Extraterrestrial life called alien life, is life that occurs outside of Earth and that did not originate from Earth. These hypothetical life forms may range from simple prokaryotes to beings with civilizations far more advanced than humanity; the Drake equation speculates about the existence of intelligent life elsewhere in the universe. The science of extraterrestrial life in all its forms is known as exobiology. Since the mid-20th century, there has been an ongoing search for signs of extraterrestrial life; this encompasses a search for current and historic extraterrestrial life, a narrower search for extraterrestrial intelligent life. Depending on the category of search, methods range from the analysis of telescope and specimen data to radios used to detect and send communication signals; the concept of extraterrestrial life, extraterrestrial intelligence, has had a major cultural impact, chiefly in works of science fiction. Over the years, science fiction communicated scientific ideas, imagined a wide range of possibilities, influenced public interest in and perspectives of extraterrestrial life.
One shared space is the debate over the wisdom of attempting communication with extraterrestrial intelligence. Some encourage aggressive methods to try for contact with intelligent extraterrestrial life. Others—citing the tendency of technologically advanced human societies to enslave or wipe out less advanced societies—argue that it may be dangerous to call attention to Earth. Alien life, such as microorganisms, has been hypothesized to exist in the Solar System and throughout the universe; this hypothesis relies on consistent physical laws of the observable universe. According to this argument, made by scientists such as Carl Sagan and Stephen Hawking, as well as well-regarded thinkers such as Winston Churchill, it would be improbable for life not to exist somewhere other than Earth; this argument is embodied in the Copernican principle, which states that Earth does not occupy a unique position in the Universe, the mediocrity principle, which states that there is nothing special about life on Earth.
The chemistry of life may have begun shortly after the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago, during a habitable epoch when the universe was only 10–17 million years old. Life may have emerged independently at many places throughout the universe. Alternatively, life may have formed less then spread—by meteoroids, for example—between habitable planets in a process called panspermia. In any case, complex organic molecules may have formed in the protoplanetary disk of dust grains surrounding the Sun before the formation of Earth. According to these studies, this process may occur outside Earth on several planets and moons of the Solar System and on planets of other stars. Since the 1950s, scientists have proposed that "habitable zones" around stars are the most places to find life. Numerous discoveries in such zones since 2007 have generated numerical estimates of Earth-like planets —in terms of composition—of many billions; as of 2013, only a few planets have been discovered in these zones. Nonetheless, on 4 November 2013, astronomers reported, based on Kepler space mission data, that there could be as many as 40 billion Earth-sized planets orbiting in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars and red dwarfs in the Milky Way, 11 billion of which may be orbiting Sun-like stars.
The nearest such planet may be 12 light-years away, according to the scientists. Astrobiologists have considered a "follow the energy" view of potential habitats. A study published in 2017 suggests that due to how complexity evolved in species on Earth, the level of predictability for alien evolution elsewhere would make them look similar to life on our planet. One of the study authors, Sam Levin, notes "Like humans, we predict that they are made-up of a hierarchy of entities, which all cooperate to produce an alien. At each level of the organism there will be mechanisms in place to eliminate conflict, maintain cooperation, keep the organism functioning. We can offer some examples of what these mechanisms will be." There is research in assessing the capacity of life for developing intelligence. It has been suggested that this capacity arises with the number of potential niches a planet contains, that the complexity of life itself is reflected in the information density of planetary environments, which in turn can be computed from its niches.
Biologist David Zeigler has argued that, based on evolutionary convergence from many different ancestral groups on Earth, a worm form is a life form on other life-bearing planets. Life on Earth requires water as a solvent in place. Sufficient quantities of carbon and other elements, along with water, might enable the formation of living organisms on terrestrial planets with a chemical make-up and temperature range similar to that of Earth. More life based on ammonia has been suggested, though this solvent appears less suitable than water, it is conceivable that there are forms of life whose solvent is a liquid hydrocarbon, such as methane, ethane or propane. About 29 chemical elements play an active positive role in living organisms on Earth. About 95% of living matter is built upon only six elements: carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur; these six elements form the basic building blocks of all life on Earth, whereas most of the remaining elements are found only in trace amounts. The unique characteristics of carbon make it unlikely that it could be replaced on another planet, to generate the biochemistry necessary for life.
