John Paul Jones (musician)
John Richard Baldwin, better known by his stage name John Paul Jones, is an English musician and record producer, the bassist and keyboardist in the rock band Led Zeppelin. Prior to forming the band with Jimmy Page in 1968, he was arranger. After the death of drummer John Bonham in 1980, Zeppelin disbanded and Jones developed a solo career, he has collaborated with musicians across a variety of genres, including Josh Homme and Dave Grohl with the supergroup Them Crooked Vultures. John Baldwin was born in Kent, he started playing piano at age six, learning from his father, Joe Baldwin, a pianist and arranger for big bands in the 1940s and 1950s, notably with Ambrose and his Orchestra. His mother was in the music business which allowed the family to perform together touring around England as a vaudeville comedy act, his influences ranged from the blues of Big Bill Broonzy, the jazz of Charles Mingus, to the classical piano of Sergei Rachmaninoff. Because his parents toured, Jones was sent to boarding school at a young age.
He was a student at Christ's College, London where he formally studied music. At the age of 14, Jones became choirmaster and organist at a local church and during that year, he bought his first bass guitar, a Dallas Tuxedo solid body electric followed by multiple basses in which he part exchanged until he bought his 1962 Fender Jazz Bass which he used until 1976; the fluid playing of Chicago musician Phil Upchurch on his You Can't Sit Down LP, which includes a memorable bass solo, is cited by Jones as being his inspiration to take up the instrument. Jones joined his first band, The Deltas, at 15, he played bass for jazz-rock London group, Jett Blacks, a collective that included guitarist John McLaughlin. Jones' big break came in 1962 when he was hired by Jet Harris and Tony Meehan of the successful British group The Shadows for a two-year stint. Shortly before hiring Jones and Meehan had just had a Number 1 hit with "Diamonds" Jones' collaboration with the Shadows nearly prevented the future formation of Led Zeppelin, when the parties engaged in talks about the possibility of Jones replacing their bassist Brian Locking, who left the band in October 1963, but John Rostill was chosen to fill the position.
In 1964, on the recommendation of Meehan, Jones began studio session work with Decca Records. From until 1968, he played on hundreds of recording sessions, he soon expanded his studio work by playing keyboards and undertaking general studio direction, resulting in his services coming under much demand. He worked with numerous artists including the Rolling Stones on Their Satanic Majesties Request; as well as recording sessions with Dusty Springfield, Jones played bass for her Talk of the Town series of performances. His arranging and playing on Donovan's "Sunshine Superman" resulted in producer Mickie Most using his services as choice arranger for many of his own projects, with Tom Jones, Wayne Fontana, the Walker Brothers, many others. In 1967, Most, as music supervisor tabbed Jones to arrange the music for Herman's Hermits' theatrical film Mrs. Brown, You've Got a Lovely Daughter, released in January 1968; such was the extent of Jones' studio work – amounting to hundreds of sessions – that he said years that "I can't remember three-quarters of the sessions I was on."It was during his time as a session player that Jones adopted the stage name John Paul Jones.
This name was suggested to him by a friend, Andrew Loog Oldham, who had seen a poster for the 1959 film John Paul Jones in France. He released his first solo recording as John Paul Jones, "Baja" / "A Foggy Day in Vietnam", as a single on Pye Records in April 1964. Jones has stated that, as a session musician, he was completing two and three sessions a day and seven days a week. However, by 1968 he was feeling burnt out due to the heavy workload: "I was arranging 50 or 60 things a month and it was starting to kill me." During his time as a session player, Jones crossed paths with guitarist Jimmy Page, a fellow session veteran. In June 1966, Page joined The Yardbirds, in 1967 Jones contributed to that band's Little Games album; the following winter, during the sessions for Donovan's The Hurdy Gurdy Man, Jones expressed to Page a desire to be part of any projects the guitarist might be planning. That year, The Yardbirds disbanded, leaving Page and bassist Chris Dreja to complete booked Yardbirds dates in Scandinavia.
