Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Cuajinicuilapa is a town in Cuajinicuilapa Municipality in the Costa Chica region of the Mexican state of Guerrero. A low-lying area, it borders the state of Oaxaca; the municipality has the state's largest population of Afro-Mexicans with most of the population of this ethnicity. The town and municipality are socioeconomically marginalized and it is the poorest municipality of the state, with the economy dependent on livestock and fishing; the town of Cuajinicuilapa is 361 km from the Guerrero state capital of Chilpancingo and has an altitude of fifty meters above sea level. While it is the commercial center of a rural municipality with two small supermarkets, various stores and a traditional municipal market, it has a high level of socioeconomic marginalization, it is the center of communications and transportation with mail service and telephone limited to here and it has a small airstrip. It is the seat of a municipality; the town was host to the 13th Encuentro de Pueblos Negros in 2011, sponsored by the Centro Cultural de España en México.
The purpose of the event is to promote Afro-Mexican identity and culture in Mexico. The Museo de las Culturas Afromestizas called the Museo de la Tercera Raíz, is the first museum in Mexico dedicated to the descendents of African slaves in Mexico and their history, it is located in the center near the main plaza. Cuajinicuilapa is the largest Afro-Mexican community in the Costa Chica region of Guerrero with most of the population of this ethnicity; the municipal government promotes Cuajinicuilapa as the “municipio negro” or “black municipality” as a way to obtain federal resources. Afro-Mexican culture is not defined by language or dress, but rather body language, vocabulary and a shared history. Much of the “black” population is mixed with indigenous; those native to the municipality are called criollos if black. There is some hostility between indigenous. Much of the population of the area has migrated out since the 1980s; the population has grown, but much of this is because of migration into Cuajinicuilapa by other groups, including Amuzgos and Mixtecs in the 2000s.
They have become the majority in a number of communities in the municipality including El Cuije and La Petaca. As of 2010, there are just over 1,300 who speak an indigenous language, most of whom speak Amuzgo and Mixtec. Los Diablos is the best known Afro-Mexican dance in the Costa Chica with dancers wearing devil’s mask and dancing with wild, exaggerated movements, they are attended by assistants with whips. From 30 October to 1 November, the dancers leave the cemetery to dance, eat offerings of food and more, they spend three days in the streets with dance and theatrical antics before “returning” to the grave. The two main dancers represent the chief of the devils called Tenango or Pancho along with his wife called La Minga, the mother of devils who appears in other regional dances; the dance as various influences including African and Catholic. While the dance and dressing up as devils were for men, this has changed as many have left to work outside of the Costa Chica. Women and children have now participated in the annual ritual.
Other dances in the municipality include El Torito, centered on a frame in the shape of a bull that goes through town with residents dancing around it. Versions of La Conquista and Doce Pares de Francia have unusual characters such as Hernán Cortés, Cuauhtémoc, Moctezuma and Turkish horsemen. Las Chilenas are dances with erotic movements. Regional specialties include barbacoa and green mole, pig’s head with mole sauce, tamales of various types including with iguana meat, seafood prepared in various ways including shrimp and lobster. Traditional drinks include a drink called chicha. All in the municipality are Catholic with only about 2,500 people professing other faiths such as Jehovah's Witness and Pentecostal. However, the percentage of non-Catholics is growing; the main feast days are dedicated to Nicolas of Tolentino in September. On the second Friday of Lent, a regional fair exhibits the area’s products, such as cattle, along with cockfights, horse racing and popular dance. Cuajinicuilapa is in the Costa Chica region of Guerrero in the southeast of the state along the Pacific Ocean and the border of Oaxaca.
The area is rolling hills along with beaches on the coast. Near the Pacific Ocean and the Azoyú border in the northwest the land is flat, in the southeast it is semi-flat with gentle hills. There are few significant elevations but they include El Borjo, Las Tablas, Pozas de Agua and Piedra Parada; the climate is semi hot with average temperatures varying from 19C to 34C during the year. There is a defined rainy season from May to October; the most important river is the Santa Catarina. Here it joins with the Quetzala to empty into the Pacific at the Barra de Tecoanapa. In addition there are a number of streams such as La Zanja, Las Playitas, Mataplátano, Cortija, El Chorro, La Serpiente, Arroyo Viejo, Tecoyame, La Presa and Samaritanes. There are some lagoons such as the Monte Alto and Albufera Salinitas; as the vicinity is placed in a subduction zone, it is prone to earthquakes. It is the poorest in Guerrero. About forty two percent of homes have adobe walls, about fifty seven percent have cement and less than one percent have wood or laminate walls.
