In music, variation is a formal technique where material is repeated in an altered form. The changes may involve melody, harmony, timbre, orchestration or any combination of these. Mozart's Twelve Variations on "Ah vous dirai-je, Maman", known in the English-speaking world as "Twinkle, Little Star" exemplifies a number of common variation techniques. Here are the first eight bars of the theme: Mozart's first variation decorates and elaborates the plain melodic line: The fifth variation breaks up the steady pulse and creates syncopated off-beats: The seventh variation introduces powerful new chords, which replace the simple harmonies implied by the theme with a prolongational series of descending fifths: In the elaborate 8th variation, Mozart changes from the major to the parallel minor mode, while combining three techniques: counterpoint and imitation: A complete performance can be heard by following this link: Listen. Variation techniques are used within pieces that are not themselves in the form of Theme and Variations.
For example, when the opening two-bar phrase of Chopin's Nocturne in F minor returns in the piece, it is repeated as an elegant melodic re-working: Debussy's piano piece "Reflets dans l’Eau" opens with a sequence of chords: These chords open out into arpeggios when they return in the piece:Follow this link for a complete performance of “Reflets dans l’Eau”. Sometimes melodic variation occurs with the original. In Beethoven's "Waldstein" piano sonata, the main'second subject' theme of the opening movement, in sonata form, is heard in the pianist's left hand, while the right hand plays a decorated version. While most variations tend to elaborate on the given theme or idea, there are exceptions. In 1819, Anton Diabelli commissioned Viennese composers to create variations on a waltz that he had composed: Beethoven contributed a mighty set of 33 variations on this theme; the thirteenth of these stands out in its wilful eccentricity and determination to reduce the given material to its bare bones: Wilfrid Mellers describes this variation as "comically disruptive...
The original tonal sequence is telescoped, the two-bar sequences being absorbed into the silences." Many composers have taken pieces composed by others as a basis for elaboration. John Dowland's Lachrimae was used by other composers as a basis for sets of variations during the 17th century. Composed in 1700, the final movement of Arcangelo Corelli's Violin Sonata Op. 5 No. 9 opens with this rather sparse melodic line: Corelli's fellow-composer and former student Francesco Geminiani produced a “playing version” as follows: According to Nicholas Cook, in Geminiani's version "all the notes of Corelli's violin line... are absorbed into a quite new melodic organization. With its characteristic rhythmic pattern, Geminiani's opening is a tune in a way that Corelli's is not... whereas in the original version the first four bars consist of an undifferentiated stream of quarter-notes and make up a single phrase, Geminiani's version has three sequential repetitions of a distinctive one—bar phrase and a contrasted closing phrase, producing a accented down-beat quality."Jazz arrangers develop variations on themes by other composers.
For example, Gil Evans’ 1959 arrangement of George Gershwin's song "Summertime" from the opera Porgy and Bess is an example of variation through changing orchestral timbre. At the outset, Evans presents a single variation that repeats five times in subtly differing instrumental combinations; these create a compelling background, a constantly-changing sonic tapestry over which trumpeter Miles Davis improvises his own set of variations. Wilfrid Mellers wrote that "t called for an improviser of Davis's kind and quality to explore, through Gil Evans' arrangement, the tender frailty inherent in the'Summer-time' tune... Between them, solo line and harmonic colour create a music, at once innocent and tense with apprehension". Variation forms include ground bass, passacaglia and theme and variations. Ground bass and chaconne are based on brief ostinato motifs providing a repetitive harmonic basis and are typically continuous evolving structures.'Theme and variation' forms are, based on melodic variation, in which the fundamental musical idea, or theme, is repeated in altered form or accompanied in a different manner.'Theme and variation' structure begins with a theme between eight and thirty-two bars in length.
