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Cocytus or Kokytos is a river in the underworld in Greek mythology. Cocytus flows into the river Acheron, on the other side of which lies Hades, The Underworld, the mythological abode of the dead. There are five rivers encircling Hades: the Styx, Lethe and Cocytus; the Cocytus river was one of the rivers. Cocytus, along with the other rivers related to the underworld, was a common topic for ancient authors. Of the ancient authors, Cocytus was mentioned by Virgil, Cicero, Aeschylus and Plato, among others. Cocytus makes an appearance in John Milton's epic poem Paradise Lost. In Book Two, Milton speaks of "Cocytus, named of lamentation loud / Heard on the rueful stream", it is mentioned in William Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus and in Rick Riordan's The House of Hades. Cocytus appears in Friedrich Schiller's poem "Gruppe aus dem Tartarus": …Hohl sind ihre Augen—ihre Blicke/ Spähen bang nach des Cocytus Brücke… The river is mentioned in Rafael Sabatini's novel Captain Blood: His Odyssey, when Colonel Bishop's nemesis, Peter Blood, addresses him as follows: "And now, ye greasy hangman, step out as brisk and lively as ye can, behave as as ye may, or it's the black stream of Cocytus ye'll be contemplating."

In Inferno, the first cantica of Dante's Divine Comedy, Cocytus is the ninth and lowest circle of The Underworld. Dante and Virgil are placed there by the giant Antaeus. There are other Giants around the rim. Cocytus is referred to as a frozen lake rather than a river, although it originates from the same source as the other infernal rivers, the tears of a statue called The Old Man of Crete which represents the sins of humanity. Dante describes Cocytus as being the home of those who committed acts of complex fraud. Depending on the form of their treachery, inhabitants are buried in ice to a varying degree, anywhere from neck-high to submerged in ice. Cocytus is divided into four descending sections: Caina, after the Biblical Cain. Antenora, after Antenor from the Iliad. Ptolomea, after Ptolemy, governor of Jericho, who murdered his guests. Here it is said that sometimes the soul of a traitor falls to Hell before Atropos cuts the thread, their body is taken over by a fiend. Judecca, after Judas Iscariot.

Dante's Satan is at the center of the circle buried waist-high in ice. He is depicted with mouths; the central mouth gnaws Judas. Judas is chewed head foremost with his feet protruding and Satan's claws tearing his back while those gnawed in the side mouths and Cassius, leading assassins of Julius Caesar, are both chewed feet foremost with their heads protruding. Under each chin Satan flaps a pair of wings, which only serve to increase the cold winds in Cocytus and further imprison him and other traitors. Dante and his guide Virgil proceed to climb down Satan's back and upwards towards Purgatory, though Dante is at first confused at their turning round, but Virgil explains it is due to the change in forces as they pass through the centre of the Earth

Network Railcard

The Network Railcard is a discount card introduced in 1986 by British Rail, upon the creation of their Network SouthEast sector in parts of Southern England. The card is intended to encourage leisure travel by rail by offering discounts for adults and accompanying children on a wide range of off-peak fares; the range of discounts available, the price of the card, have varied since that time, but the card has always been valid for a year's unlimited frequency of use. It can be purchased by any person aged 16 or over from any staffed National Rail station or Rail Appointed Travel Agent, by completing an application form - no photographic identification or other documentation is needed to buy or use the card, it is one of a number of concessionary fare schemes available on the British railway system. The Network SouthEast brand was introduced to what had been the London & South East sector of British Rail on 10 June 1986; the railcard was introduced on 29 September 1986, under the name Network Card.

It offered a 34% discount on all off-peak fares for journeys wholly within the Network SouthEast area. Tickets valid at peak times, such as Day Returns and Open Returns, were excluded, as were First Class tickets. On weekdays, journeys had to start after 10.00am, but there were no time restrictions at weekends or on Bank Holidays. Up to three adults could accompany the railcard holder and gain the same discount, while up to four accompanying children could travel for a £1.00 flat fare. This version of the railcard could be issued for two people. On a two-person "joint-holder" ticket, either or both of the named holders could travel - that is, the card was transferable between the two; the first major change was made as from 28 September 1997. At this time, the name Network Railcard was adopted. All other benefits remained the same, however. New ticket stock was introduced with APTIS form number RSP 4599/188. A larger and more controversial change occurred as from 2 June 2002, when the discount level was changed: a minimum adult fare of £10.00 was imposed for weekday journeys, children now received an 81% discount on the full adult fare instead of the former £1.00 flat fare for all journeys.

This meant that on a weekday, holders would receive no discount if the standard adult full fare was £10.00 or less, a discount of less than 34% on fares between £10.05 and £15.00. Longer journeys for children would become more expensive. Transport pressure group Transport 2000 and environmental organisation Friends of the Earth condemned the proposals, Reading East MP Jane Griffiths tabled an Early Day Motion in the British Parliament opposing the changes; this gained the support of 38 other MPs from all major parties. Research commissioned by Transport 2000 indicated that 90% of journeys made in the railcard area would no longer gain any discount, a further 3.5% would attract a discount of less than 34%, only 6.5% would still be subject to the full 34% discount as before. This reflects the fact that many journeys undertaken in the area are short and "local" in nature, that the area as a whole is small in size. To compensate for the problems and disruption experienced on the railway network between 2000 and 2002, Network Railcards bought in the early months of 2002 were issued for 15 months for the price of 12.

