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Code generation (compiler)

In computing, code generation is the process by which a compiler's code generator converts some intermediate representation of source code into a form that can be executed by a machine. Sophisticated compilers perform multiple passes over various intermediate forms; this multi-stage process is used because many algorithms for code optimization are easier to apply one at a time, or because the input to one optimization relies on the completed processing performed by another optimization. This organization facilitates the creation of a single compiler that can target multiple architectures, as only the last of the code generation stages needs to change from target to target; the input to the code generator consists of a parse tree or an abstract syntax tree. The tree is converted into a linear sequence of instructions in an intermediate language such as three-address code. Further stages of compilation may or may not be referred to as "code generation", depending on whether they involve a significant change in the representation of the program.

In addition to the basic conversion from an intermediate representation into a linear sequence of machine instructions, a typical code generator tries to optimize the generated code in some way. Tasks which are part of a sophisticated compiler's "code generation" phase include: Instruction selection: which instructions to use. Instruction scheduling: in which order to put those instructions. Scheduling is a speed optimization. Register allocation: the allocation of variables to processor registers Debug data generation if required so the code can be debugged. Instruction selection is carried out by doing a recursive postorder traversal on the abstract syntax tree, matching particular tree configurations against templates. In a compiler that uses an intermediate language, there may be two instruction selection stages—one to convert the parse tree into intermediate code, a second phase much to convert the intermediate code into instructions from the instruction set of the target machine; this second phase does not require a tree traversal.

However, if the compiler is a language translator the second code-generation phase may involve building a tree from the linear intermediate code. When code generation occurs at runtime, as in just-in-time compilation, it is important that the entire process be efficient with respect to space and time. For example, when regular expressions are interpreted and used to generate code at runtime, a non-deterministic finite state machine is generated instead of a deterministic one, because the former can be created more and occupies less memory space than the latter. Despite its generating less efficient code, JIT code generation can take advantage of profiling information, available only at runtime; the fundamental task of taking input in one language and producing output in a non-trivially different language can be understood in terms of the core transformational operations of formal language theory. Some techniques that were developed for use in compilers have come to be employed in other ways as well.

For example, YACC takes input in Backus-Naur form and converts it to a parser in C. Though it was created for automatic generation of a parser for a compiler, yacc is often used to automate writing code that needs to be modified each time specifications are changed. Many integrated development environments support some form of automatic source code generation using algorithms in common with compiler code generators, although less complicated. In general, a syntax and semantic analyzer tries to retrieve the structure of the program from the source code, while a code generator uses this structural information to produce code. In other words, the former adds information. One consequence of this information loss is that reflection becomes difficult or impossible. To counter this problem, code generators embed syntactic and semantic information in addition to the code necessary for execution. Automatic programming Comparison of code generation tools Source to source compilation: automatic translation of a computer program from one programming language to another


.ua is the Internet country code top-level domain for Ukraine. To register 1st level, the exact trademark is required. It is not required for 2nd level domains. December 1, 1992 - Registered in root zone April 13, 2012 - DNSSEC enabled in root zone As of March 2017, around 10.78% of all domains were served via secured HTTPS protocol, with the Let's Encrypt Authority X3 being the most popular SSL certificate. Nginx is the most popular web server, serving 68.97% of domains, followed by Apache serving 17.75% of the domains. To remove the risk of cyber squatting, registration of second-level domains directly is restricted to owners of registered trade marks, who may register a domain name similar to that of the trade mark in question. However you can register third-level domains beneath some of the - paid, commercial organizations, one of the most - free, available only to proved educational - free, available only to governmental - paid, network service - paid, domains for - free, domains for - paid, other organizations, individualsThere are second-level domains which are region-specific.

These are less popular than the above list but they are sometimes restricted to organisations from within the - Cherkasy - Chernihiv - Chernivtsi - - Dnipropetrovsk - Donetsk - Ivano-Frankivsk - Kharkiv - Kherson - Khmelnytskyi - - Kirovohrad - Luhansk - Lutsk, Volyn - Lviv - Mykolaiv - Odessa - Poltava - Rivne - - - Sumy - Ternopil - Uzhhorod, Zakarpattia - Vinnytsia - Zaporizhia - Zhytomyr, a second top domain for Ukraine, active from 2013, which has domains with Cyrillic characters.