Before a new band could be assembled, Dreja left to take up photography. Jones, at the suggestion of his wife, asked Page about the vacant position, the guitarist eagerly invited Jones to collaborate. Page explained: I was working at the sessions for Donovan's Hurdy Gurdy Man, John Paul Jones was looking after the musical arrangements. During a break, he asked me, he had a proper music training, he had quite brilliant ideas. I jumped at the chance of getting him. Vocalist Robert Plant and drummer John Bonham joined the two to form a quartet. Dubbed the "New Yardbirds" for the Scandinavian dates, the band soon became known as Led Zeppelin. Jones was responsible for the classic bass lines of the group, notably those in "Ramble On" and "The Lemon Song", shifting time signatures, such as those in "Black Dog"; as half of Led Ze
Led Zeppelin III
Led Zeppelin III is the third studio album by the English rock band Led Zeppelin, released in October 1970. It had a more eclectic style than prior albums, adding folk-style songs to their standard hard rock and blues rock repertoire. While hard rock influences were still present, such as on "Immigrant Song", acoustic-based songs such as "Gallows Pole" and "That's the Way" showed Led Zeppelin were capable of playing different styles successfully; the band wrote most of the material themselves, but as with prior records, included two songs that were re-interpretations of earlier works, "Gallows Pole" based on a traditional English folk song, by way of American singer Fred Gerlach, "Hat's off to Harper", a reworking of a blues song by Bukka White. The acoustic material developed from a songwriting session between band members Jimmy Page and Robert Plant at Bron-Yr-Aur cottage in Wales, which influenced the musical direction; the songs were recorded using the Rolling Stones Mobile Studio, Headley Grange, Island Studios, Olympic Studios in London.
As with the prior album, the band eschewed the use of guest musicians, with all music played by band members Page, John Paul Jones, John Bonham. The range of instruments played by the band was enhanced in this album, with Jones emerging as a talented multi-instrumentalist, playing a wide range of keyboard and stringed instruments including various synthesizers and double bass in addition to his usual bass guitar; as with prior albums, Page served as producer on the album, with mixing done by Andy Johns and Terry Manning. The album was one of the most anticipated of 1970, its shipping date was held up by the intricate inner sleeve design based around a volvelle, with numerous images visible through holes in the outer cover, it topped the UK and US charts. Although critics were confused over the change in musical style and gave the album a mixed response, Led Zeppelin III has since been acknowledged as representing an important milestone in the band's history, a turning point in their music. By 1970, Led Zeppelin had achieved commercial success in both the UK and the US with their first two albums.
They were determined to have a proper break, having recorded most of Led Zeppelin II in various locations while on tour, financing the sessions with the album sales and tour receipts. Following an exhausting concert tour of North America that spring, lead singer Robert Plant recommended to guitarist and producer Jimmy Page that they should retreat to Bron-Yr-Aur, an 18th-century cottage in Snowdonia, Wales, on a hilltop overlooking the Dyfi Valley, three miles north of the market town Machynlleth. Plant had spent holidays there with his family; this remote setting had no running water or electric power, which encouraged a slight change of musical direction for the band towards an emphasis on acoustic arrangements. Page explained the tranquility of Bron-Yr-Aur stood in sharp contrast to the continual touring of 1969, affected the overall tone of the songwriting, the dominance of acoustic guitars, his playing was influenced by folk guitarists Davey Graham and Bert Jansch, who used alternative guitar tunings.
Plant recalled the band were "obsessed with change" and enjoyed listening to John Fahey. The band wanted a change in direction, to show they could play any style of music they wanted; the first recording sessions for Led Zeppelin III took place at Olympic Studios in November 1969. A press statement from manager Peter Grant said the group were recording a non-album track to be released as a single, but this was abandoned. Further sessions took place towards the end of the year, in between touring, before the decision to stop work and take a break at Bron-Yr-Aur. After preparing material for the album there and Plant were joined by drummer John Bonham and bassist / keyboardist John Paul Jones at Headley Grange, a mansion in East Hampshire, to rehearse the songs; the rural atmosphere gave a relaxed feel to the sessions, the band found it a more enjoyable environment to develop songs than a studio in the city. The album was recorded between May and June 1970 at Headley Grange and at Olympic, with further recording at Island Records' Basing Street Studios in Notting Hill the following month.
