with peppers and numerous other spices. Ginger produces clusters of pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers; because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates, it is used as landscaping around subtropical homes. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems, about a meter tall. Traditionally, the rhizome is gathered; the fragrant perisperm of the Zingiberaceae is used as sweetmeats by Bantu, as a condiment and sialagogue.
In 2016, global production of ginger was 3.3 million tonnes, led by India with 34% of the world total. Nigeria and Indonesia had substantial production. Ginger produces a fragrant kitchen spice. Young ginger rhizomes are fleshy with a mild taste, they are pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. They can be steeped in boiling water to make ginger herb tea. Ginger can be made into ginger wine. Mature ginger rhizomes are nearly dry; the juice from ginger roots is used as a seasoning in Indian recipes and is a common ingredient of Chinese, Japanese and many South Asian cuisines for flavoring dishes such as seafood and vegetarian dishes. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of six to one, although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. Powdered dry ginger root is used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread, cookies and cakes, ginger ale, ginger beer. Candied ginger or crystallized ginger, known in the U. K. as "stem ginger", is the root cooked in sugar until soft, is a type of confectionery.
Fresh ginger may be peeled before eating. For longer-term storage, the ginger can be refrigerated or frozen. In Indian cuisine, ginger is a key ingredient in thicker gravies, as well as in many other dishes, both vegetarian and meat-based. Ginger has a role in traditional Ayurvedic medicine, it is an ingredient in traditional Indian drinks, both hot, including spiced masala chai. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. Fresh ginger together with peeled garlic cloves ground to form ginger garlic masala. Fresh, as well as dried, ginger is used to spice tea and coffee in winter. In south India, "sambharam" is a summer yogurt drink made with ginger as a key ingredient, along with green chillies and curry leaves. Ginger powder is used in food preparations intended for pregnant or nursing women, the most popular
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species Citrus × sinensis in the family Rutaceae. It is called sweet orange, to distinguish it from the related Citrus × aurantium, referred to as bitter orange; the sweet orange reproduces asexually. The orange is a hybrid between mandarin; the chloroplast genome, therefore the maternal line, is that of pomelo. The sweet orange has had its full genome sequenced. Sweet orange originated in ancient China and the earliest mention of the sweet orange was in Chinese literature in 314 BC; as of 1987, orange trees were found to be the most cultivated fruit tree in the world. Orange trees are grown in tropical and subtropical climates for their sweet fruit; the fruit of the orange tree can be processed for its juice or fragrant peel. As of 2012, sweet oranges accounted for 70% of citrus production. In 2014, 70.9 million tonnes of oranges were grown worldwide, with Brazil producing 24% of the world total followed by China and India. All citrus trees belong to the single genus Citrus and remain entirely interfertile.
This includes grapefruits, limes and various other types and hybrids. As the interfertility of oranges and other citrus has produced numerous hybrids and cultivars, bud mutations have been selected, citrus taxonomy is controversial, confusing or inconsistent; the fruit of any citrus tree is considered a kind of modified berry. Different names have been given to the many varieties of the genus. Orange applies to the sweet orange – Citrus sinensis Osbeck; the orange tree is an evergreen, flowering tree, with an average height of 9 to 10 m, although some old specimens can reach 15 m. Its oval leaves, alternately arranged, have crenulate margins. Sweet oranges grow in a range of different sizes, shapes varying from spherical to oblong. Inside and attached to the rind is a porous white tissue, the white, bitter mesocarp or albedo; the orange contains a number of distinct carpels inside about ten, each delimited by a membrane, containing many juice-filled vesicles and a few seeds. When unripe, the fruit is green.
The grainy irregular rind of the ripe fruit can range from bright orange to yellow-orange, but retains green patches or, under warm climate conditions, remains green. Like all other citrus fruits, the sweet orange is non-climacteric; the Citrus sinensis group is subdivided into four classes with distinct characteristics: common oranges, blood or pigmented oranges, navel oranges, acidless oranges. Other citrus groups known as oranges are: Mandarin orange is an original species of citrus, is a progenitor of the common orange. Bitter orange known as Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange and marmalade orange. Like the sweet orange, it is a pomelo x mandarin hybrid, but arose from a distinct hybridization event. Bergamot orange, grown in Italy for its peel, producing a primary essence for perfumes used to flavor Earl Grey tea, it is a hybrid of bitter orange x lemon. Trifoliate orange, sometimes included in the genus, it serves as a rootstock for sweet orange trees and other Citrus cultivars.