Internet in Ukraine whois information Official site of Official site registry Statistic of domain names usage Ukrainian Domains Statistics and Information

La Palma chaffinch

The La Palma chaffinch known as the Palman chaffinch or, locally in Spanish as the pinzón palmero or pinzón hembra, is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae. It is a subspecies of the common chaffinch, endemic to La Palma in the Canary Islands, a Spanish archipelago that forms part of Macaronesia in the North Atlantic Ocean. Suárez et al. found, in a genetic analysis of chaffinches Fringilla coelebs in the Canary Islands that at least three subspecies are present there: F. c. palmae occurs on La Palma in the western Canary Archipelago, F. c. canariensis on La Gomera and Tenerife. The form on El Hierro is F. c. ombriosa, a fourth, hitherto undescribed taxon assigned to F. c. canariensis, on Gran Canaria. Other Macaronesian subspecies occur on Madeira. Marshall, H. Dawn. "Rates and Patterns of Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Evolution in Fringilline Finches and the Greenfinch". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 15: 638–646. Doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025967. PMID 9615445. Archived from the original on 2012-10-09.

Suárez, Nicolás M.. "Phylogeography and genetic structure of the Canarian common chaffinch inferred with mtDNA and microsatellite loci". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 53: 556–564. Doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.07.018. PMID 19632343

You're the Best Thing That Ever Happened to Me (album)

You're the Best Thing That Ever Happened to Me is a 1973 studio album by Dean Martin, arranged by Ernie Freeman and Larry Muhoberac, produced by Jimmy Bowen. Bowen returned to the country pop format that he had abandoned for Martin's previous album, included Traditional pop standards, R&B songs, an Italian song. Four of the songs, "I'm Confessin'", "Baby Won't You Please Come Home," "I Don't Know Why," and "Gimme a Little Kiss, Will Ya, Huh?", had appeared on his 1964 album Dream with Dean. It was reissued on CD by Hip-O Records in 2009. William Ruhlmann on gave the album two and a half stars out of five. Ruhlmann said that "The idea, it seemed, was to try a little everything, Martin, as usual, was game, but he needed to have displayed such versatility earlier". "Free to Carry On" - 2:42 "You're the Best Thing That Ever Happened to Me" - 4:00 "I'm Confessin'" - 3:08 "Amor Mio" - 2:43 "You Better Move On" - 2:23 "Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Old Oak Tree" - 2:47 "Baby Won't You Please Come Home" - 2:28 "I Don't Know Why" - 2:53 "Gimme a Little Kiss, Will Ya, Huh?"

- 2:38 "Get On with Your Livin'" - 2:48 Dean Martin – vocals Ernie Freeman - arranger Larry Muhoberac Jimmy Bowen - record producer John Guess - audio engineer Tom Perry Ricci Martin - photography


Takrur, Tekrur or Tekrour was an ancient state of West Africa, which flourished parallel to the Ghana Empire. Takrur was the capital of the state. Takruri was a term, like Bilad-ul-Sudan, used to refer to all people of West African ancestry, is still in use as such in the Middle East, with some corruption, as in Takruni, pl. Takarna تكروني in Saudi Arabia; the district of Bulaq Al-Dakrur بولاق الدكرور in Cairo is named after an ascetic from West Africa. The formation of the state may have taken place as an influx of Fulani from the east settled in the Senegal valley. John Donnelly Fage suggests that Takrur was formed through the interaction of Berbers from the Sahara and "Negro agricultural peoples" who were "essentially Serer". Located in the Senegal valley, along the border of present-day Senegal and Mauritania, it was a trading centre, where gold from the Bambuk region, salt from the Awlil, Sahel grain were exchanged, it was rival of the Ghana Empire, the two states clashed from with the Soninké winning.

Despite these clashes, Takrur prospered throughout the 10th centuries. According to Levtzion, "It is significant that the cotton tree and the manufacture of cloth were first reported from Takrur." The kings of Takrur adopted Islam. Sometime in the 1030s during the reign of king War Jabi, the court converted to Islam, the first regent to pronounce orthodoxy in the Sahel, establishing the faith in the region for centuries to come. In 1035 that War Jabi introduced Sharia law in the kingdom; this adoption of Islam benefited the state economically and created greater political ties that would affect them in the coming conflicts between the traditionalist state of Ghana and its northern neighbours. The Fulani of Takrur became independent. Takrur in turn set out to conquer the Kingdom of Diara, a Ghanaian province before. In 1203, Takrur leader Sumanguru took control of Kumbi Saleh, the capital of Ghana. Thus, Takrur became the sole power in the region. Among these were the Susu who carved out the sizeable though short-lived Kaniaga.

