A cue stick, is an item of sporting equipment essential to the games of pool and carom billiards. It is used to strike a ball, usually the cue ball, cues are tapered sticks, typically about 57–59 inches long and usually between 16 and 21 ounces, with professionals gravitating toward a 19-ounce average. Cues for carom tend toward the shorter range, though cue length is primarily a factor of player height, most cues are made of wood, but occasionally the wood is covered or bonded with other materials including graphite, carbon fiber or fiberglass. An obsolete term for a cue, used from the 16th to early 19th centuries, is billiard stick. The forerunner of the cue was the mace, an implement similar to a golf club. When the ball was frozen against a rail cushion, use of the mace was difficult, in public billiard rooms only skilled players were allowed to use the cue, because the fragile cloth could be torn by novices. The idea of the cue initially was to try to strike the cue-ball as centrally as possible to avoid a miscue.
The concept of spin on the cue ball was discovered before cue-tips had been invented, françois Mingaud was studying the game of billiards while being held in Paris as a political prisoner, and experimented with a leather cue tip. In 1807, he was released and demonstrated his invention, Mingaud is credited with the discovery that by raising the cue vertically, to the position adopted by the mace, he could perform what is now known as a massé shot. In pre-tip days, it was common for players to twist the ends of their cue into a wall or ceiling so that a chalk-like deposit would form on the end. The first systematic marketing of chalk was by John Carr, a marker in John Bartleys billiard rooms in Bath, between Carr and Bartley, it was discovered how side could be used to the advantage of players, and Carr began selling chalk in small boxes. He called it twisting powder, and the impression this gave the public enabled him to sell it for a higher price than if they realized it was simply chalk in a small box.
English, an American term for sidespin, derives from the British discovery of sidespins effects and snooker cues average around 57–59 inches in length and are of three major types. The simplest type is a cue, these are generally stocked in pool halls for communal use. They have a taper, meaning they decrease in diameter evenly from the end or butt to the tip. A second type is the cue, divided in the middle for ease of transport. A third variety is another two-piece cue, but with a joint located three-quarters down the cue, known as a three-quarter two-piece, used by snooker players. A typical two-piece cue for pocket billiards is usually made mostly of hardrock maple, with a fiberglass or phenolic resin ferrule, usually 0.75 to 1 inch long, and steel joint collars and pin
Dalbergia melanoxylon is a flowering plant in the family Fabaceae, native to seasonally dry regions of Africa from Senegal east to Eritrea and south to the north-eastern parts of South Africa. The tree is an important timber species in its areas, it is used in the manufacture of musical instruments. It is a tree, reaching 4–15 m tall, with grey bark. The leaves are deciduous in the dry season, alternate, 6–22 cm long, pinnately compound, the flowers are white and produced in dense clusters. The fruit is a pod 3–7 cm long, containing one to two seeds, the dense, lustrous wood ranges from reddish to pure black. It is generally cut into small billets or logs with its sharply demarcated bright yellow white sapwood left on to assist in the slow drying so as to prevent cracks developing, good quality A grade African blackwood commands high prices on the commercial timber market. The tonal qualities of African blackwood are particularly valued when used in instruments, principally clarinets, transverse flutes, Highland pipes.
The timber is used mainly because of its machinability and dimensional stability, deering Banjo Company uses blackwood to construct the tone ring in its John Hartford model banjo. Deering indicates that this reduces weight versus brass/bronze tone rings, furniture makers from the time of the Egyptians have valued this timber. A story states that it has even used as ballast in trading ships. The German knife companies Wüsthof and J. A. Henckels sell knives with blackwood handles due to the woods moisture repellent qualities, due to overuse, the mpingo tree is severely threatened in Kenya and is needing attention in Tanzania and Mozambique. The trees are being harvested at a rate, partly because of illegal smuggling of the wood into Kenya. African blackwood is no longer regarded as ebony, a name now reserved for a number of timbers yielded by the genus Diospyros. The genus Dalbergia yields other famous timbers such as Brazilian rosewood, Dalbergia cearensis, other names by which the tree is known include babanus and grenadilla, which appear as loanwords in various local English dialects.
