History of Guam
The history of Guam involves phases including the early arrival of Austronesian people known today as the Chamorros around 2000 BC, the development of "pre-contact" society, Spanish colonization in the 17th century and the present American rule of the island since the 1898 Spanish–American War. Guam's history of colonialism is the longest among the Pacific islands, it is believed that Guam was first discovered by seafaring people who migrated from Southeast Asia around 2000 BC. The original inhabitants of Guam are believed to be descendants of Austronesian people originating from Southeast Asia as early as 2000 BC, having linguistic and cultural similarities to Malaysia and the Philippines; these people evolved into the Chamorro people. They flourished as an advanced and hunting society, they were expert seafarers and skilled craftsmen familiar with intricate weaving and detailed pottery who built unique houses and canoes suited to this region of the world. Most of what is known about Pre-Contact Chamorros comes from legends and myths, archaeological evidence, Jesuit missionary accounts, observations from visiting scientists like Otto von Kotzebue and Louis de Freycinet.
When Europeans first arrived on Guam, Chamorro society fell into three classes: matao and mana'chang. The matao were located in the coastal villages, which meant they had the best access to fishing grounds while the mana'chang were located in the interior of the island. Matao and mana'chang communicated with each other, matao used achaot as a go-between. There were "makhanas" and "suruhanus", skilled in healing and medicine. Belief in spirits of ancient Chamorros called Taotao Mona still persists as remnant of pre-European society. Early European explorers noted the Chamorros' fast sailing vessels used for trading with other islands of Micronesia; the "latte stones" familiar to Guam residents and visitors alike were in fact a recent development in Pre-Contact Chamorro society. The latte stone consists of a base shaped out of limestone. Like the Easter Island statues, there is plenty of speculation over how this was done by a society without machines or metal, but the accepted view is that the head and base were etched out of the ground by sharp adzes and picks, carried to the assembly area by an elaborate system of ropes and logs.
The latte stone was used as a part of the raised foundation for a magalahi house, although they may have been used for canoe sheds. Archaeologists using carbon-dating have broken Pre-Contact Guam history into three periods: "Pre-Latte" "Transitional Pre-Latte", "Latte". Archaeological evidence suggests that Chamorro society was on the verge of another transition phase by 1521, as latte stones became bigger. Assuming the stones were used for chiefly houses, it can be argued that Chamorro society was becoming more stratified, either from population growth or the arrival of new people; the theory remains tenuous, due to lack of evidence, but if proven correct, will further support the idea that Pre-Contact Chamorros lived in a vibrant and dynamic environment. The first known contact between Guam and Western Europe occurred when a Spanish expedition led by Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer sailing for the Holy Roman Emperor King Charles I of Spain, arrived with his 3-ship fleet in Guam on March 6, 1521 after a long voyage across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, from Spain.
History credits the village of Umatac as his landing place, but drawings from the navigator's diary suggest that Magellan may have landed in Tumon in northern Guam. The expedition had started out in Spain with five ships. By the time they reached the Marianas they were down to three ships and nearly half the crew, due to storms and the mutiny in one ship which destroyed the expedition. Tired and hungry from their long discovery voyage, the crew prepared to go ashore and restore provisions in Guam. However, the excited native Chamorros who had a different concept of ownership, based on subsistence living, canoed out to the ships and began helping themselves to everything, not nailed down to the deck of the galleons. "The aboriginals were willing to engage in barter... Their love of gain overcame every other consideration." As the Chamorros took everything they found on the ship without asking and his crew remembered the island as the "Island of Thieves". After a few shots were fired from the Trinidad's big guns, the natives were frightened off from the ship and retreated into the surrounding jungle.