Sixty one percent have running water, about thirty six
Atenango del Río (municipality)
Atenango del Río is one of the 81 municipalities of Guerrero, in south-western Mexico. The municipal seat lies at Atenango del Río; the municipality covers an area of 398.8 km². As of 2005, the municipality had a total population of 7,648
Coyuca de Catalán (municipality)
Coyuca de Catalán is one of the 81 municipalities of Guerrero, in south-western Mexico. The municipal seat lies at Coyuca de Catalán; the municipality covers an area of 921.9 km². As of 2005, the municipality had a total population of 41,975. In 2005 there were 376 settlements; the largest are as follows
Cuajinicuilapa Municipality is one of the 81 municipalities of Guerrero, in south-western Mexico. The municipal seat lies at Cuajinicuilapa; the municipality covers an area of 857.1 km². As of 2005, the municipality had a total population of 25,537. According to data provided by the XII General Census of 2000 documenting Population and Housing carried out by the National Institute of Geographic Statistics and Informatics, there are three main ethnic groups in the municipality: whites, indigenous Mexicans and blacks, which by intermarriage have formed the current phenotypical characteristics of some of the Cuajinicuilapa population, it is possible to distinguish some small numbers of Indians in the town of Cuajinicuilapa. According to INEGI there are around 1,170 indigenous people in this town, representing 4.56% on the total municipal population whose languages are amusgo with 297 speakers, Mixtec with 211 speakers, Nahuatl with 5, Tlapanecos with 22, Zapotec with 2. There are whites and other native Indian newcomers to the municipality who are traders and merchants.
Some residents of the municipality have distinct Negroid features which in colonial days were called "mulatos pardos" denoting their negroid admixture. As seat, the town of Cuajinicuilapa is the local government for ninety communities, which together cover an area of 715km2; the municipality borders the municipalities of Azoyú, Juchitán and Marquelia with the Pacific Ocean to the south and west and the state of Oaxaca to the east. It has 41 primary schools, 14 middle schools and three public high schools. There is a vocational school and a high school run by the Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero; the main roads of the municipality are Highway 200 connecting Acapulco and Pinotepa Nacional and the local road connecting Cuajinicuilapa with Punta Maldonado. The rest of the communities are connected by dirt roads. One notable Afro-Mexican community outside the seat is San Nicolás; the residents here have a reputation for festivities and dancing. It is said that people have gotten ill and died after parties called fandangos, which can last for up to three days.
The Playa de Tierra Colorada is located in the community of the same name located between Punta Maldonado and the Barra de Tecoanapa. The area was declared an ecological reserve by the municipality in 1986 because it is a breeding area for marine turtles as well as its rich vegetation. Punta Maldonado is a small cape, the furthest point east of the state of Guerrero, it is an important fishing port of rock lobster as well as its large Afro-Mexican population. The men go out to sea at night to fish in shifts, it has a small antique lighthouse near the border with Oaxaca. The Santo Domingo lagoon has a wide variety of fish and birds among its mangroves. Near Santo Domingo is the Barra del Pío, it is inhabited only during certain fishing seasons, with houses here that are abandoned during other times of the year. Cuajinicuilapa is located on what was once the Ayacastla province, stretching from the river Ayutla all the way to the plains that share borders with the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca, was integrated with people of different ethnic and language groups such as: Ayutla Xochitonala, Acatlan Cuauhtepec and the Tlacuilo had the language of the Mixtec.
Nahuatl was the majority. Igualapa and Ometepec spoke ayacasteca, but understood amusga speaking individuals; this language was peculiar to Ayotzinapa and Xochistlahuaca. They formed part of the province of Huehuetán which spoke Huehueteca; the Quetzapotla, spoke Quahuitlán spoke quahuteca. Cuajinicuilapa lies in what was Quahhuitlán, an area thirty miles wide and fifty miles long, situated on the dividing line between the town now called Cuajinicuilapa and the State of Oaxaca. Quahuitlán was subject to the chieftainship of Tututepec. In 1824, when Mexico first became a Federal Republic, Cuajinicuilapa belonged to the party of Ayutla and to the District of Tlapa in the State of Puebla. By creating the state of Guerrero in 1850 Cuajiniculapa was integrated to the municipality of Ometepec and the District of Allende in 1852 and was constituted as a town with the southern part of Ometepec and was integrated to San Nicolás Maldonado, the municipal head of Cuajinicuilapa which since 1862 belongs to Abasolo district