The Mpingo Conservation & Development Initiative is involved in research, awareness raising, in order to achieve this, the MCDI is helping communities to get Forest Stewardship Certification. The African blackwood Conservation Project works around Mount Kilimanjaro replanting African blackwood trees and it works with adult and womens groups in the promotion of environmentally sound land uses. Clarinets for Conservation is based in Moshi and aims to raise awareness, small growers in Naples, Florida have been successful in growing African blackwood there. Growth habit in Florida yields taller, larger trees, and the rich soil combined with ample nutrients, ventures like this will be able to take strain off African reserves and allow this timber to be used in the future
Hardwood is wood from dicot angiosperm trees. The term may be used for the trees from which the wood is derived, in temperate and boreal latitudes they are mostly deciduous, but in tropics and subtropics mostly evergreen. Hardwood should not be confused with the heartwood, which can be from hardwood or softwood. Hardwoods are produced by trees that reproduce by flowers, and have broad leaves. Hardwood from deciduous species, such as oak, normally shows annual growth rings, hardwoods have a more complex structure than softwoods and are often much slower growing as a result. The dominant feature separating hardwoods from softwoods is the presence of pores, the vessels may show considerable variation in size, shape of perforation plates, and structure of cell wall, such as spiral thickenings. As the name suggests, the wood from trees is generally harder than that of softwoods. Solid hardwood joinery tends to be compared to softwood. In the past, tropical hardwoods were easily available, but the supply of some species, such as Burma teak, cheaper hardwood doors, for instance, now consist of a thin veneer bonded to a core of softwood, plywood or medium-density fibreboard.
Hardwoods may be used in a variety of objects, but are most frequently seen in furniture or musical instruments because of their density which adds to durability, different species of hardwood lend themselves to different end uses or construction processes. This is due to the variety of characteristics apparent in different timbers, including density, pore size and fibre pattern and ability to be steam bent. For example, the grain of elm wood makes it suitable for the making of chair seats where the driving in of legs. There is a correlation between density and calories/volume, list of woods Hardwood flooring Softwood Janka hardness test Brinell scale Schweingruber, F. H. Anatomie europäischer Hölzer—Anatomy of European woods. Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landscaft, finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki. The Anatomy of Wood, Its Diversity and variability
With an estimated population of around 15.8 million, it is the most populated state in Central America. Guatemala is a democracy, its capital and largest city is Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción. The territory of modern Guatemala once formed the core of the Maya civilization, most of the country was conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century, becoming part of the viceroyalty of New Spain. Guatemala attained independence in 1821 as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, from the mid to late 19th century, Guatemala experienced chronic instability and civil strife. Beginning in the early 20th century, it was ruled by a series of dictators backed by the United Fruit Company, in 1944, authoritarian leader Jorge Ubico was overthrown by a pro-democratic military coup, initiating a decade-long revolution that led to sweeping social and economic reforms. A U. S. -backed military coup in 1954 ended the revolution, from 1960 to 1996, Guatemala endured a bloody civil war fought between the US-backed government and leftist rebels, including genocidal massacres of the Maya population perpetrated by the military.
As of 2014, Guatemala ranks 31st of 33 Latin American and Caribbean countries in terms of the Human Development Index, Guatemalas abundance of biologically significant and unique ecosystems includes a large number of endemic species and contributes to Mesoamericas designation as a biodiversity hotspot. The country is known for its rich and distinct culture. The name Guatemala comes from the Nahuatl word Cuauhtēmallān, or place of many trees and this was the name the Tlaxcaltecan soldiers who accompanied Pedro de Alvarado during the Spanish Conquest gave to this territory. The first evidence of habitation in Guatemala dates back to 12,000 BC. Evidence, such as obsidian arrowheads found in parts of the country. There is archaeological proof that early Guatemalan settlers were hunters and gatherers, pollen samples from Petén and the Pacific coast indicate that maize cultivation had been developed by 3500 BC. Sites dating back to 6500 BC have been found in the Quiché region in the Highlands, archaeologists divide the pre-Columbian history of Mesoamerica into the Preclassic period, the Classic period, and the Postclassic period.