The carbon atom has the unique ability to make four strong chemical
Mario is a fictional character in the Mario video game franchise, owned by Nintendo and created by Japanese video game designer Shigeru Miyamoto. Serving as the company's mascot and the eponymous protagonist of the series, Mario has appeared in over 200 video games since his creation. Depicted as a short, Italian plumber who resides in the Mushroom Kingdom, his adventures center upon rescuing Princess Peach from the Koopa villain Bowser, his younger brother and sidekick is Luigi. With more than 500 million units sold worldwide, the overall Mario franchise is the best-selling video game franchise of all time. Outside of the Super Mario platform series, other Mario genres include the Mario Kart racing series, sports games such as the Mario Tennis and Mario Golf series, role-playing games such as Mario & Luigi, Super Mario RPG and Paper Mario, educational games such as Mario Is Missing!, Mario's Time Machine and Mario Teaches Typing. The franchise has branched into several media, including television shows, film and licensed merchandise.
Since 1990, Mario has been voiced by Charles Martinet. Shigeru Miyamoto created Mario while developing Donkey Kong in an attempt to produce a best-selling video game for Nintendo. Miyamoto wanted to create a video game that used the characters Popeye and Olive Oyl. At the time, Miyamoto was unable to acquire a license to use the characters, so he ended up making an unnamed player character, Donkey Kong, Lady. In the early stages of Donkey Kong, Mario was unable to jump, the focus was to escape a maze. However, Miyamoto enabled Mario to jump, saying "If you had a barrel rolling towards you, what would you do?"While the protagonist was unnamed in the Japanese release, he would be named Jumpman in the game's English instructions and Mario in the sales brochure. Miyamoto named the character "Mr. Video", he was to be used in every video game Miyamoto developed. According to a circulated story, during localization of Donkey Kong for American audiences, Nintendo of America's warehouse landlord Mario Segale confronted then-president Minoru Arakawa, demanding back rent.
Following a heated argument in which the Nintendo employees convinced Segale he would be paid, they opted to name the character in the game Mario after him. Miyamoto commented that if he had named Mario "Mr. Video", Mario would have "disappeared off the face of the Earth". By Miyamoto's own account, Mario's profession was chosen to fit with the game design. Since Donkey Kong was set on a construction site, Mario was made into a carpenter; when he appeared again in Mario Bros. it was decided he should be a plumber, since a lot of the game is played in underground settings. Mario's character design his large nose, draws on western influences. Other sources have Mario's profession chosen to be carpenter in an effort to depict the character as an ordinary hard worker, make it easier for players to identify with him. After a colleague suggested that Mario more resembled a plumber, Miyamoto changed Mario's profession accordingly and developed Mario Bros. featuring the character in the sewers of New York City.
Due to the graphical limitations of arcade hardware at the time, Miyamoto clothed the character in red overalls and a blue shirt to contrast against each other and the background. A red cap was added to let Miyamoto avoid drawing the character's hairstyle and eyebrows, as well as to circumvent the issue of animating his hair as he jumped. To give distinctly human facial features on an 8×8 pixel head, Miyamoto drew a large nose and a mustache, which avoided the need to draw a mouth and facial expressions. Miyamoto envisioned a "go to" character that could be put into any game as needed, albeit in cameo appearances, as at the time Miyamoto was not expecting the character to become singularly popular. To this end, he called the character "Mr. Video", comparing his intent for appearances in games to the cameos that Alfred Hitchcock had done within his films. Over time, Mario's appearance has become more defined; the colors of his shirt and overalls were reversed from a blue shirt with red overalls to a red shirt with blue overalls.