Mixing took place at Ardent Studios, Memphis, in August 1970 partway through the group's sixth American concert tour. The album was engineered by Andy Johns and Terry Manning. Page had first met Manning when the latter's band and Four More had supported Page's old band the Yardbirds in 1966. Manning had been to several Led Zeppelin shows, this led to Page asking him to engineer the new album. Led Zeppelin III marked a change in focus for the band from late 1960s hard rock to a psychedelic folk and acoustic sound; these styles had been present to a lesser degree in the band's first two releases, such as "Babe I'm Gonna Leave You" and "Ramble On" from the first and second albums respectively. However, on this album, the group used more acoustic arrangements, they would remain prominent to various degrees in the group's releases. With Led Zeppelin III the group's songwriting dynamic changed, from Page's domination of the first two albums towards a more democratic situation in which all four group members contributed their own compositions and ideas.
"Immigrant Song" was written about the Viking invasions of England and inspired by a short tour of Iceland in June 1970. It became a top 20 hit, it was the opening song for the band's appearance at the Bath Festival of Blues and Progressive Music and subsequent gi
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Led Zeppelin II
Led Zeppelin II is the second album by the English rock band Led Zeppelin, released on 22 October 1969 in the United States and on 31 October 1969 in the United Kingdom by Atlantic Records. Recording sessions for the album took place at several locations in both the United Kingdom and North America from January to August 1969; the album's production was credited to the band's lead guitarist and songwriter Jimmy Page, it served as Led Zeppelin's first album to use Eddie Kramer as engineer. It was recorded using the core band members, including Page, Robert Plant, John Paul Jones, John Bonham; the album exhibited the band's evolving musical style of blues-derived material and their guitar riff-based sound. It has been described as the band's heaviest album. Six of the nine songs were written by the band, while the other three were reinterpretations of Chicago blues songs by Willie Dixon and Howlin' Wolf. One single, "Whole Lotta Love", was released outside of the UK, peaked as a top-ten single in over a dozen markets around the world.
Led Zeppelin II was a commercial success, was the band's first album to reach number one on charts in the UK and the US. In 1970, the album's cover designer David Juniper was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Recording Package. On 15 November 1999, the album was certified 12× Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America for sales passing 12 million copies. Since its release, various writers and music critics have cited Led Zeppelin II as one of the greatest and most influential albums of all time. Led Zeppelin II was conceived during a busy period of Led Zeppelin's career from January through August 1969, when they completed four European and three American concert tours; each song was separately recorded and produced at various studios in the UK and North America. The album was written on tour, during periods of a couple of hours in between concerts, a studio was booked and the recording process begun, resulting in a sound with spontaneity and urgency through necessity. Several songs resulted from improvisation while touring, including during the instrumental sections of "Dazed and Confused", were recorded live in the studio.
The album used a wide variety of recording studios in the UK and the US. Some of these were lacklustre. A more favourable set-up was Mystic Studios in Los Angeles with Chris Huston engineering. Lead singer Robert Plant complained that the writing and mixing sessions were done in many different locations and criticised the writing and recording process. "Thank You", "The Lemon Song" and "Moby Dick" were overdubbed during the tour, while the mixing of "Whole Lotta Love" and "Heartbreaker" was done on tour. Page stated "In other words, some of the material came out of rehearsing for the next tour and getting new material together."Recording sessions for the album took place at Olympic and Morgan Studios in London, England. Production was credited to Jimmy Page, with Eddie Kramer engineering. Kramer said, "The famous Whole Lotta Love mix, where everything is going bananas, is a combination of Jimmy and myself just flying around on a small console twiddling every knob known to man."Kramer gave great credit to Page for the sound, achieved, despite the inconsistent conditions in which it was recorded: "We cut some of the tracks in some of the most bizarre studios you can imagine... but in the end it sounded bloody marvellous...