Until recently, the Preclassic was regarded as a period, with small villages of farmers who lived in huts. This period is characterized by urbanisation, the emergence of independent city-states and this lasted until approximately 900 AD, when the Classic Maya civilization collapsed. The Maya abandoned many of the cities of the lowlands or were killed off by a drought-induced famine. The cause of the collapse is debated, but the Drought Theory is gaining currency, supported by such as lakebeds, ancient pollen. A series of prolonged droughts, among other such as overpopulation, in what is otherwise a seasonal desert is thought to have decimated the Maya
The clarinet is a musical-instrument family belonging to the group known as the woodwind instruments. It has a mouthpiece, a straight cylindrical tube with an almost cylindrical bore. A person who plays a clarinet is called a clarinetist, the word clarinet may have entered the English language via the French clarinette, or from Provençal clarin, oboe. It would seem however that its roots are to be found amongst some of the various names for trumpets used around the renaissance. Clarion and the Italian clarino are all derived from the medieval term claro which referred to a form of trumpet. This is probably the origin of the Italian clarinetto, itself a diminutive of clarino, according to Johann Gottfried Walther, writing in 1732, the reason for the name is that it sounded from far off not unlike a trumpet. The English form clarinet is found as early as 1733, while the similarity in sound between the earliest clarinets and the trumpet may hold a clue to its name, other factors may have been involved.
The trumpet parts that required this speciality were known by the term clarino, Johann Christoph Denner is generally believed to have invented the clarinet in Germany around the year 1700 by adding a register key to the earlier chalumeau. Over time, additional keywork and airtight pads were added to improve the tone and these days the most popular clarinet is the B♭ clarinet. However, the clarinet in A, just a lower, is commonly used in orchestral music. Since the middle of the 19th century the clarinet has become an essential addition to the orchestra. The clarinet family ranges from the BBB♭ octo-contrabass to the A♭ piccolo clarinet, the clarinet has proved to be an exceptionally flexible instrument, equally at home in the classical repertoire as in concert bands, military bands, marching bands and jazz. The cylindrical bore is primarily responsible for the clarinets distinctive timbre, the tone quality can vary greatly with the musician, the music, the instrument, the mouthpiece, and the reed.
The most prominent were the German/Viennese traditions and the French school, the latter was centered on the clarinetists of the Conservatoire de Paris. The proliferation of recorded music has made examples of different styles of clarinet playing available, the modern clarinetist has a diverse palette of acceptable tone qualities to choose from. The A clarinet and B♭ clarinet have nearly the same bore, orchestral players using the A and B♭ instruments in the same concert could use the same mouthpiece for both. The A and the B♭ instruments have nearly identical tonal quality, the tone of the E♭ clarinet is brighter than that of the lower clarinets and can be heard even through loud orchestral or concert band textures. The bass clarinet has a deep, mellow sound, while the alto clarinet is similar in tone to the bass
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees, and other woody plants. It is a material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers which are strong in tension embedded in a matrix of lignin which resists compression. Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, in a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves. It conveys water and nutrients between the leaves, other growing tissues, and the roots, Wood may refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, and to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber. In 2005, the stock of forests worldwide was about 434 billion cubic meters. As an abundant, carbon-neutral renewable resource, woody materials have been of intense interest as a source of renewable energy, in 1991 approximately 3.5 billion cubic meters of wood were harvested. Dominant uses were for furniture and building construction, a 2011 discovery in the Canadian province of New Brunswick discovered the earliest known plants to have grown wood, approximately 395 to 400 million years ago.
Wood can be dated by carbon dating and in species by dendrochronology to make inferences about when a wooden object was created. People have used wood for millennia for many purposes, primarily as a fuel or as a material for making houses, weapons, packaging, artworks. Constructions using wood date back ten thousand years, buildings like the European Neolithic long house were made primarily of wood. Recent use of wood has changed by the addition of steel. The year-to-year variation in tree-ring widths and isotopic abundances gives clues to the climate at that time. This process is known as growth, it is the result of cell division in the vascular cambium, a lateral meristem. These cells go on to form thickened secondary cell walls, composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose, if the distinctiveness between seasons is annual, these growth rings are referred to as annual rings. Where there is little seasonal difference growth rings are likely to be indistinct or absent, if the bark of the tree has been removed in a particular area, the rings will likely be deformed as the plant overgrows the scar.
