Code refactoring

Code refactoring is the process of restructuring existing computer code—changing the factoring—without changing its external behavior. Refactoring is intended to improve nonfunctional attributes of the software. Advantages include reduced complexity. Refactoring applies a series of standardised basic micro-refactorings, each of, a tiny change in a computer program's source code that either preserves the behaviour of the software, or at least does not modify its conformance to functional requirements. Many development environments provide automated support for performing the mechanical aspects of these basic refactorings. If done well, code refactoring may help software developers discover and fix hidden or dormant bugs or vulnerabilities in the system by simplifying the underlying logic and eliminating unnecessary levels of complexity. If done poorly it may fail the requirement that external functionality not be changed, introduce new bugs, or both. By continuously improving the design of code, we make it easier to work with.

This is in sharp contrast to what happens: little refactoring and a great deal of attention paid to expediently adding new features. If you get into the hygienic habit of refactoring continuously, you'll find that it is easier to extend and maintain code. Refactoring is motivated by noticing a code smell. For example, the method at hand may be long, or it may be a near duplicate of another nearby method. Once recognized, such problems can be addressed by refactoring the source code, or transforming it into a new form that behaves the same as before but that no longer "smells". For a long routine, one or more smaller subroutines can be extracted. Failure to perform refactoring can result in accumulating technical debt. There are two general categories of benefits to the activity of refactoring. Maintainability, it is easier to fix bugs because the source code is easy to read and the intent of its author is easy to grasp. This might be achieved by reducing large monolithic routines into a set of individually concise, well-named, single-purpose methods.

It might be achieved by moving a method to a more appropriate class, or by removing misleading comments. Extensibility, it is easier to extend the capabilities of the application if it uses recognizable design patterns, it provides some flexibility where none before may have existed. Refactoring requires extracting software system structure, data models, intra-application dependencies to get back knowledge of an existing software system; the turnover of teams implies missing or inaccurate knowledge of the current state of a system and about design decisions made by departing developers. Further code refactoring activities may require additional effort to regain this knowledge. Refactoring activities generate architectural modifications that deteriorate the structural architecture of a software system; such deterioration affects architectural properties such as maintainability and comprehensibility which can lead to a complete re-development of software systems. Code refactoring activities are secured with software intelligence when using tools and technics providing data about algorithms and sequences of code execution.

Providing a comprehensible format for the inner-state of software system structure, data models, intra-components dependencies is a critical element to form a high-level understanding and refined views of what needs to be modified, how. Automatic unit tests should be set up before refactoring to ensure routines still behave as expected. Unit tests can bring stability to large refactors when performed with a single atomic commit. A common strategy to allow safe and atomic refactors spanning multiple projects is to store all projects in a single repository, known as monorepo. With unit testing in place, refactoring is an iterative cycle of making a small program transformation, testing it to ensure correctness, making another small transformation. If at any point a test fails, the last small change is repeated in a different way. Through many small steps the program moves from. For this iterative process to be practical, the tests must run quickly, or the programmer would have to spend a large fraction of their time waiting for the tests to finish.

Proponents of extreme programming and other agile software development describe this activity as an integral part of the software development cycle. Here are some examples of micro-refactorings. A longer list can be found in Martin Fowler's refactoring website. Many development environments provide automated support for these micro-refactorings. For instance, a programmer could click on the name of a variable and select the "Encapsulate field" refactoring from a context menu; the IDE would prompt for additional details with sensible defaults and a preview of the code changes. After confirmation by the programmer it would carry out the required changes throughout the code. Techniques that allow for more understanding Program Dependence Graph - explicit representation of data and control dependencies System Dependence Graph - representation of procedure calls between PDG Software intelligence - reverse engineers the initial state to understand existing intra-application dependencies Techniques that allow for more abstraction Encapsulate field – force code to


Fructidor is the twelfth month in the French Republican Calendar. The month was named after the Latin word fructus, which means "fruit". Fructidor is the third month of the summer quarter. By the Gregorian calendar, Fructidor starts on either August 18 or August 19 and ends thirty days on September 16 or September 17. Fructidor precedes the Sansculottides; the month is used as a shorthand term for the Coup of 18 Fructidor. Like all French Republican months, Fructidor lasted thirty days and was divided into three weeks called decades which each lasted ten days. Within every decade, each day had the name of an agricultural plant, except the fifth - the Quintidi - which had the name of an animal, the tenth - the Decadi - which had the name of an agricultural tool. Summer Quarter of Year II

Fighting (Tank album)

Fighting! is Taiwanese Mandopop artist Tank's debut Mandarin solo studio album. It was released on 24 February 2006 by HIM International Music with a bonus VCD containing two music videos. A second edition Fighting! Celebration Edition was released on 31 March 2006 with three addition kala tracks and a bonus VCD containing six music videos; the album features the opening theme song, "終極一班" and ending theme song, "給我你的愛" of Taiwanese drama KO One, starring Aaron Yan, Calvin Chen, Jiro Wang of Taiwanese boy band and Danson Tang. The music video of "我們小時候" features Taiwanese singer Amber Kuo; the track "給我你的愛" was nominated for Top 10 Gold Songs at the Hong Kong TVB8 Awards, presented by television station TVB8, in 2006. "曙光" Shǔ Guāng "狙擊手" Jū Jī Shǒu "三國戀" Sān Guó Liàn "給我你的愛" Gěi Wǒ Nǐ De Ái - ending theme of KO One "我們小時候" Wǒ Men Xiǎo Shí Hòu "挺你到底" Tǐng Nǐ Dào Dǐ "蟑螂小強" Zhāng Láng Xiǎo Qiáng "獨唱情歌" Dú Chàng Qíng Gē - feat Selina of S. H. E "幾分之幾" Jǐ Fēn Zhī Jǐ "潔西卡" Jié Xī Kǎ "曙光版" Shǔ Guāng Bǎn "激戰" Jī Zhàn "千年淚" Qiān Nián Lèi "終極一班" Zhōng Jí Yī Bān - opening theme of KO One "給我你的愛" MV "挺你到底" MV "三國戀" MV "我們小時候" MV - feat Amber Kuo "激戰" MV "千年淚" MV Tank discography@HIM International Music