There was one guy in charge and, Mr. Page." Page and Kramer spent two days mixing the album at A&R Studios. The finished tracks reflect the evolving sound of their live performances. Plant made his first songwriting contributions on Led Zeppelin II. "Whole Lotta Love" was built around a three-note Page riff. The lyrics were taken directly from Willie Dixon's "You Need Love", which led to the group being sued for plagiarism settling out of court; the arrangement resembles the Small Faces track "You Need Loving". The middle section of the track contained a variety of overdubbed instruments and vocals which were mixed live by Page and Kramer, making full use of stereo panning and other controls available on the desk; the song was edited down to a single in the US. In the UK, a single release was cancelled, it was issued as a single in 1997. The song was subsequently re-recorded by the Collective Consciousness Society. Led Zeppelin performed "Whole Lotta Love" at every gig from June 1969 onwards, it was the closing number of their live shows between 1970 and 1973 extended to form a rock'n'roll medley towards the end of the set.
A different arrangement of the song was played for the Knebworth Fayre concerts in 1979. It was the last song the group performed live with Bonham, on 7 July 1980. "Whole Lotta Love" has since been critically praised as one of the definitive heavy metal tracks, though the group have never considered themselves to fit that specific style."What Is and What Should Never Be" was written by Plant. It features
John Henry Bonham was an English musician and songwriter, best known as the drummer for the British rock band Led Zeppelin. Esteemed for his speed, fast bass drumming, distinctive sound, "feel" for the groove, he is regarded by many as the greatest and most influential rock drummer in history. Rolling Stone magazine ranked him number one in their list of the "100 Greatest Drummers of All Time". John Henry Bonham was born on 31 May 1948, in Redditch, England, to Joan and Jack Bonham, he began learning to play drums at five, making a kit of containers and coffee tins, imitating his idols Max Roach, Gene Krupa and Buddy Rich. His mother gave him a snare drum when he was 10, he received his first drum kit from his father at age 15, a Premier Percussion set. Bonham never took formal drum lessons. Between 1962 and 1963, still at school, Bonham joined the Blue Star Trio, Gerry Levene & the Avengers. Bonham attended Lodge Farm Secondary Modern School, where his headmaster wrote in his report that "He will either end up a dustman or a millionaire."
After leaving school in 1964, he worked for his father as an apprentice carpenter between drumming for local bands. In 1964, Bonham joined his first semi-professional band, Terry Webb and the Spiders, met his future wife Pat Phillips around the same time, he played in other Birmingham bands such as The Nicky James Movement and The Senators, who made a single, "She's a Mod", in 1964. Bonham took up drumming full-time. Two years he joined A Way of Life, but the band folded. Needing a regular income, he joined a blues group called Crawling King Snakes, whose lead singer was Robert Plant. In 1967, A Way of Life asked Bonham to return to the group, he agreed, while keeping in touch with Plant. Plant chose Bonham as the drummer; the band recorded demos but no album. In 1968, American singer Tim Rose asked Band of Joy to open his concerts; when Rose returned months Bonham was invited by the singer to drum for Rose's band, which gave him a regular income. After the breakup of the The Yardbirds in July of 1968, guitarist Jimmy Page formed another band and recruited Plant, who in turn suggested Bonham.
Page's choices for drummer included Procol Harum's B. J. Wilson and Paul Francis. However, on seeing Bonham drum for Tim Rose at a club in Hampstead, north London, in July 1968, Page and manager Peter Grant were convinced he was perfect for the project, first known as the New Yardbirds and as Led Zeppelin. Bonham was reluctant. Plant sent eight telegrams to Bonham's pub, the "Three Men in a Boat", in Bloxwich, which were followed by 40 telegrams from Grant. Bonham was receiving offers from Joe Cocker and Chris Farlowe but he accepted Grant's offer, he recalled, "I decided I liked their music better than Cocker's or Farlowe's." During Led Zeppelin's first tour of the United States in December 1968, Bonham became friends with Vanilla Fudge's drummer, Carmine Appice. Appice introduced him to Ludwig drums, which he used for the rest of his career. Bonham used the longest and heaviest sticks, which he called "trees", his hard hitting was evident on many Led Zeppelin songs, including "Immigrant Song", "When the Levee Breaks", "Kashmir", "The Ocean", "Achilles Last Stand".