Miyamoto attributed this process to the different development teams and artists for each game as well as advances in technology. Mario debuted as "Jumpman" in the arcade game Donkey Kong on July 9, 1981, he has a pet ape called Donkey Kong. The carpenter mistreats the ape and Donkey Kong escapes to kidnap Jumpman's girlfriend known as the Lady, but named Pauline; the player must rescue the girl. Jumpman was renamed "Mario" in the 1982 arcade game Donkey Kong Junior, the only game in which he has been portrayed as an antagonist. In the 1983 arcade game Mario Bros. Mario and his younger brother Luigi are portrayed as Italian-American plumbers who have to defeat creatures that have been coming from the sewers below New York City. In Super Mario Bros. for the Nintendo Entertainment System, Mario saves Princess Toadstool of the Mushroom Kingdom from King Koopa. To save Princess Toadstool, Mario conquers the eight worlds of the Mushroom Kingdom by going to the castle in each to defeat a
Princess Peach is a character in Nintendo's Mario franchise. Created by Shigeru Miyamoto, Peach is the princess of the fictional Mushroom Kingdom, under attack by Bowser, she plays the damsel in distress role within the series and is the lead female character being portrayed as Mario's love interest. In Super Princess Peach, Peach was the player character. Princess Peach's initial appearance was drawn by Shigeru Miyamoto. Miyamoto asked Yōichi Kotabe to redraw Peach with his instructions, he had asked Kotabe to draw her eyes to be "a little cat-like". With Kotabe's influence, Princess Peach changed throughout her gaming system. Peach was not a playable character in New Super Mario Bros. Wii because a satisfactory mechanism to use her dress was not found, she is the main protagonist in Super Princess Peach and is a playable character in most Mario spin-offs such as Mario Party, Mario Kart, sports games. Princess Peach has long, blonde hair, blue eyes, tall frame, an hourglass figure, a rosy complexion.
She wears a pink evening gown with frilly trimmings, short puffy sleeves, a pannier-style overskirt. Her accessories are red high heels, white evening gloves, a cyan brooch, cyan earrings, a gold crown adorned with cyan jewels and red jewels, her hair is sometimes pulled back into a ponytail, first in Super Mario Sunshine and in the Mario Kart and Mario Sports games beginning with Mario Kart: Double Dash!! and Mario Golf: Toadstool Tour respectively. In sports games, she wears pink athletic clothing, ranging from shorts and a T-shirt to a set of armour to motorcycle leathers, she wears a different version of her evening gown in Super Mario Sunshine. In Japan, the Princess's name has always been Peach since her debut in the original Super Mario Bros. but she would go on to be renamed Toadstool in the English language manual. The English version of Yoshi's Safari marked the first usage of the name "Peach" in the Western world, although she would go back to being named "Toadstool" in Wario Land: Super Mario Land 3.
In Super Mario 64, she uses both names in a letter addressed to Mario, with "Peach" being used for her signature. From Mario Kart 64 and onward, the name Peach was kept unchanged for the English version of games in the franchise. Peach's personality is sweet and well mannered. In most games, she is portrayed as selfless and generous, she does not show an aggressive nature when she is fighting or confronting her enemies. This, varies from game to game. One of Peach's most common traits during her playable appearances is her ability to temporarily float in the air with her large skirt, on, with her parasol; this was first featured during Peach's first playable appearance in Super Mario Bros. 2. This ability has appeared in Super Paper Mario and her playable appearances in the Super Smash Bros. series. However, in Super Princess Peach, she shows wild mood swings from joy, gloom and rage, each of which gives her a special ability; these changes in emotion are most attributed to the "strange powers" of Vibe Island mentioned in the game's booklet.
In Super Princess Peach, she shows Bowser. Although kidnapped by him, Peach is willing to have Bowser team up with her and the Mario Bros. when a bigger evil threatens the Mushroom Kingdom. The Paper Mario series reveals that she can sometimes show a more bratty behavior, which dissipates after a short time. Apart from Mario, her main love interest, she has shown a friendly behavior towards Luigi. In her first voiced appearance in the Japanese anime Super Mario Brothers: The Great Mission to Rescue Princess Peach!, Peach was voiced by pop singer, Mami Yamase. In Amada Anime Series: Super Mario Bros. she was voiced by Miyako Endo. On the cartoon segments on The Super Mario Bros. Super Show! from DIC Entertainment, Peach was voiced by Jeannie Elias. In The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3 and the Super Mario World cartoons, she was voiced by Tracey Moore. In the CD-i game Hotel Mario, she was voiced by Jocelyn Benford. In Super Mario 64, the English version of Mario Kart 64, Super Mario 64 DS Peach was voiced by Leslie Swan, a localization manager for Nintendo of America.