Magellan was able to obtain rations and offered iron, a prized material, in exchange for fresh fruits and water. Details of this visit, the first in history between Westerners and a Pacific island people, come from the journal of Antonio Pigafetta, the expedition's scribe and one of only 18 crew members to survive the circumnavigation of the globe, completed by Juan Sebastian Elcano. Despite Magellan's visit, Guam was not claimed by Spain until 1565 by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi. However, the island was not colonized until the 17th century. On June 15, 1668, the galleon San Diego arrived at the shore of the island of Guam. Jesuit missionaries led by Padre Diego Luis de San Vitores arrived on Guam to introduce Christianity and develop trade; the Spanish taught the Chamorros to cultivate maize, raise cattle, tan hides, as well as to adopt western-style clothing. They introduced the Spanish language and culture. Once Christianity was established, the Catholic Church became the focal point for village activities, as in
A reef is a bar of rock, coral or similar material, lying beneath the surface of water. Many reefs result from natural, abiotic processes—deposition of sand, wave erosion planing down rock outcrops, etc.—but the best known reefs are the coral reefs of tropical waters developed through biotic processes dominated by corals and coralline algae. Artificial reefs sometimes have a role in enhancing the physical complexity of featureless sand bottoms, in order to attract a diverse assemblage of organisms algae and fish. Earth's largest reef system is the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, at a length of over 2,300 kilometres. There is a variety of biotic reef types, including oyster reefs and sponge reefs, but the most massive and distributed are tropical coral reefs. Although corals are major contributors to the framework and bulk material comprising a coral reef; these biotic reef types take on additional names depending upon how the reef lies in relation to the land, if any. Reef types include fringing reefs, barrier reefs, atolls.
A fringing reef is a reef, attached to an island. A barrier reef forms a calcareous barrier around an island resulting in a lagoon between the shore and the reef. An atoll is a ring reef with no land present; the reef front is a high energy locale whereas the internal lagoon will be at a lower energy with fine grained sediments. Ancient reefs buried within stratigraphic sections are of considerable interest to geologists because they provide paleo-environmental information about the location in Earth's history. In addition, reef structures within a sequence of sedimentary rocks provide a discontinuity which may serve as a trap or conduit for fossil fuels or mineralizing fluids to form petroleum or ore deposits. Corals, including some major extinct groups Rugosa and Tabulata, have been important reef builders through much of the Phanerozoic since the Ordovician Period. However, other organism groups, such as calcifying algae members of the red algae Rhodophyta, molluscs have created massive structures at various times.
During the Cambrian Period, the conical or tubular skeletons of Archaeocyatha, an extinct group of uncertain affinities, built reefs. Other groups, such as the Bryozoa have been important interstitial organisms, living between the framework builders; the corals which build reefs today, the Scleractinia, arose after the Permian–Triassic extinction event that wiped out the earlier rugose corals, became important reef builders throughout the Mesozoic Era. They may have arisen from a rugose coral ancestor. Rugose corals built their skeletons of calcite and have a different symmetry from that of the scleractinian corals, whose skeletons are aragonite. However, there are some unusual examples of well-preserved aragonitic rugose corals in the late Permian. In addition, calcite has been reported in the initial post-larval calcification in a few scleractinian corals. Scleractinian corals may have arisen from a non-calcifying ancestor independent of the rugosan corals. One useful definition distinguishes reefs from mounds as follows: Both are considered to be varieties of organosedimentary buildups – sedimentary features, built by the interaction of organisms and their environment, that have synoptic relief and whose biotic composition differs from that found on and beneath the surrounding sea floor.
Reefs are held up by a macroscopic skeletal framework. Coral reefs are an example of this kind. Corals and calcareous algae grow on top of one another and form a three-dimensional framework, modified in various ways by other organisms and inorganic processes. By contrast, mounds lack a macroscopic skeletal framework. Mounds are built by organisms that don't grow a skeletal framework. A microbial mound might be built or by cyanobacteria. Examples of biostromes formed by cyanobacteria occur in the Great Salt Lake in Utah, in Shark Bay on the coast of Western Australia. Cyanobacteria do not have skeletons, individuals are microscopic. Cyanobacteria can encourage the precipitation or accumulation of calcium carbonate to produce distinct sediment bodies in composition that have relief on the seafloor. Cyanobacterial mounds were most abundant before the evolution of shelly macroscopic organisms, but they still exist today. Bryozoans and crinoids, common contributors to marine sediments during the Mississippian, for instance, produced a different kind of mound.