Page let Bonham use a double bass drum in an early demo of "Communication Breakdown" but scratched the track because of Bonham's "over-use" of it. The studio recording of "Misty Mountain Hop" captures his dynamics exhibited on "No Quarter". On cuts from albums, Bonham handled funk and Latin-influenced drumming. Songs like "Royal Orleans" and "Fool in the Rain" are examples displaying a New Orleans shuffle and a half-time shuffle, his drum solo, first entitled "Pat's Delight" "Moby Dick" lasted 20 minutes. He used bare hands for different sounds. Bonham's sequence for the film The Song Remains the Same featured him in a drag race at Santa Pod Raceway to the sound of his solo, "Moby Dick". In Led Zeppelin tours after 1969, Bonham included orchestral timpani and a symphonic gong. In 1969, Bonham appeared with Page and Jones. Bonham played for Screaming Lord Sutch on Lord Sutch and Heavy Friends in 1970, he played on Lulu's 1971 single "Everybody Clap", written by Billy Lawrie. In 1972, he played on a Maurice Gibb-produced album by Jimmy Stevens called Don't Freak Me Out in the UK and Paid My Dues in the US, credited as "Gemini".
He drummed for his Birmingham friend, Roy Wood, on "Keep Your Hands on the Wheel", a single subsequently released on his 1979 album, On the Road Again, on Wings' album Back to the Egg on the tracks "Rockestra Theme" and "So Glad to See You Here". He was featured on Paul McCartney & Wings "Beware My Love" demo version first recorded in 1976, it remained unreleased until 2014 with the release of the album Wings at the Speed of Sound boxset. Bonham was the best man of Black Sabbath's Tony Iommi at his wedding ceremony. In 1974, Bonham appeared in the film Son of playing drums in Count Downe's band. Bonham appeared in a drum line-up including Ringo Starr on the soundtrack album. On 24 September 1980, Bonham was picked up by Led Zeppelin assistant Rex King to attend rehearsals at Bray Studios for a tour of North America, to begin 17 October in Montreal, Canada – the band's first since 1977. During the journey, Bonham asked to stop for breakfast, where he drank four quadruple vodka screwdrivers, he continued to drink after arri
Coda is a rarities compilation album by the English rock band Led Zeppelin. The album is a collection of unused tracks from various sessions during Led Zeppelin's twelve-year career, it was released in 1982, two years after the group had disbanded following the death of drummer John Bonham. The word coda, meaning a passage that ends a musical piece following the main body, was therefore chosen as the title; the fifth Swan Song Records album for the band, Coda was released to honour contractual commitments to Atlantic Records and to cover tax demands on previous monies earned. It cleared away nearly all of the leftover tracks from the various studio sessions of the 1960s and 1970s; the album was a collection of eight tracks spanning the length of Zeppelin's twelve-year history. Atlantic counted the release as a studio album, as Swan Song had owed the label a final studio album from the band. According to Martin Popoff, "there's conjecture that Jimmy called'We're Gonna Groove' a studio track and'I Can't Quit You Baby' a rehearsal track because Swan Song owed Atlantic one more studio album specifically."Guitarist Jimmy Page explained that part of the reasoning for the album's release related to the popularity of unofficial Led Zeppelin recordings which continued to be circulated by fans: "Coda was released because there was so much bootleg stuff out.
We thought, "Well, if there's that much interest we may as well put the rest of our studio stuff out". As John Paul Jones recalled: "They were good tracks. A lot of it was recorded around the time punk was happening... there wasn't a lot of Zeppelin tracks that didn't go out. We used everything. "We're Gonna Groove" opens the album and, according to the album notes, was recorded at Morgan Studios in June 1969. It was acknowledged to have come from a January 1970 concert at the Royal Albert Hall, with the guitar parts overdubbed and the original guitar part removed—this can be heard in the original Royal Albert Hall show on 9 January 1970; this song was used to open a number of concerts on their early 1970 tours and was intended to be recorded for inclusion in Led Zeppelin II. "I Can't Quit You Baby" is taken from the same concert as "We're Gonna Groove" but was listed as a rehearsal in the original liner notes.} The recording was edited to remove the overall "live" feel: the crowd noise as well as the beginning and ending of the song were deleted.