The Heathrow Express service between London Paddington and Heathrow Airport, introduced in 1998, was excluded until March 2006. Since however, a 34% discount has been available on adult tickets in Express Class, subject to the usual Railcard weekday time restrictions. In May 2009 the Network Railcard terms were revised again, making the card both more expensive and raising the minimum fare for a discount to £13.00. Until July 2014, the Network Railcard was not valid on the regular Gatwick Express service, was only valid on those running to Brighton, it is now valid on subject to the usual weekday time restrictions. On the APTIS, PORTIS/SPORTIS and other computerised ticket issuing systems, a "status code" field is provided on each ticket issued; this is left blank. Adult tickets issued with the original Network Card displayed a status code of NSE, while child tickets showed CHNSE; these codes continued in use when the Network Railcard was introduced in its place, until the major change in June 2002.

When the "new" Network Railcard was introduced, with the £10.00 minimum fare and altered child discount, there were still a large number of "old" Network Railcards in use, with no minimum fare restriction and £1.00 flat fares for children. A method of distinguishing these on tickets had to be developed. ATOC introduced the following codes accordingly, uploaded them to all ticket issuing systems in mid-2002: "Old" Network Railcard adult fare: NR01A "Old" Network Railcard child fare: NR01C "New" Network Railcard adult fare: NR02A "New" Network Railcard child fare: NR02CBy August 2003, no "old" Network Railcards remained in use, ATOC stopped using the new codes on ticket issuing systems, r

Circles in a Square Society

Circles in a Square Society is the sixth album by the jazz/world music trio Boi Akih, released in 2012. After extensive listening sessions with classic rock records and lengthy discussions about songs with a timeless quality and Akihary decided to incorporate some of their favorite selections into an album that includes a musical commentary on the era from which the songs came; the album was met with a great deal of positive critical reception in Europe and the music was showcased live at Bimhuis, on World Radio6. Saskia Törnqvist gave the album a 4 star out of 5 rating in the Parool. Dutch Newspaper De Volkskrant published a 5 star rating by Frank van Herk. " Circle 5" " Guinnevere" " Cold Blue Steel And Sweet Fire" " Circle 2" " A Merman I Should Turn To Be" " Drifting" " Circle 3" " Old Man" " Circle Exercise" " Circle 4" " Redemption Song" Monica Akihary – vocals Niels Brouwer – guitar, computer, no-input mixer, world band receiver Wolter Wierbostrombone Kim Weemhoff – drums Performing the new album at Bimhuis -Video on YouTube

Functional load

In linguistics and phonology, functional load, or phonemic load, refers to the importance of certain features in making distinctions in a language. In other words, a high functional load will make it hard to guess a phoneme, not known because of noise or omission; the term "functional load" goes back to the days of the Prague School. Its most vocal advocate was André Martinet, a historical linguist who claimed it was a factor in the likelihood of a phonological merger; the first suggested measurement for functional load was the number of minimal pairs, but that does not take into account word frequency and is difficult to generalize beyond binary phonemic oppositions. Charles Hockett proposed an information theoretic definition in 1955, which has since been generalized. Now, with a large text corpus, one can compute the functional load of any phonological contrast including distinctive features and distinctions between groups of phonemes. For instance, the functional load of tones in Standard Chinese is as high as that of vowels: the information lost when all tones sound alike is as much as that lost when all vowels sound alike.

Martinet predicted. This has not been proved empirically. English vowels, for example, have a high functional load. There are innumerable sets of words distinguished just by their vowels, such as pin, pan, pain, pine. Voicing is similar, as can be seen in pat - few - view. Speakers who do not control these differences make it difficult for others to understand them. However, although voicing is important in English, the voicing difference between the two fricatives written ⟨th⟩, /θ, ð/, has a low functional load: it is difficult to find meaningful distinctions dependent on this difference. One of the few examples is thigh vs. thy. Similar is the difference of /dʒ/ versus /ʒ/, as in virgin vs. version. The difference between the two ⟨ng⟩ sounds, found in singer and finger, is so unimportant that it makes no practical difference if confuses them, some dialects pronounce the sounds the same in both words; the functional load is nearly zero, whis is unsurprising since the phoneme /ŋ/ originated as a coalescence of when it was word-final.