It is usually lighter in color than that near the portion of the ring. The outer portion formed in the season is known as the latewood or summerwood. However, there are differences, depending on the kind of wood
Carpentry in the United States is almost always done by men. With 98. 5% of carpenters being male, it was the fourth most male-dominated occupation in the country in 1999, Carpenters are usually the first tradesmen on a job and the last to leave. Carpenters normally framed post-and-beam buildings until the end of the 19th century and it is common that the skill can be learned by gaining work experience other than a formal training program, which may be the case in many places. The word carpenter is the English rendering of the Old French word carpentier which is derived from the Latin carpentrius, the Middle English and Scots word was wright, which could be used in compound forms such as wheelwright or boatwright. An easy way to envisage this is that first fix work is all that is done before plastering takes place, second fix is done after plastering takes place. Second fix work, the construction of such as skirting boards, architraves. Carpentry is used to construct the formwork into which concrete is poured during the building of such as roads.
In the UK, the skill of making timber formwork for poured, or in situ, although the. work of a carpenter and joiner are often combined. Joiner is less common than the finish carpenter or cabinetmaker. The terms housewright and barnwright were used historically, now used by carpenters who work using traditional methods. Someone who builds custom concrete formwork is a form carpenter, wood is one of mankinds oldest building materials. The ability to shape wood improved with technological advances from the age to the bronze age to the iron age. The oldest surviving, complete text is Vitruvius ten books collectively titled De architectura which discusses some carpentry. By the 16th century sawmills were coming into use in Europe, the founding of America was partly based on a desire to extract resources from the new continent including wood for use in ships and buildings in Europe. In the 18th century part of the Industrial Revolution was the invention of the steam engine and these technologies combined with the invention of the circular saw led to the development of balloon framing which was the beginning of the decline of traditional timber framing.
The 19th century saw the development of engineering and distribution which allowed the development of hand-held power tools, wire nails. In the 20th century portland cement came into use and concrete foundations allowed carpenters to do away with heavy timber sills. Also, drywall came into common use replacing lime plaster on wooden lath, engineered lumber and chemically treated lumber came into use
For firearms, the pistol grip is generally used by the hand that operates the trigger. Rifles and shotguns without pistol grips are generally referred to as having straight or upland style stocks, some firearms, such as some versions of the Thompson submachine gun, have a forward pistol grip which is used to stabilize the firearm in operation. The pistol grip often serves multiple functions such as a housing, bipod. In some firearms, like the Finnish light machine gun Kk 62, pistol grips are a defining feature in United States gun law. A forward pistol grip on a pistol is restricted under the National Firearms Act, pistol grips which protrude below the weapon and are not integrated with the shoulder stock are currently regulated in some states and were regulated by the now-expired Federal Assault Weapons Ban. In the context of law, the National Rifle Association deemed pistol grips a cosmetic feature. Tools with pistol grips run the range from hand saws to pneumatic nailers, often the word gun appears in the name of pistol-gripped tools such as the glue gun, caulking gun and nail gun. A number of tools, like firearms, have a pistol grip.
Drills and grinders often include this feature for added control, one of the reasons the pistol grip style is so common in machinery is because it is possible to ergonomically position the operating controls. The first rifle ever to use a pistol grip was the DELVIGNE PATENT carbine made by LESOINNE ET PIRLOT FILS, LIEGE in 1840
Personal protective equipment
Personal protective equipment refers to protective clothing, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearers body from injury or infection. The hazards addressed by protective equipment include physical, heat, biohazards, Protective equipment may be worn for job-related occupational safety and health purposes, as well as for sports and other recreational activities. Protective clothing is applied to categories of clothing, and protective gear applies to items such as pads, shields, or masks. PPE is needed there are hazards present. PPE has the limitation that it does not eliminate the hazard at source. Any item of PPE imposes a barrier between the wearer/user and the working environment and this can create additional strains on the wearer, impair their ability to carry out their work and create significant levels of discomfort. Any of these can discourage wearers from using PPE correctly, therefore placing them at risk of injury, ill-health or, under extreme circumstances, death.