Bryozoans are small and the skeletons of crinoids disintegrate. However and crinoid meadows can persist over time and produce compositionally distinct bodies of sediment with depositional relief; the Proterozoic Belt Supergroup contains evidence of possible microbial mat and dome structures similar to stromatolite reef complexes. Benjamin Kahn Coral reef Reef Hobbyist Magazine Placer Pseudo-atoll Shears N. T. Biogeography, community structure and biological habitat types of subtidal reefs on the South Island West Coast, New Zealand. Science for Conservation 281. P 53. Department of Conservation, New Zealand. Reef Rescue - Smithsonian Ocean Portal Coral Reefs of the Tropics: facts and movies from The Nature Conservancy NOAA Photo Library Reef Environmental Education Foundation NOS Data Explorer - A portal to obtain NOAA National Ocean Service data Reef formation Atoll
Barrigada is a village in the United States territory of Guam. A residential municipality, its main village is located south of the Antonio B. Won Pat International Airport near the intersections of Routes 8, 10, 16; the community east of the airport known as Barrigada Heights is considered an affluent neighborhood on the island, where homes have excellent views overlooking much of Guam including the island's airport and hotels along Tumon Bay. Another significant location is nearly 200 meters above sea level, its location in the center of the island means it houses most of the island's radio masts and towers. From 2 to 4 August 1944, the United States Marine Corps engaged troops from the Empire of Japan at present-day Barrigada Heights during the battle of Guam, a year before the end of the Second World War; when the Japanese line collapsed, American forces pursued them to the north. In recent years, the three main highways in Barrigada have been renamed in honor of the U. S. Military. Route 8 is designated Purple Heart Memorial Highway.
North of Routes 8 and 16 is the former Naval Air Station Agana, most of which lies within the boundary of Barrigada. When NAS Agana was closed in the mid-1990s, the land and buildings were handed over to the Government of Guam, which utilized many former base buildings as government offices. Most of the original NAS housing facilities have been demolished to make room for airport-related commercial buildings; the original Chamorro-language toponym for the area, has been restored and is in common use. The closing of NAS Agana resulted in the opening of Central Avenue and Sunset Boulevard on the north side of the runways to the general public; this busy, but yet unnumbered highway offers a shortcut from Barrigada to Tamuning and Tumon, Guam's economic center. The offices of the A. B. Won Pat International Airport Authority is located in the main passenger terminal, on the airport property and in Barrigada; the Guam Environmental Protection Agency has its administrative headquarters and its operation building in Tiyan, as does the Guam Police Department.
The United States Postal Service operates the Barrigada Post Office, Guam's main post office and known as "Guam Main Facility". The Federal Aviation Administration operates the Guam Air Route Traffic Control Center at 1775, Admiral Sherman Boulevard in Tiyan; the Guam ARTCC serves as the TRACON and en route control for the airspace within radar range of Guam. The National Weather Service operates a Weather Forecast Office at Hueneme Road in Tiyan; this office provides services to Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, U. S.-affiliated Federated States of Micronesia. Fly Guam and Freedom Air have their headquarters in Building 17-80 in Barrigada. Guam Public School System serves the island. Two K-5 elementary schools and Luis P. Untalan Middle School are in Barrigada. Tiyan High School is in Barrigada; the school opened in August 2014. George Washington High School in Mangilao has served the village; the Protestant Harvest Christian Academy is located in Barrigada. Guam Public Library System operates the Barrigada Library at 177 San Rogue Drive.
Pedro T. Rosario Raymond S. Laguana Peter S. Aguon Jessie B. Palican June U. Blas Raymond S. Laguana Bernardo L. G. Mafnas Jose F. Mendiola Jessie B. Palican Vicente Leon Guerrero June U. Blas Jessie P. Bautista Villages of Guam Barrigada LORAN-C transmitter Guampedia, Guam's Online Encyclopedia Barrigada Village
Yigo, Guam is the northernmost village of the United States territory of Guam, is the location of Andersen Air Force Base. The municipality of Yigo is larger than any other village on the island in terms of area, it contains a number including Asatdas and Agafo Gumas. Yigo is one of Guam's richest farming areas. During World War II, the village was the site of a concentration camp during Japanese occupation of the island, it was the site of the island's final battle during the war. The South Pacific Memorial Peace Park was built by the Japanese Government and is dedicated to the many Japanese and American soldiers who died in the battle of Guam. Yigo, served by the Guam Department of Education, has several kindergarten through 5th grade elementary schools: Daniel L. Perez Elementary School Machananao Elementary School Upi Elementary School F. B. Leon Guerrero Middle School an elementary school until 1981, when it was converted into a middle school, Simon Sanchez High School are in Yigo. Sanchez opened as a junior high school in 1974.