In all other releases of Mario Kart 64 and in Mario Party and Mario Party 2, she was voiced by Asako Kōzuki. Starting with Mario Golf on the Nintendo 64, Peach has been voiced by Jen Taylor. After Super Princess Peach in 2005, Nintendo used a new voice for Princess Peach. Although Mario Hoops 3-on-3 in 2006 still used Taylor's voice, Peach in Super Mario Strikers, Mario & Luigi: Partners in Time, New Super Mario Bros. has a new voice, Nicole Mills. However, in Super Paper Mario, Peach is once again voiced by Leslie Swan. Peach has been voiced by Samantha Kelly since Mario Strikers Charged. In Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games, Peach is again voiced by Taylor, although much is from sound clips recycled from previous Mario games. If a player selects Peach in Brawl using a Wii Remote or classic controller, Peach's taunt from Super Smash Bros. Melee will sound over the Wii Remote's speaker. Baby Peach, the infant form of Princess Peach is voiced by Mills in Mario and Luigi: Partners in Time and Yoshi's Island DS, but starting with Mario Kart Wii, Baby Peach is voiced by Samantha Kelly.
Peach is portrayed as the princess of the Mushroom Kingd
A plum is a fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera in the shoots having terminal bud and solitary side buds, the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, the fruit having a groove running down one side and a smooth stone. Mature plum fruit may have a dusty-white waxy coating; this is an epicuticular wax coating and is known as "wax bloom". Dried plum fruits are called "dried plums" or prunes, although, in many countries, prunes are a distinct type of dried plum having a wrinkled appearance. Plums may have been one of the first fruits domesticated by humans. Three of the most abundant cultivars are not found in the wild, only around human settlements: Prunus domestica has been traced to East European and Caucasian mountains, while Prunus salicina and Prunus simonii originated in Asia. Plum remains have been found in Neolithic age archaeological sites along with olives and figs; the name plum derived from Old English plume or "plum, plum tree," which extended from Germanic language or Middle Dutch, Latin prūnum, from Ancient Greek προῦμνον, believed to be a loanword from Asia Minor.
In the late 18th century, the word, was used to indicate "something desirable" in reference to tasty fruit pieces in desserts. Plums are a diverse group of species; the commercially important plum trees are medium-sized pruned to 5–6 metres height. The tree is of medium hardiness. Without pruning, the trees can reach 12 metres in spread across 10 metres, they blossom in different months in different parts of the world. Fruits are of medium size, between 2 and 7 centimetres in diameter, globose to oval; the flesh is juicy. The fruit's peel is smooth, with a natural waxy surface; the plum is a drupe. Plum cultivars include: Damson Greengage Mirabelle Satsuma plum Victoria Yellowgage or golden plum Different plum cultivars When it flowers in the early spring, a plum tree will be covered in blossoms, in a good year 50% of the flowers will be pollinated and become plums. Flowering starts after 80 growing degree days. If the weather is too dry, the plums will not develop past a certain stage, but will fall from the tree while still tiny, green buds, if it is unseasonably wet or if the plums are not harvested as soon as they are ripe, the fruit may develop a fungal condition called brown rot.