Waalo, the first Wolof state, emerged out its south. By the time Mandinka tribes united to form the Mali Empire in 1235, Takrur was in a steep decline; the state was conquered by the usurper emperor Sabakoura of Mali in the 1280s. Takrur was conquered by Mali. However, Koli did manage to regain Takrur, named it Fouta Toro in the 15th century, thereby setting up the first Fula dynasty; this dynasty did not last and in 1776 during the Fouta Revolution, led by Muslim clerics, the kingdom was entered and the house of Denanke was brought down. After the fall of Takrur its name was employed by Arab historians as a synonym for "West Africa". In the Middle East west Africans are still referred to as Tukrir to this day. Serer people Fula people Toucouleur people J. F. Ade Ajayi, Michael Crowder. History of West Africa. Columbia University ISBN 0-231-03628-0 J. Hunwick. "Takrur", Encyclopaedia of Islam, Leiden 2000, X, 142–3. Mary Antin, Nehemia Levtzion. Medieval West Africa Before 1400: Ghana, Takrur and Mali.

Translated by Nehemia Levtzion. J. F. Hopkins: Contributor. Markus Wiener Publishing, New Jersey. ISBN 1-55876-165-9 J. D. Fage; the Cambridge History of Africa, vol. II, Cambridge University Press, 675–7. H. T. Norris. "The Wind of Change in the Western Sahara". The Geographical Journal, Vol. 130, No. 1, pp. 1–14 D. W. Phillipson. African Archaeology, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83236-6 Leyti, Oumar Ndiaye. Le Djoloff et ses Bourba. Nouvelles Editions Africaines, 1981. ISBN 2-7236-0817-4 Ogot, Bethwell A. General history of Africa: Africa from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. University of California Press, 1999, ISBN 0-520-06700-2, p 146. Oliver, Roland; the Cambridge history of Africa: From c. 1600 to c. 1790. Cambridge University Press, 1982. ISBN 0-521-20981-1, p484 Smidt, Wolbert. "Tukrir". In Siegbert Uhlig, Alessandro Bausi. Encyclopedia Aethiopica. 4. Harrassowitz. Pp. 998–1000. ISBN 9783447062466. McIntosh, Roderick J.. The Search for Takrur: Archaeological Excavations and Reconnaissance Along the Middle Senegal Valley.

The Yale Peabody Museum. African Kingdoms About – Takrur Empire Takrur — webPulaaku

Breeland Speaks

Breeland Clyde Speaks is an American football defensive end for the Kansas City Chiefs of the National Football League. He played college football at Ole Miss, was drafted by the Chiefs in the second round of the 2018 NFL Draft. Speaks attended Callaway High School in Mississippi. During his senior season in 2013, Speaks had 118 tackles, 26.5 tackles for loss, nine sacks, 18 quarterback hurries, four forced fumbles, three blocked kicks, five pass breakups and an interception returned for a touchdown. A consensus 4-star recruit, Speaks committed to play college football for the Ole Miss Rebels in October 2013, choosing them over Mississippi State and Florida State among others. Speaks redshirted in the 2014 season; as a redshirt freshman in 2015, Speaks played in every game of the season. He totaled 5.5 tackles for loss, one sack and one fumble recovery. In 2016, as a redshirt sophomore, Speaks had 1.5 tackles for loss and one sack. As a redshirt junior in 2017, Speaks totaled eight tackles for loss and seven sacks.

He was named to the AP All-SEC Second Team. After the season, he declared for the 2018 NFL Draft. Speaks was drafted by the Kansas City Chiefs in the second round of the 2018 NFL Draft, he played in all 16 games as a rookie with four starts, recording 1.5 sacks. On August 31, 2019, Speaks was placed on injured reserve. On December 6, 2019, while on IR, he was suspended four games for violating the NFL’s substance-abuse policy, he was reinstated from suspension on December 30, placed back on the injured reserve list. Without Speaks, the Chiefs won Super Bowl LIV against the San Francisco 49ers. Ole Miss bio Kansas City Chiefs bio