Simon Sanchez became a high school in 1982. The first graduating class graduated in May 1983. Juan A. San Nicolas Jesus C. Artero Manuel A. Calvo Juan M. Santos Jose D. Perez Juan G. Blas Antonio A. Calvo Antonio A. Calvo David G. Blas Jesus P. Cruz John F. Blas Edward C. Artero Robert "Bob" S. Lizama Rudy M. Matanane Ronald J. Flores Anthony "Tony" P. Sanchez On October 7, 2018, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints announced that they would be building a temple in Yigo, Guam. Villages of Guam Rogers, Robert F.. Destiny's Landfall: A History of Guam. University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 0-8248-1678-1. Yigo Guam at Guam Portal Yigo Map from PDN PDN Village Maps "Municipalities of Guam". Statoids
Corals are marine invertebrates within the class Anthozoa of the phylum Cnidaria. They live in compact colonies of many identical individual polyps. Corals species include the important reef builders that inhabit tropical oceans and secrete calcium carbonate to form a hard skeleton. A coral "group" is a colony of myriad genetically identical polyps; each polyp is a sac-like animal only a few millimeters in diameter and a few centimeters in length. A set of tentacles surround a central mouth opening. An exoskeleton is excreted near the base. Over many generations, the colony thus creates a large skeleton characteristic of the species. Individual heads grow by asexual reproduction of polyps. Corals breed sexually by spawning: polyps of the same species release gametes over a period of one to several nights around a full moon. Although some corals are able to catch small fish and plankton using stinging cells on their tentacles, most corals obtain the majority of their energy and nutrients from photosynthetic unicellular dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium that live within their tissues.
These are known as zooxanthellae. Such corals require sunlight and grow in clear, shallow water at depths less than 60 metres. Corals are major contributors to the physical structure of the coral reefs that develop in tropical and subtropical waters, such as the enormous Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Queensland, Australia. Other corals do not rely on zooxanthellae and can live in much deeper water, with the cold-water genus Lophelia surviving as deep as 3,300 metres; some have been found on the Darwin Mounds, northwest of Cape Wrath and others as far north as off the coast of Washington State and the Aleutian Islands. Aristotle's pupil Theophrastus described the red coral, korallion, in his book on stones, implying it was a mineral, but he described it as a deep-sea plant in his Enquiries on Plants, where he mentions large stony plants that reveal bright flowers when under water in the Gulf of Heroes. Pliny the Elder stated boldly that several sea creatures including sea nettles and sponges "are neither animals nor plants, but are possessed of a third nature".
Petrus Gyllius copied Pliny, introducing the term zoophyta for this third group in his 1535 book On the French and Latin Names of the Fishes of the Marseilles Region. Gyllius further noted, following Aristotle, how hard it was to define what was a plant and what was an animal; the Persian polymath Al-Biruni classified sponges and corals as animals, arguing that they respond to touch. People believed corals to be plants until the eighteenth century, when William Herschel used a microscope to establish that coral had the characteristic thin cell membranes of an animal. Presently, corals are classified as certain species of animals within the sub-classes Hexacorallia and Octocorallia of the class Anthozoa in the phylum Cnidaria. Hexacorallia includes the stony corals and these groups have polyps that have a 6-fold symmetry. Octocorallia includes blue coral and soft corals and species of Octocorallia have polyps with an eightfold symmetry, each polyp having eight tentacles and eight mesenteries.
Fire corals are not true corals. Corals are sessile animals and differ from most other cnidarians in not having a medusa stage in their life cycle; the body unit of the animal is a polyp. Most corals are colonial, the initial polyp budding to produce another and the colony developing from this small start. In stony corals known as hard corals, the polyps produce a skeleton composed of calcium carbonate to strengthen and protect the organism; this is deposited by the coenosarc, the living tissue that connects them. The polyps sit in cup-shaped depressions in the skeleton known as corallites. Colonies of stony coral are variable in appearance. In soft corals, there is no stony skeleton but the tissues are toughened by the presence of tiny skeletal elements known as sclerites, which are made from calcium carbonate. Soft corals are variable in form and most are colonial. A few soft corals are stolonate. In some species this is thick and the polyps are embedded; some soft corals are form lobes. Others have a central axial skeleton embedded in the tissue matrix.