Good ergonomic design can help to minimise these barriers and can help to ensure safe. Practices of occupational safety and health can use hazard controls and interventions to mitigate workplace hazards, the hierarchy of hazard controls provides a policy framework which ranks the types of hazard controls in terms of absolute risk reduction. At the top of the hierarchy are elimination and substitution, which remove the hazard entirely or replace the hazard with a safer alternative. If elimination or substitution measures cannot apply, engineering controls and administrative controls, Personal protective equipment ranks last on the hierarchy of controls, as the workers are regularly exposed to the hazard, with a barrier of protection. The hierarchy of controls is important in acknowledging that, while personal protective equipment has tremendous utility, Personal protective equipment can be categorized by the area of the body protected, by the types of hazard, and by the type of garment or accessory.
The protective attributes of each piece of equipment must be compared with the expected to be found in the workplace. More breathable types of protective equipment may not lead to more contamination. Respirators serve to protect the user from breathing in contaminants in the air, there are two main types of respirators. One type functions by filtering out chemicals and gases, or airborne particles, the filtration may be either passive or active. Gas masks and particulate respirators are examples of type of respirator. A second type protects users by providing clean, respirable air from another source and this type includes airline respirators and self-contained breathing apparatus
The phrase bush carpentry is a familiar Australian usage, but finding an exact description of its practice is rare. The Macquarie Dictionary for example, defines a bush carpenter as an amateur carpenter. The Macquarie in turn defines rough-and-ready as rough, rude or crude, wannan says that a bush carpenter is a very rough, unorthodox artisan indeed, and includes a sardonic excerpt from Henry Lawson to exemplify it. In his Bushcraft series Ron Edwards describes hut and furniture building, Tocal Agricultural College offers a course in Traditional bush timber construction, The word traditional appears six times in the course outline, but not bush carpentry. Cox and Lucas, writing in 1978 of Australian pioneer buildings, perhaps because it has been the symbol of hardship and country toil, perhaps because it was thought too crude and rude to be treated seriously as architecture by the academics. There have been few books and articles written on the subject, the vernacular, often, is a fragile architectural form, evolved for expedience and resulting—especially in the case of the more primitive examples—in early decay and disappearance.
Within the vernacular building, function is the dominant factor, a similar and familiar phrase is traditional bush carpentry, this implies that its principles are well-known, but informally transmitted. Like folk music, bush carpentry exists within an oral and demotic culture, the tradition of Australian inventiveness, has an extensive literature. Vigorous attitudes to innovation prevailed in the Colonies in the nineteenth century, lessons from these attitudes both underline the continuing importance of the lone inventor and hold relevance for education and technology policies today. There is sometimes a sardonic sense included in the phrase bush carpentry, one which implies slip-shod work by a careless practitioner, the milk is set in dishes made of kerosene-tins, cut in halves, which are placed on bark shelves fitted round against the walls. The shelves are not level and the dishes are brought to a horizontal position by means of chips and bits of bark. The milk is covered by soiled sheets of old newspapers supported on sticks laid across the dishes and this protection is necessary, because the box bark in the roof has crumbled away and left fringed holes—also because the fowls roost up there.
Sometimes the paper sags, and the cream may have to be scraped off an article on dairy farming, in Australian parlance, the bush includes not only all remote and rural areas, but ways of living there, especially the limitations and hardships endured. The expression bush carpentry includes two criteria of remoteness, the first, that the builder is separated from regular methods of construction. The second, separation from regular resources such as milled timber, specialized tools and those in both remote circumstances are forced to invent and improvise. They produce a structure or object via unorthodox procedures, and it will be serviceable. These two criteria allow the use of manufactured materials—e. g, milled timber—in an irregular manner, and materials other than wood. The Australian Aborigines were probably the first bush carpenters, from the Aborigines, European settlers learned how to strip bark in large sheets from particular tree species, and use this for roofs and walls
Baton (law enforcement)
A baton or truncheon is a club of less than arms length made of wood, plastic or metal. They are carried for self-defense or riot control by law-enforcement officers, correctional staff, security-industry employees, other uses for truncheons and batons include crowd control or the dispersal of rioters. A truncheon or baton may be used in ways as a weapon. It can be used to defensively to block, offensively to strike, jab and they have a common role to play, too, in the rescuing of trapped individuals—for instance, people caught in blazing cars or buildings—by smashing windows. Some criminals use batons as weapons because of their easy concealment, Some criminals use improvised batons, clubs or similar weapons, such as a weight placed in a sock. The use or carrying of batons or improvised clubs by people other than law enforcement officers is restricted by law in many countries, other names for a baton are a cosh, billy club, sap, blackjack or stick. In the Victorian era, police in London carried truncheons about one-foot long called billy clubs, according to the Online Etymology Dictionary, this name is first recorded in 1848 as slang for a burglars crowbar.