This form may in part have derived from the practical inventiveness of musicians. Their repetition became intolerably wearisome, led the player to indulge in extempore variation and ornament". Variation forms can be written as'free-standing' pieces for solo instruments or ensembles, or can constitute a movement of a larger piece. Most jazz music is structured on a basic pattern of theme and variations. Examples include John Bull's Salvator Mundi, Bach's Canonic Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch da komm' ich her and Fugue in C minor, Violin Chaconne, Corelli's La Folia Variations, Beethoven's Diabelli Variations, the Finale of Brahms's Fourth Symphony, Variations on a Theme of Haydn, Op. 56, Elgar's Enigma Variations, Franck's Variations Symphoniques, Richard Strauss's Don Qu
Melisma is the singing of a single syllable of text while moving between several different notes in succession. Music sung in this style is referred to as melismatic, as opposed to syllabic, in which each syllable of text is matched to a single note. Music of ancient cultures used melismatic techniques to induce a hypnotic trance in the listener, useful for early mystical initiation rites and religious worship; this quality is still found in Arabic music where the scale consists of "quarter tones". Orthodox Christian chanting bears a slight resemblance to this. Middle Eastern melismatic music was developed further in the Torah chanting, as well as by the Masoretes in the seventh or eighth centuries, it appeared in some genres of Gregorian chant, where it was used in certain sections of the Mass, with the earliest written appearance around AD 900. The gradual and the alleluia, in particular, were characteristically melismatic, for example, while the tract is not, repetitive melodic patterns were deliberately avoided in the style.
The Byzantine Rite used melismatic elements in its music, which developed concurrently with the Gregorian chant. In Western music, the term "melisma" most refers to Gregorian chant. However, the term melisma may be used to describe music of any genre, including baroque singing and gospel. Within Jewish liturgical tradition, melisma is still used in the chanting of Torah, readings from the Prophets, in the body of a service. For an examination of the evolution of this tradition, see Idelsohn. Today, melisma is used in Middle Eastern, African and African American music, Fado and various Asian folk and popular musical genres. Melisma is commonly featured in Western popular music. Early in their careers, Ray Charles, Aretha Franklin, Stevie Wonder used it sparingly. Melisma is used by countless pop artists such as Michael Jackson, although this form involves improvising melismata over a simpler melody. During the fadeout of the Beatles' 1966 track "I Want to Tell You", bassist Paul McCartney can be heard singing a high-pitched melisma in the style of classical Indian music.
The use of melisma is a common feature of artists such as Deniece Williams, Stevie Wonder, Luther Vandross, Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey, Beyoncé, Christina Aguilera, among others. The use of melismatic vocals in pop music grew in the 1980s. Deniece Williams topped the Billboard Hot 100 chart in May 1984, with Let's Hear It for the Boy with her melismatic vocals. Although other artists used melisma before, Houston's rendition of Dolly Parton's love song "I Will Always Love You" pushed the technique into the mainstream in the'90s; the trend in R&B singers is considered to have been popularized by Mariah Carey's song "Vision of Love", released and topped the charts at number one in 1990, went on to be certified gold. As late as 2007, melismatic singers such as Leona Lewis were still scoring big hits, but around 2008–2009, this trend reverted to how it was prior to Carey and Houston's success – singers with less showy styles such as Kesha and Cheryl Cole began to outsell new releases by Carey and Christina Aguilera, ending nearly two decades of the style's dominance of pop-music vocals.
The French carol tune "Gloria" arranged by Edward Shippen Barnes in 1937, to which the hymn "Angels We Have Heard on High" is sung, contains one of the most melismatic sequences in popular Christian hymn music, on the "o" of the word "Gloria", held through 16 different notes. "Ding Dong Merrily on High", arranged by George Ratcliffe Woodward, contains an longer melisma of 31 notes on the "o" of "Gloria". George Frideric Handel's Messiah contains numerous examples of melisma, as in the following excerpt from the chorus "For Unto Us a Child Is Born"; the soprano and alto lines engage in a 57-note melisma on the word "born". Play Melisma is used, though and in the music of Jethro Tull: examples include the eponymous track of the album Songs From the Wood and the song "Skating Away". One of the most striking instances in recent pop music occurs in Bruce Springsteen's "The Ties that Bind", in which the "I" in "bind" is iterated 13 times. A striking example is found in Bohemian Rhapsody by Queen, in which melisma on the syllables'-co' and'go' forms part of the dramatic structure of the song.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart uses melisma in his Requiem Mass in D minor in the Kyrie sequence, with the "e" in "eleison" being elaborately sung in various notes. Arabic maqam American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language entry on "melisma" Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary entry on melisma
Ludwig Ritter von Köchel
Ludwig Alois Friedrich Ritter von Köchel was an Austrian musicologist, composer and publisher. He is best known for cataloguing the works of Mozart and originating the'K-numbers' by which they are known. Born in the town of Stein, Lower Austria, he studied law in Vienna and graduated with a PhD in 1827. For fifteen years, he was tutor to the four sons of Archduke Charles of Austria. Köchel was rewarded with a knighthood and a generous financial settlement, permitting him to spend the rest of his life as a private scholar. Contemporary scientists were impressed by his botanical researches in North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, the United Kingdom, the North Cape, Russia. In addition to botany, he was interested in geology and mineralogy, but loved music, was a member of the Mozarteum Salzburg, he died of cancer at age 77 in Vienna. In 1862 he published the Köchel catalogue, a chronological and thematic register of the works of Mozart; this catalogue was the first with such a level of scholarship behind it.