Brown rot is not toxic, some affected areas can be cut out of the fruit, but unless the rot is caught the fruit will no longer be edible. Plum is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera, including November moth, willow beauty and short-cloaked moth; the taste of the plum fruit ranges from sweet to tart. It can be eaten fresh or used in jam-making or other recipes. Plum juice can be fermented into plum wine. In central England, a cider-like alcoholic beverage known as plum jerkum is made from plums. Dried, salted plums are used as a snack, sometimes known as salao. Various flavors of dried plum are available at Chinese grocers and specialty stores worldwide, they tend to be much drier than the standard prune. Cream, ginseng and salty are among the common varieties. Licorice is used to intensify the flavor of these plums and is used to make salty plum drinks and toppings for shaved ice or baobing. Pickled plums are another type of preserve available in Asia and international specialty stores.
The Japanese variety, called umeboshi, is used for rice balls, called onigiri or omusubi. The ume, from which umeboshi are made, is more related, however, to the apricot than to the plum. In the Balkans, plum is converted into an alcoholic drink named slivovitz. A large number of plums, of the Damson variety, are grown in Hungary, where they are called szilva and are used to make lekvar, plum dumplings, other foods; as with many other members of the rose family, plum kernels contain cyanogenic glycosides, including amygdalin. Prune kernel oil is made from the fleshy inner part of the pit of the plum. Though not available commercially, the wood of plum trees is used by hobbyists and other private woodworkers for musical instruments, knife handles and similar small projects. Plum has many species, taxonomists differ on the count. Depending on the taxonomist, between 19 and 40 species of plum exist. From this diversity only two species, the hexaploid European plum and the diploid Japanese plum, are of worldwide commercial significance.
The origin of these commercially important species is uncertain but may have involved P. cerasifera and P. spinosa as ancestors. Other species of plum variously originated in Europe and America; the subgenus Prunus is divided into three sections: Sect. Prunus – leaves in bud rolled inwards.
Aaron Simpson (producer)
Aaron Simpson an American animation producer best known as the founder of the animation website ColdHardFlash.com. A native of Birmingham, Simpson was a producer for Warner Bros. Animation's animated television series Coconut Fred's Fruit Salad Island, which debuted on Kids' WB. Simpson helped develop the animated television series Johnny Test in 2004, producing the pilot that preceded the first season order. Aaron has been producing animation since 2001, starting with Jorge Gutierrez's El Macho, an online series of shorts for Sony Pictures Digital. Starting in 2006, Simpson served as Vice President, Animation Production and Development at JibJab, where he supervised Internet and mobile ventures. In 2012, Simpson directed Steve Jobs: Resurrection, an animated parody that coincided with the release of the iPhone 5; the video was viewed over a million times on YouTube. In 2013, acting as one of the film's Executive Producers, helped formulate and execute the distribution strategy for Dick Figures: The Movie.
Simpson is the current Vice President of Development at Disney Television Animation, where he is in charge of developing all new television series and shorts for the division. In 2006, Simpson was nominated as a Producer for Outstanding Special Class Animated Program at the 33rd Daytime Emmy Awards. Aaron Simpson on IMDb Cold Hard Flash
Warner Bros. Television
Warner Bros. Television is the television production arm of Warner Bros. Entertainment; the division was started on March 21, 1955 with its first and most successful head being Jack L. Warner's son-in-law William T. Orr. ABC had major success against its competition with Walt Disney's Disneyland TV series and approached Warner Bros. with the idea of purchasing the studio's film library. WB formally entered television production with the premiere of its self-titled anthology series Warner Bros. Presents on ABC; the one-hour weekly show featured rotating episodes of television series based on the WB films and Kings Row, as well as an original series titled Cheyenne with Clint Walker. The first one-hour television western, Cheyenne became a big hit for the network and the studio with the added advantage of featuring promotions for upcoming Warner Bros. cinema releases in the show's last ten minutes. One such segment for Rebel Without a Cause featured Gig Young notably talking about road safety with James Dean.