An enormous number of cultivars have, like a mix of pomelo and mandarin ancestry. Some cultivars are mandarin-pomelo hybrids, bred from the same parents as the sweet orange. Other cultivars are sweet orange x mandarin hybrids. Mandarin traits include being smaller and oblate, easier to peel, less acidic. Pomelo traits include a thick white albedo, more attached to the segments. Orange trees are grafted; the bottom of the tree, including the roots and trunk, is called rootstock, while the fruit-bearing top has two different names: budwood and scion. The word orange derives from the Sanskrit word for "orange tree", which in turn derives from a Dravidian root word; the Sanskrit word reached European languages through Persian نارنگ and its Arabic derivative نارنج. The word entered Late Middle English in the fourteenth century via Old French orenge; the French word, in turn, comes from Old Provençal auranja, based on Arabic nāranj. In several languages, the initial n present in earlier forms of the word dropped off because it may have been mistaken as part of an indefinite article ending in an n sound—in French, for example, une norenge may have been heard as une orenge.
This linguistic change is called juncture loss. The color was named after the fruit, the first recorded use of orange as a color name in English was in 1512; as Portuguese merchants were the first to introduce the sweet orange to some regions of Europe, in several modern Indo-European languages the fruit has been named after them. Some examples are Albanian portokall, Bulgarian портокал, Greek πορτοκάλι, Macedonian portokal, Persian پرتقال, Turkish portakal and Romanian portocală. Related names can be found in other languages, such as Arabic البرتقال, Georgian ფორთოხალი and Amharic birtukan. In
Cachaça is a distilled spirit made from fermented sugarcane juice. Known as aguardente, caninha and other names, it is the most popular spirit among distilled alcoholic beverages in Brazil. Outside Brazil, cachaça is used exclusively as an ingredient in tropical drinks, with the caipirinha being the most famous cocktail. Sugar production was switched from the Madeira islands to Brazil by the Portuguese in the 16th century. In Madeira, aguardente de cana is made by distilling sugar cane liquors and the pot stills from Madeira were brought to Brazil to make what today is called cachaça; the process dates from 1532, when one of the Portuguese colonisers brought the first cuttings of sugar cane to Brazil from Madeira. Cachaça is produced in Brazil, according to 2007 figures, 1,500,000,000 litres are consumed annually, compared with 15,000,000 litres outside the country, it is between 38% and 48% alcohol by volume. When homemade, it can be as strong. Up to six grams per litre of sugar may be added. Figures from 2003 indicate.
Cachaça, like rum, has two varieties: unaged and aged. White cachaça is bottled after distillation and tends to be cheaper, it is used as an ingredient in caipirinha and other mixed beverages. Dark cachaça seen as the "premium" variety, is aged in wood barrels and is meant to be drunk straight, its flavour is influenced by the type of wood the barrel is made from. There are important regions in Brazil where fine pot still cachaça is produced such as Chã Grande in Pernambuco state, Salinas in Minas Gerais state, Paraty in Rio de Janeiro state, Monte Alegre do Sul in São Paulo state and Abaíra in Bahia state. Nowadays, producers of cachaça can be found in most Brazilian regions and in 2011 there were over 40,000 of them. For more than four centuries of history, cachaça has accumulated synonyms and creative nicknames coined by the Brazilian people; some of these words were created for the purpose of deceiving the supervision of the metropolis in the days when cachaça was banned in Brazil. There are more than two thousand words to refer to the Brazilian national distillate.
Some of these nicknames are: abre-coração, água-benta, bafo-de-tigre, limpa-olho. In the beginning of the seventeenth century, the producers of sugar from various European colonies in the Americas started to use the by-products of sugar and scummings as the raw material for the production of alcoholic spirits; the resulting beverage was known by several names: in British colonies it was named rum. The major difference between cachaça and rum is that rum is made from molasses, a by-product from refineries that boil the cane juice to extract as much sugar crystal as possible, while cachaça is made from fresh sugarcane juice, fermented and distilled; as some rums—in particular the rhum agricole of the French Caribbean—are made by this process, cachaça is known as Brazilian rum. In the United States, cachaça is recognized as a type of rum and distinctive Brazilian product after an agreement was signed in 2013 with Brazil in which it will drop the usage of the term Brazilian rum. Clairin Cocktails with cachaça List of brands of Cachaça List of Brazilian drinks O Álbum Virtual de Rótulos de Garrafas de Cachaça na Net—Web site dedicated to cachaça labels.