Mozart's works are referred to by their K-numbers. Moreover, Köchel arranged Mozart's works into twenty-four categories, which were used by Breitkopf & Härtel when they published the first complete edition of Mozart's works from 1877 to 1910, a venture funded by Köchel, he catalogued the works of Johann Fux. Works by Ludwig Ritter von Köchel at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Ludwig Ritter von Köchel at Internet Archive Free scores by Ludwig Ritter von Köchel at the International Music Score Library Project Literature by and about Ludwig Ritter von Köchel in the German National Library catalogue Ludwig Ritter von Köchel in: Austria-Forum Entry about Ludwig Ritter von Köchel in the database Gedächtnis des Landes on the history of the state of Lower Austria Ludwig Ritter von Köchel Society
In medieval music, conductus is a type of sacred, but non-liturgical vocal composition for one or more voices. The word derives from Latin conducere, the conductus was most sung while the lectionary was carried from its place of safekeeping to the place from which it was to be read; the conductus was one of the principal types of vocal composition of the ars antiqua period of medieval music history. The form most originated in the south of France around 1150, reached its peak development during the activity of the Notre Dame School in the early 13th century. Most of the conductus compositions of the large mid-13th-century manuscript collection from Notre Dame are for two or three voices. Much of the surviving repertoire is contained in the Florence Manuscript and the manuscript Wolfenbüttel 1099. Conductus are unique in the Notre Dame repertory in admitting secular melodies as source material, though sacred melodies were commonly used. Common subjects for the songs were lives of the saints, feasts of the Lord, the Nativity, as well as more current subjects such as exemplary behavior of contemporary witnesses to the faith, such as Thomas Becket.
A significant and interesting repertory of conductus from late in the period consists of songs which criticize abuses by the clergy, including some which are quite outraged. While it might be difficult to imagine them being sung in church, it is possible that the repertory may have had an existence beyond its documented liturgical use. All composers of conductus are anonymous; some of the poems, all of which are in Latin, are attributed to poets such as Philip the Chancellor and John of Howden. The style of the conductus was rhythmic, as befitting music accompanying a procession, always note-against-note. Stylistically it was utterly different from the other principal liturgical polyphonic form of the time, organum, in which the voices moved at different speeds. Music theorists who wrote about the conductus include Franco of Cologne, who advocated having a beautiful melody in the tenor, Johannes de Garlandia, Anonymous IV. Early 14th century theorist Jacques of Liège, a vigorous defender of the ars antiqua style against the new "immoral and lascivious" ars nova style, lamented the disinterest of contemporary composers in the conductus.
The conductus lasted longest in Germany. English conductus of the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries use the technique of rondellus. Hyperion Conductus Project, John Potter, Southampton University The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie. 20 vol. London, Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 1980. ISBN 1-56159-174-2 Richard H. Hoppin, Medieval Music. New York, W. W. Norton & Co. 1978. ISBN 0-393-09090-6 Janet Knapp: "Conductus", Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy, Cantum pulcriorem invenire Catalogue, directed by Mark Everist, University of Southampton
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era. Born in Salzburg, Mozart showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood. Competent on keyboard and violin, he composed from the age of five and performed before European royalty. At 17, Mozart was engaged as a musician at the Salzburg court but grew restless and traveled in search of a better position. While visiting Vienna in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg position, he chose to stay in the capital. During his final years in Vienna, he composed many of his best-known symphonies and operas, portions of the Requiem, unfinished at the time of his early death at the age of 35; the circumstances of his death have been much mythologized. He composed more than 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, chamber and choral music, he is among the most enduringly popular of classical composers, his influence is profound on subsequent Western art music.