With only Cheyenne being a success, WB ended the ten-minute promotions of new films and replaced Warner Bros. Presents with an anthology series titled Conflict, it was felt. Conflict showed the pilots for 77 Sunset Strip; the success of Cheyenne led WBTV to produce many series for ABC such as Westerns, crime dramas, other shows such as The Gallant Men and The Roaring Twenties using stock footage from WB war films and gangster films respectively. The company produced Jack Webb's Red Nightmare for the U. S. Department of Defense, shown on American television on Jack Webb's General Electric True. All shows were made in the manner of WB's B pictures in the 1940s. During the 1960 Writers Guild of America strike, WB reused many plots from its films and other television shows under the nom de plume of "W. Hermanos"; this was another example of imitating Warner Bros' B Pictures who would remake an "A" film and switch the setting. Two of the most popular stars, James Garner and Clint Walker, quit over their conditions.
Garner never returned to the Warner's fold during this period. Successful Warner's television stars found themselves in leading roles of many of the studio's films with no increase in salary. Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. was the lead of 77 Sunset Strip, in a recurring role on Maverick, headlined several films until exhaustion forced the studio to give him a rest. Many other actors under contract to Warner's at the time, who despite their work conditions, did see their stars rise over time, albeit for most only included Jack Kelly, Will Hutchins, Peter Brown, Ty Hardin, Wayde Preston, John Russell, Donald May, Rex Reason, Richard Long, Van Williams, Roger Smith, Mike Road, Anthony Eisley, Robert Conrad, Robert McQueeney, Dorothy Provine, Diane McBain, Connie Stevens, who had recorded songs, "Kookie, Kookie" with Edd Byrnes in 1959. Burns and Troy Donahue would become teen heartthrobs. Another contract player, Englishman Roger Moore, was growing displeased with Warner as his contract was expiring and would relocate to Europe from Hollywood, becoming an international star on TV, in films.
Warners contracted established stars such as Ray Danton, Peter Breck, Jeanne Cooper and Grant Williams. These stars appeared as guest stars, sometimes reprising their series role in another TV series; the stars appeared in WB cinema releases with no additional salary, with some such as Zimbalist, Walker and Danton playing the lead roles. Some stars such as Connie Stevens, Edd Byrnes, Robert Conrad and Roger Smith made albums for Warner Bros. Records. One particular recording, a novelty tune titled Kookie, Kookie became a big hit for Edd Byrnes and Connie Stevens; the following year, Connie Stevens had her own hit, with Sixteen Reasons. It was during this period, that shows Westerns like Cheyenne and Maverick. Depending on the particular show, William Lava or David Buttolph would compose the music, with lyrics by Stan Jones or Paul Francis Webster, among others. For the crime shows, it was up to the songwriting team of Jerry Livingston and Mack David, who scored the themes for the sitcom Room for One More, The Bugs Bunny Show.
In 1960, WBTV turned its attentions to the younger viewer, for one program, anyway, as they brought Bugs Bunny and the other WB cartoon characters to prime time, with The Bugs Bunny Show, which featured cartoons released after July 31, 1948, combined with newly animated introductory material. That year saw the debut of The Roaring Twenties (which was thought to be a more benign alternative to Desilu's The Untouchables. Whether or
Ashleigh Adele Ball is a Canadian voice actress and musician, known for singing in the rock band Hey Ocean!, as well as voicing characters in several toyetic movies and television series, notably the Barbie film series, Johnny Test, Littlest Pet Shop and My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic. She is the subject of the documentary A Brony Tale directed by Brent Hodge, which follows her through her first interactions with the Brony community at BronyCon 2012.. Ball has found a fan following through her band Hey Ocean! and through bronies, the adult fans of the television show My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic, a show in which she voices and sings as two of the six main characters and Rainbow Dash. Ball has been to several brony conventions, including BronyCon and Bay Area Brony Spectacular as a guest of honour. Ball stated in her documentary A Brony Tale, in which she is the main subject, "It's a important part of a lot of these people's lives. So yeah, as long as My Little Ponies exist, there will be bronies."
On May 2, 2017 she released the music video "Crazy", on June 2 released her debut solo EP Gold in You. Solo albums Gold in You Bibliography Terrace, Vincent. Encyclopedia of Television Shows, 1925 through 2010. McFarland. ISBN 9780786486410. Ashleigh Ball on Twitter Ashleigh Ball on IMDb Ashleigh Ball at Behind The Voice Actors