An ongoing example would be the merger of the EAR vowels in New Zealand English. The phonetic similarity between words like here and hare does not seem to hamper oral communication if context is provided. Therefore, those vowels have low functional load in New Zealand English despite their high frequency of occurrences in that dialect; the distinction is maintained in nearby Australian English, where many find comedy and confusion in mergers such as sheep-sharing vs. sheep-shearing and bare-chested vs. bear-chested. Another example is the functional load of tone in Mandarin Chinese, nearly as high as that of their vowels; this means that the loss of information when all tones sound alike in Mandarin is equal to that when all vowels sound alike in the language. By contrast, in many Bantu languages, the tones have a low functional load, in Swahili tones disappeared altogether

Rain's World

Rain's World is the 4th studio album by South Korean pop and R&B singer Rain. Two years after his last album, Rain came back with his fourth album. Building on the success of its predecessor, the album further established him as one of the top musical acts in Southeast Asia. Two years after his last album, Rain comes back with his fourth album. By January 2007, the album sold 158,179 in South Korea and 1.000.000 + All Asia The success of the album lead to a repackage album with a new album art as well as two versions: A type and B Type. CD contains remixed'Bad Guy','I'm Coming','I' And'With U' added to films of 4th album recording, jacket picture shooting session, a music video taping. B Type re-pack, limited to 5,000 copies, was a seasonal item for the Fall of the year with a high quality diary that has Rain's pictures undisclosed to the public. To promote the release, Rain went on a world tour; the tour started in Seoul and included stops in the US, China and more, for a total of 35 concerts in 12 countries.

What stands out in particular was his concert in Las Vegas, another first for a Korean artist


Zunzgen is a municipality in the district of Sissach in the canton of Basel-Country in Switzerland. Zunzgen has an area, as of 2009, of 6.88 square kilometers. Of this area, 2.62 km2 or 38.1% is used for agricultural purposes, while 3.43 km2 or 49.9% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.83 km2 or 12.1 % is settled, 0.01 km2 or 0.1 % is either lakes. Of the built up area and buildings made up 6.0% and transportation infrastructure made up 4.1%. Out of the forested land, all of the forested land area is covered with heavy forests. Of the agricultural land, 15.8% is used for growing crops and 13.4% is pastures, while 8.9% is used for orchards or vine crops. All the water in the municipality is flowing water; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is "Or, a Tower masoned embateled Sable issuant from a mount Gules." Zunzgen has a population of 2,574. As of 2008, 15.1% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 0.8%. Most of the population speaks German, with Italian language being second most common and Albanian being third.

There are 15 people who speak 1 person who speaks Romansh. As of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 49.9 % female. The population was made up of 2,118 Swiss citizens, 383 non-Swiss residents Of the population in the municipality 625 or about 25.7% were born in Zunzgen and lived there in 2000. There were 803 or 33.0% who were born in the same canton, while 577 or 23.7% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 362 or 14.9% were born outside of Switzerland. In 2008 there were 9 live births to Swiss citizens and 6 births to non-Swiss citizens, in same time span there were 10 deaths of Swiss citizens and 2 non-Swiss citizen deaths. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 1 while the foreign population increased by 4. There was 2 Swiss women who emigrated from Switzerland. At the same time, there was 1 non-Swiss man who emigrated from Switzerland to another country and 3 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland; the total Swiss population change in 2008 was a decrease of 17 and the non-Swiss population decreased by 24 people.

This represents a population growth rate of -1.6%. The age distribution, as of 2010, in Zunzgen is. Of the adult population, 303 people or 12.1 % of the population are between 29 years old. 277 people or 11.1% are between 30 and 39, 422 people or 16.9% are between 40 and 49, 553 people or 22.1% are between 50 and 64. The senior population distribution is 347 people or 13.9% of the population are between 65 and 79 years old and there are 77 people or 3.1% who are over 80. As of 2000, there were 979 people who never married in the municipality. There were 124 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 950 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.5 persons per household. There were 224 households that consist of only one person and 73 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 969 households that answered this question, 23.1% were households made up of just one person and 5 were adults who lived with their parents. Of the rest of the households, there are 308 married couples without children, 346 married couples with children There were 58 single parents with a child or children.

There were 9 households that were made up unrelated people and 19 households that were made some sort of institution or another collective housing. In 2000 there were 486 single family homes out of a total of 649 inhabited buildings. There were 100 multi-family buildings, along with 45 multi-purpose buildings that were used for housing and 18 other use buildings that had some housing. Of the single family homes 31 were built before 1919, while 60 were built between 1990 and 2000; the greatest number of single family homes were built between 1981 and 1990. In 2000 there were 998 apartments in the municipality; the most common apartment size was 4 rooms of which there were 352. There were 23 single room apartments and 331 apartments with five or more rooms. Of these apartments, a total of 926 apartments were permanently occupied, while 47 apartments were seasonally occupied and 25 apartments were empty; as of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 1.2 new units per 1000 residents. As of 2000 the average price to rent a two-room apartment was about 829.00 CHF, a three-room apartment was about 977.00 CHF and a four-room apartment cost an average of 1293.00 CHF.

The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 0.09%. The historical population is given in the following chart: The Zunzger Büchel, the remains of a prehistoric fortified hill, is listed as a Swiss heritage site of national significance. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP; the next three most popular parties were the SP, the Green Party and the FDP. In the federal election, a total of 780 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 45.6%. As of 2010, Zunzgen had an unemployment rate of 3.3%. As of 2008, there were 95 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 16 business