Crowd tracks were muted on the multitrack mixdown on this recording as with "We're Gonna Groove"."Poor Tom" is from sessions for Led Zeppelin III, having been recorded at Olympic Studios in June 1970, "Walter's Walk" is a leftover from the sessions for Houses of the Holy. Side two consists of three outtakes from the band's previous album, In Through the Out Door; the opening track, the uptempo "Ozone Baby" was recorded at that album's sessions at Polar Studios, Stockholm in November 1978, as was the rock'n'roll styled "Darlene". The third track, "Bonzo's Montreux" was recorded at Mountain Studios, Switzerland in September 1976, it was designed as a Bonham drum showcase, which Page treated with various electronic effects, including a harmonizer. The final track, "Wearing and Tearing" was recorded at Polar in November 1978, it was written as a reaction to show that Led Zeppelin could compete with the new bands. It was planned to be released as a promotional single to the audience at the 1979 Knebworth Festival, headlined by Led Zeppelin, but this was cancelled at the last minute.
It was first performed live at the 1990 Silver Clef Awards Festival at Knebworth in 1990 by Plant's band with Page guesting. The 1993 compact disc edition has four additional tracks from the box sets, Led Zeppelin Boxed Set and Led Zeppelin Boxed Set 2, the unreleased "Travelling Riverside Blues", "White Summer/Black Mountain Side" and the "Immigrant Song" b-side "Hey, What Can I Do" from the former and the unreleased "Baby Come On Home" from the latter; the album cover was designed by Hipgnosis, the fifth album cover the design group designed for Led Zeppelin. It was the last album cover Hipgnosis designed before disbanding in 1983; the main four letters CODA are from an alphabet typeface design called "Neon" designed by Bernard Allum in 1978. In a contemporary review for Rolling Stone, Kurt Loder hailed Coda as "a resounding farewell" and "marvel of compression, deftly tracing the Zeppelin decade with eight powerful unreleased tracks, no unnecessary elaboration". Robert Christgau wrote in his capsule review for The Village Voice: "They were pretty great, these eight outtakes—three from their elephantine blues phase, three from their unintentional swan song—aren't where to start discovering why.
But despite the calculated clumsiness of the beginnings and the incomplete orchestrations of the end, everything here but the John Bonham Drum Orchestra would convince a disinterested party—a Martian, say. Jimmy Page provides a protean solo on'I Can't Quit You Baby' and jumbo riffs throughout. According to Julian Marszalek of The Quietus, however, "Coda has always been regarded as the band's weakest release. Made up of eight tracks that spanned Led Zeppelin's lifetime, it refused to flow as an album. Devoid of a coherent narrative, it felt tossed together to make up for contractual obligations." In a retrospective review for AllMusic, Stephen Thomas Erlewine said while it did not compile some notable non-album recordings, it offered "a good snapshot of much of what made Led Zeppelin a great band" and featured "hard-charging rock & roll", including "Ozone Baby", "Darlene", "Wearing and Tearing": "rockers that alternately cut loose and menace". A remastered version of Coda, along with Presence and In Through the Out Door were reissued on 31 July 20
The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph referred to as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally. It was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in 1855 as Daily Telegraph & Courier; the Telegraph is regarded as a national "newspaper of record" and it maintains an international reputation for quality, having been described by the BBC as "one of the world's great titles". The paper's motto, "Was, is, will be", appears in the editorial pages and has featured in every edition of the newspaper since 19 April 1858; the paper had a circulation of 363,183 in December 2018, having declined following industry trends from 1.4 million in 1980. Its sister paper, The Sunday Telegraph, which started in 1961, had a circulation of 281,025 as of December 2018; the Daily Telegraph has the largest circulation for a broadsheet newspaper in the UK and the sixth largest circulation of any UK newspaper as of 2016. The two sister newspapers are run separately, with different editorial staff, but there is cross-usage of stories.