This is composed either of a fibrous protein called gorgonin or of a calcified material. In both stony and soft corals, the polyps can be retracted, with stony corals relying on their hard skeleton and cnidocytes for defence against predators, soft corals relying on chemical defences in the form of toxic substances present in the tissues known as terpenoids; the polyps of stony corals have six-fold symmetry. The mouth of each polyp is surrounded by a ring of tentacles. In stony corals these are cylindrical and taper to a point, but in soft corals they are pinnate with side branches known as pinnules. In some tropical species these are reduced to mere stubs and in some they are fused to give a paddle-like appearance. In most corals, the tentacles are retracted by day and spread out at night to catch plankton and other small organisms. Shallow water species of both stony and soft corals can be zooxanthellate, the corals supplementing their plankton diet with t
Umatac called Umata, is a village on the southwestern coast of the United States territory of Guam. The month of March in the Chamorro language is "Umatalaf," or "to catch guatafi,", believed to be the root word of Umatac; the village's population has decreased since the island's 2000 census. Mount Bolanos, at an elevation of 368 m, lies 4.5 km away. Prior to Spanish arrival on the island, an annual celebration was held north of the village at Fouha Rock where the first humans were created according to the legends of the Chamorro people, the native people of Guam. In 1521, the Portuguese Explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived on Guam while circumnavigating the globe. Umatac Bay is traditionally cited as the location of the Spanish landing. Another explorer, Miguel López de Legazpi, arrived in Umatac in 1565 and claimed the island of Guam for Spain; when Guam was colonized in the 17th century, the Spanish made Umatac a parish so the Chamorro people in the area could be converted to Christianity. Remains of two Spanish forts built on hills on either side of the village are still visible today.
In 1898, Guam was taken by the United States during the Spanish–American War. Under the U. S. administration, the small village has grown gradually. Today, the Discovery Day festival is held every year in the village. While the holiday was first established in memory of Magellan's discovery of the island, it is now a celebration of Chamorro culture; the Guam Department of Education serves the island. The F. Q. Sanchez Elementary School in Umatac has closed at the end of summer 2011 due to budget cuts. Students have shifted to a nearby Merizo Elementary School; the unused facility was cleared for use by the Umatac Mayor's Office. Southern High School in Santa Rita serves the village. Jesus T. Quinata Jesus S. Quinata Albert T. Topasna Albert T. Topasna Cecilia Q. Morrison Albert T. Topasna Dean D. Sanchez Jose T. Quinata Jesus A. Aquiningoc Tony A. Quinata Daniel Q. Sanchez Dean D. Sanchez Johnny A. Quinata Villages of Guam Rogers, Robert F. Destiny's Landfall: A History of Guam: University of Hawai'i Press.
ISBN 0-8248-1678-1 Sanchez, Pedro C. Guahan, Guam: The History of our Island: Sanchez Publishing House. "Umatac" - article on Guampedia.com "Umatac - Guam's Cradle of Creation" by Anthony P. Sanchez, Pacific Daily News, 26 April 2007 Village Map, Pacific Daily News "Municipalities of Guam". Statoids
Merizo, is the southernmost village in the United States territory of Guam. Cocos Island is a part of the municipality; the village's population has decreased since the island's 2000 census. During the first Spanish missionary efforts on Guam, Merizo was the site of resistance encouraged by Choco, a Chinese resident of the village; the parish of Merizo was the second established by the Spanish on Guam. A large population of Chamorros from the Mariana Islands were relocated to the village during Spanish rule; the village covers an area of 6 square miles and is located on the shore below the volcanic hills of southern Guam. Places of interest for visitors include Southern Comfort Ranch and Merizo Pier where ferries can be taken to Cocos Island Resort. Several popular dive sites are located off Merizo's coast. Officials from the Guam Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Public Health and Social Services and the Coast Guard announced findings of major polychlorinated biphenyl contamination in the Cocos Lagoon on February 20, 2006 and warned people not to eat fish caught there.
The contamination is believed to have come from a United States Coast Guard station which operated on Cocos Island from 1944-1963. Guam Public School System serves the island. Merizo Martyrs Elementary School in Merizo and Inarajan Middle School in Inarajan serve Merizo. Southern High School in Santa Rita serves the village. Guam Public Library System operates the Merizo Library at 376 Cruz Avenue. Water sport crafts can be rented near Merizo Pier; the pier is a great fishing spot. Jose T. Tajalle Joaquin Q. Acfalle Ignacio S. Cruz Rita A. Tainatongo Ernest T. Chargualaf Villages of Guam Dive Sites of Guam Rogers, Robert F. Destiny's Landfall: A History of Guam: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 0-8248-1678-1 Carter, Lee D. ISBN 1-878453-28-9 Sanchez, Pedro C. Guahan, Guam: The History of our Island: Sanchez Publishing House. Merizo Guam at Guam Portal http://www.guampdn.com/communities/maps/merizo.html