Ludwig van Beethoven composed his own early works in the shadow of Mozart, Joseph Haydn wrote: "posterity will not see such a talent again in 100 years". Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born on 27 January 1756 to Leopold Mozart and Anna Maria, née Pertl, at 9 Getreidegasse in Salzburg; this was the capital of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, an ecclesiastic principality in what is now Austria part of the Holy Roman Empire. He was the youngest of seven children, his elder sister was Maria Anna Mozart, nicknamed "Nannerl". Mozart was baptised the day at St. Rupert's Cathedral in Salzburg; the baptismal record gives his name in Latinized form, as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart. He called himself "Wolfgang Amadè Mozart" as an adult, but his name had many variants. Leopold Mozart, a native of Augsburg, was a minor composer and an experienced teacher. In 1743, he was appointed as fourth violinist in the musical establishment of Count Leopold Anton von Firmian, the ruling Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg.
Four years he married Anna Maria in Salzburg. Leopold became the orchestra's deputy Kapellmeister in 1763. During the year of his son's birth, Leopold published a violin textbook, Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule, which achieved success; when Nannerl was 7, she began keyboard lessons with her father, while her three-year-old brother looked on. Years after her brother's death, she reminisced: He spent much time at the clavier, picking out thirds, which he was striking, his pleasure showed that it sounded good.... In the fourth year of his age his father, for a game as it were, began to teach him a few minuets and pieces at the clavier.... He could play it faultlessly and with the greatest delicacy, keeping in time.... At the age of five, he was composing little pieces, which he played to his father who wrote them down; these early pieces, K. 1–5, were recorded in the Nannerl Notenbuch. There is some scholarly debate about whether Mozart was four or five years old when he created his first musical compositions, though there is little doubt that Mozart composed his first three pieces of music within a few weeks of each other: K. 1a, 1b, 1c.
In his early years, Wolfgang's father was his only teacher. Along with music, he taught academic subjects. Solomon notes that, while Leopold was a devoted teacher to his children, there is evidence that Mozart was keen to progress beyond what he was taught, his first ink-spattered composition and his precocious efforts with the violin were of his own initiative, came as a surprise to Leopold, who gave up composing when his son's musical talents became evident. While Wolfgang was young, his family made several European journeys in which he and Nannerl performed as child prodigies; these began with an exhibition in 1762 at the court of Prince-elector Maximilian III of Bavaria in Munich, at the Imperial Courts in Vienna and Prague. A long concert tour followed, spanning three and a half years, taking the family to the courts of Munich, Paris, The Hague, again to Paris, back home via Zurich and Munich. During this trip, Wolfgang met a number of musicians and acquainted himself with the works of other composers.
A important influence was Johann Christian Bach, whom he visited in London in 1764 and 1765. When he was eight years old, Mozart wrote his first symphony, most of, transcribed by his father; the family trips were difficult, travel conditions were primitive. They had to wait for invitations and reimbursement from the nobility, they endured long, near-fatal illnesses far from home: first Leopold both children; the family again went to Vienna in late 1767 and remained there until December 1768. After one year in Salzburg and Wolfgang set off for Italy, leaving Anna Maria and Nannerl at home; this tour lasted from December 1769 to March 1771. As with earlier journeys, Leopold wanted to display his son's abilities as a performer and a maturing composer. Wolfgang met Josef Mysliveček and Giovanni Battista Martini in Bologna, was accepted as a member of the famous Accademia Filarmonica. In Rome, he heard Gregorio Allegri's Miserere twice in performance, in the Sistine Chapel, wrote it out from memory, thus producing the first unauthorized copy of this guarded property of the Vatican.
In Milan, Mozart wrote the opera Mitridate, re di Ponto, performed with success. This led to further oper