Articles published in either may be published on the Telegraph Media Group's www.telegraph.co.uk website, under the title of The Telegraph. Editorially, the paper is considered conservative; the Telegraph has been the first newspaper to report on a number of notable news scoops, including the 2009 MP expenses scandal, which led to a number of high-profile political resignations and for which it was named 2009 British Newspaper of the Year, its 2016 undercover investigation on the England football manager Sam Allardyce. However, including the paper's former chief political commentator Peter Oborne, accuse it of being unduly influenced by advertisers HSBC; the Daily Telegraph and Courier was founded by Colonel Arthur B. Sleigh in June 1855 to air a personal grievance against the future commander-in-chief of the British Army, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge. Joseph Moses Levy, the owner of The Sunday Times, agreed to print the newspaper, the first edition was published on 29 June 1855; the paper was four pages long.
The first edition stressed the quality and independence of its articles and journalists: We shall be guided by a high tone of independent action. However, the paper was not a success, Sleigh was unable to pay Levy the printing bill. Levy took over the newspaper, his aim being to produce a cheaper newspaper than his main competitors in London, the Daily News and The Morning Post, to expand the size of the overall market. Levy appointed his son, Edward Levy-Lawson, Lord Burnham, Thornton Leigh Hunt to edit the newspaper. Lord Burnham relaunched the paper as The Daily Telegraph, with the slogan "the largest and cheapest newspaper in the world". Hunt laid out the newspaper's principles in a memorandum sent to Levy: "We should report all striking events in science, so told that the intelligent public can understand what has happened and can see its bearing on our daily life and our future; the same principle should apply to all other events—to fashion, to new inventions, to new methods of conducting business".
In 1876, Jules Verne published his novel Michael Strogoff, whose plot takes place during a fictional uprising and war in Siberia. Verne included among the book's characters a war correspondent of The Daily Telegraph, named Harry Blount—who is depicted as an exceptionally dedicated and brave journalist, taking great personal risks to follow the ongoing war and bring accurate news of it to The Telegraph's readership, ahead of competing papers. In 1908, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany gave a controversial interview to The Daily Telegraph that damaged Anglo-German relations and added to international tensions in the build-up to World War I. In 1928 the son of Baron Burnham, Harry Lawson Webster Levy-Lawson, 2nd Baron Burnham, sold the paper to William Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, in partnership with his brother Gomer Berry, 1st Viscount Kemsley and Edward Iliffe, 1st Baron Iliffe. In 1937, the newspaper absorbed The Morning Post, which traditionally espoused a conservative position and sold predominantly amongst the retired officer class.
William Ewart Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, bought The Morning Post with the intention of publishing it alongside The Daily Telegraph, but poor sales of the former led him to merge the two. For some years the paper was retitled The Daily Telegraph and Morning Post before it reverted to just The Daily Telegraph. In the late 1930s Victor Gordon Lennox, The Telegraph's diplomatic editor, published an anti-appeasement private newspaper The Whitehall Letter that received much of its information from leaks from Sir Robert Vansittart, the Permanent Under-Secretary of the Foreign Office, Rex Leeper, the Foreign Office's Press Secretary; as a result, Gordon Lennox was monitored by MI5. In 1939, The Telegraph published Clare Hollingworth's scoop. In November 1940, with Fleet Street subjected to daily bombing raids by the Luftwaffe, The Telegraph started printing in Manchester at Kemsley House, run by Camrose's brother Kemsley. Manchester quite printed the entire run of The Telegraph when its Fleet Street offices were under threat.
The name Kemsley House was changed to Thomson House in 1959. In 1986 printing of Northern editions of the Daily and Sunday Telegraph moved to Trafford Park and in 2008 to Newsprinters at Knowsley, Liverpool. During the Second World War, The Daily Telegraph covertly helped in the recruitment of code-breakers for Bletchley Park; the ability to solve The Telegraph's crossword in under 12 minutes was considered to be a recruitment test. The newspaper was asked to organise a crossword competition, after wh