The meaning policemans club is first recorded 1856, the truncheon acted as the policemans Warrant Card as the Royal Crest attached to it indicated the policemans authority. This was always removed when the equipment left official service, earlier on the word was used in vulgar Latin. The Victorian original has since developed into the varieties available today. The typical truncheon is a stick made from wood or a synthetic material, approximately 1.25 inches in diameter and 18–36 inches long. Truncheons are often ornamented with their organizations coats of arms, longer truncheons are called riot batons because of their use in riot control. Truncheons probably developed as a marriage between the club or military mace and the staff of office/sceptre, straight batons of rubber have a softer impact. Some of the kinetic energy bends and compresses the rubber and bounces off when the object is struck, rubber batons are not very effective when used on the subjects arms or legs, and can still cause injury if the head is struck.
That is why most police departments have stopped issuing it, the Russian police standard-issue baton is rubber, except in places such as Siberia, where it can be cold enough that the rubber may become brittle and break if struck. The traffic baton is red to make it visible as a signaling aid in directing traffic. In Russia traffic batons are striped in black and white for the same reason, until the mid-1990s, British police officers carried traditional wooden truncheons of a sort that had changed little from Victorian times. Since the late 1990s, the baton is issued except for public order duties
A knife is a tool with a cutting edge or blade, hand-held or otherwise, with most having a handle. Some types of knives are used as utensils, including knives used at the dining table, many types of knives are used as tools, such as the utility knife carried by soldiers, the pocket knife carried by hikers and the hunting knife used by hunters. Knives are used as a traditional or religious implement, such as the kirpan, some types of knives are used as weapons, such as daggers or switchblades. Some types of knives are used as sports equipment, Knives are used in agriculture, food harvesting etc. the sickle, the scythe and even the combine harvester are knives. Knife-like tools were used at least two-and-a-half million years ago, as evidenced by the Oldowan tools. Originally made of rock, bone and obsidian, knives have evolved in construction as technology has, with blades being made from bronze, iron, ceramics, many cultures have their unique version of the knife. Due to its role as humankinds first tool, certain cultures have attached spiritual, most modern-day knives follow either a fixed-blade or a folding construction style, with blade patterns and styles as varied as their makers and countries of origin.
The word knife possibly descends from an old Norse word knifr for blade, single-edged knives may have a reverse edge or false edge occupying a section of the spine. These edges are serrated and are used to further enhance function. The handle, used to grip and manipulate the blade safely, may include a tang, Knives are made with partial tangs or full tangs. The handle may include a bolster, a piece of heavy material situated at the front or rear of the handle, the bolster, as its name suggests, is used to mechanically strengthen the knife. Knife blades can be manufactured from a variety of materials, each of which has advantages and disadvantages, carbon steel, an alloy of iron and carbon, can be very sharp. It holds its edge well, and remains easy to sharpen, stainless steel is an alloy of iron, possibly nickel, and molybdenum, with only a small amount of carbon. It is not able to quite as sharp an edge as carbon steel. High carbon stainless steel is steel with a higher amount of carbon, intended to incorporate the better attributes of carbon steel.
High carbon stainless steel blades do not discolor or stain, laminate blades use multiple metals to create a layered sandwich, combining the attributes of both. For example, a harder, more brittle steel may be sandwiched between a layer of softer, stainless steel to reduce vulnerability to corrosion. In this case, the part most affected by corrosion, pattern-welding is similar to laminate construction