In English and Portuguese. Know more ABOUT cachaça
Feijoada is a stew of beans with beef and pork of Brazilian origin. It is prepared in Portugal, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Timor, Goa and Brazil, where it is considered a national dish. However, the recipe differs from one country to another; the name comes from feijão, Portuguese for "beans". The basic ingredients of feijoada are beans with fresh beef. In Brazil, it is made with black beans; the stew is best prepared over low heat in a thick clay pot. It is served with rice and assorted sausages such as chouriço, morcela and others, which may or may not be cooked in the stew; the practice of cooking a meat stew with vegetables that gave origin to the feijoada from the Minho Province in Northern Portugal is a millenary Mediterranean tradition that can be traced back to the period when the Romans colonized Iberia. Roman soldiers would bring this habit to every Latin settlement, i.e. all of the provinces of Romania, the Vulgar Latin speaking area of Europe, this heritage is the source of many national and regional dishes of today's Europe, such as the French cassoulet, the Milanese cassoeula from Lombardy, the Romanian fasole cu cârnați, the fabada asturiana from Northwestern Spain, the Spanish cocido madrileño and olla podrida, not to mention non-Romanic regions with similar traditions that might be derived from this millennial Roman soldiers' dish like the Polish tsholem and golonka.
Fasolada, labeled the Greek national dish is related to the ancient Greek dish of broad beans and grains, with no meat, unlike the Italian fagiolata and the Portuguese feijoada, used as food and sacrifice to Greek God Apollo during the Pyanopsia festival. Many modern variants of the dish are based on feijoada recipes popularized in the Brazilian regions of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Salvador. In Brazil, feijoada is considered a national dish. Registered for the first time in Recife, state of Pernambuco, feijoada has been described as a national dish of Brazil of Rio de Janeiro, as other parts of Brazil have other regional dishes; the Brazilian version of feijoada is prepared with black beans, a variety of salted pork or beef products, such as pork trimmings, smoked pork ribs, at least two types of smoked sausage and jerked beef. In some regions of the northeast, like Bahia and Sergipe, vegetables like cabbage, potatoes, okra, pumpkin and sometimes banana are added, at the end of the cooking, on top of the meat, so they are cooked by the vapors of the beans and meat stew.
The final dish has the beans and meat pieces covered by a dark purplish-brown broth. The taste is strong, moderately salty but not spicy, dominated by the flavors of black bean and meat stew, it is customary to serve it with white rice and oranges, the latter to help with digestion, as well as stir-fried, chopped collard greens and manioc flour. Feijão com arroz is black beans without the addition of the meat. Depending on the region of Brazil, the type of bean used in feijoada varies. While in some regions like Rio de Janeiro or Minas Gerais, feijoada is prepared with black beans, others in Goias and Bahia brown or red is preferred; as a celebratory dish, feijoada is traditionally served on Saturday afternoons or Sunday lunch and intended to be a leisurely midday meal. It is meant to be enjoyed throughout the day and not eaten under rushed circumstances; the meal is eaten among extended family and paired with an event like watching a soccer game or other social event. Because of the dish's heavy ingredients and rich flavors, feijoada is viewed as Brazilian soul food.
In the city of São Paulo, feijoada is a common dish on restaurants on Wednesdays in the commercial area. In Rio de Janeiro, restaurants traditionally serve it on Fridays; the dish is served with a choice among a selection of meats, e.g. pork, pig ears, pig feet, to fulfill the customer`s needs. Other variations of feijoada, such as the low fat version or the vegetarian; the dish is compared to American Southern Soul Food which share many similarities in terms of ingredients and taste. According to legend, the origins of Brazil’s national dish, stem from the country’s history with slavery. Slaves would craft this hearty dish out of black beans and pork leftovers given to them from their households; these leftovers included pig feet, ears and other portions seen as unfit for the master and his family. However, this theory has been contested and considered more of a modern advertising technique for the dish rather than a basis for its origins. Instead, scholars argue that the history of feijoada traces back to Brazil’s cultivation of black beans.
Because of the crop’s low cost of production and the simplicity of its maintenance, the beans became a staple food among European settlers in Brazil. Although black beans were eaten by both the upper-classes and the poor, the upper-classes enjoyed them with an assortment of meat and vegetables, similar to feijoada, while the poor and enslaved ate a mixture of black beans and manioc flour. Cassoeula Cassoulet Rice and beans Fabada Asturiana Fasole cu cârnați List of Portuguese dishes List of Brazilian dishes List of stews
Wine is an alcoholic drink made from fermented grapes. Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol, carbon dioxide, heat. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine; these variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir, the production process. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define qualities of wine; these restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production. Wines not made from grapes include rice wine and fruit wines such as plum, pomegranate and elderberry. Wine has been produced for thousands of years; the earliest known traces of wine are from Georgia and Sicily although there is evidence of a similar alcoholic drink being consumed earlier in China. The earliest known winery is the 6,100-year-old Areni-1 winery in Armenia. Wine reached the Balkans by 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient Greece and Rome.
Throughout history, wine has been consumed for its intoxicating effects. Wine has long played an important role in religion. Red wine was associated with blood by the ancient Egyptians and was used by both the Greek cult of Dionysus and the Romans in their Bacchanalia; the earliest archaeological and archaeobotanical evidence for grape wine and viniculture, dating to 6000–5800 BC was found on the territory of modern Georgia. Both archaeological and genetic evidence suggest that the earliest production of wine elsewhere was later having taken place in the Southern Caucasus, or the West Asian region between Eastern Turkey, northern Iran; the earliest evidence of a grape-based fermented drink was found in China, Georgia from 6000 BC, Iran from 5000 BC, Sicily from 4000 BC. The earliest evidence of a wine production facility is the Areni-1 winery in Armenia and is at least 6100 years old. A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce mixed fermented drinks in China in the early years of the seventh millennium BC.
Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds found in wine. However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be ruled out. If these drinks, which seem to be the precursors of rice wine, included grapes rather than other fruits, they would have been any of the several dozen indigenous wild species in China, rather than Vitis vinifera, introduced there 6000 years later; the spread of wine culture westwards was most due to the Phoenicians who spread outward from a base of city-states along the Mediterranean coast of what are today Syria, Lebanon and Palestine. The wines of Byblos were exported to Egypt during the Old Kingdom and throughout the Mediterranean. Evidence includes two Phoenician shipwrecks from 750 BC discovered by Robert Ballard, whose cargo of wine was still intact; as the first great traders in wine, the Phoenicians seem to have protected it from oxidation with a layer of olive oil, followed by a seal of pinewood and resin, similar to retsina.
Although the nuragic Sardinians consumed wine before the arrival of the Phoenicians The earliest remains of Apadana Palace in Persepolis dating back to 515 BC include carvings depicting soldiers from Achaemenid Empire subject nations bringing gifts to the Achaemenid king, among them Armenians bringing their famous wine. Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer and others. In ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y", a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphoras were designated as originating from the king's personal estate, with the sixth from the estate of the royal house of Aten. Traces of wine have been found in central Asian Xinjiang in modern-day China, dating from the second and first millennia BC; the first known mention of grape-based wines in India is from the late 4th-century BC writings of Chanakya, the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. In his writings, Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of wine known as madhu.
The ancient Romans planted vineyards near garrison towns so wine could be produced locally rather than shipped over long distances. Some of these areas are now world-renowned for wine production; the Romans discovered that burning sulfur candles inside empty wine vessels kept them fresh and free from a vinegar smell. In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church supported wine because the clergy required it for the Mass. Monks in France made wine for years. An old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining white wine from bastard—bad or tainted bastardo wine; the English word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic *winam, an early borrowing from the Latin vinum, "wine" or " vine", itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o-. The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo, meaning "in" or " of the new wine", wo-no-wa-ti-si, meaning "wine garden", written in Linear B inscriptions. Linear B includes, inter alia, an ideogram for wine