General Services Administration
The General Services Administration, an independent agency of the United States government, was established in 1949 to help manage and support the basic functioning of federal agencies. GSA supplies products and communications for U. S. government offices, provides transportation and office space to federal employees, develops government-wide cost-minimizing policies and other management tasks. GSA employs about 12,000 federal workers and has an annual operating budget of $20.9 billion. GSA oversees $66 billion of procurement annually, it contributes to the management of about $500 billion in U. S. federal property, divided chiefly among 8,700 owned and leased buildings and a 215,000 vehicle motor pool. Among the real estate assets managed by GSA are the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center in Washington, D. C. – the largest U. S. federal building after the Pentagon – and the Hart-Dole-Inouye Federal Center. GSA's business lines include the Federal Acquisition Service and the Public Buildings Service, as well as several Staff Offices including the Office of Government-wide Policy, the Office of Small Business Utilization, the Office of Mission Assurance.
As part of FAS, GSA's Technology Transformation Services helps federal agencies improve delivery of information and services to the public. Key initiatives include FedRAMP, Cloud.gov, the USAGov platform, Data.gov, Performance.gov, Challenge.gov. GSA is a member of the Procurement G6, an informal group leading the use of framework agreements and e-procurement instruments in public procurement. In 1947 President Harry Truman asked former President Herbert Hoover to lead what became known as the Hoover Commission to make recommendations to reorganize the operations of the federal government. One of the recommendations of the commission was the establishment of an "Office of the General Services." This proposed office would combine the responsibilities of the following organizations: U. S. Treasury Department's Bureau of Federal Supply U. S. Treasury Department's Office of Contract Settlement National Archives Establishment All functions of the Federal Works Agency, including the Public Buildings Administration and the Public Roads Administration War Assets AdministrationGSA became an independent agency on July 1, 1949, after the passage of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act.
General Jess Larson, Administrator of the War Assets Administration, was named GSA's first Administrator. The first job awaiting Administrator Larson and the newly formed GSA was a complete renovation of the White House; the structure had fallen into such a state of disrepair by 1949 that one inspector of the time said the historic structure was standing "purely from habit." Larson explained the nature of the total renovation in depth by saying, "In order to make the White House structurally sound, it was necessary to dismantle, I mean dismantle, everything from the White House except the four walls, which were constructed of stone. Everything, except the four walls without a roof, was stripped down, that's where the work started." GSA worked with President Truman and First Lady Bess Truman to ensure that the new agency's first major project would be a success. GSA completed the renovation in 1952. In 1986 GSA headquarters, U. S. General Services Administration Building, located at Eighteenth and F Streets, NW, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, at the time serving as Interior Department offices.
In 1960 GSA created the Federal Telecommunications System, a government-wide intercity telephone system. In 1962 the Ad Hoc Committee on Federal Office Space created a new building program to address obsolete office buildings in Washington, D. C. resulting in the construction of many of the offices that now line Independence Avenue. In 1970 the Nixon administration created the Consumer Product Information Coordinating Center, now part of USAGov. In 1974 the Federal Buildings Fund was initiated, allowing GSA to issue rent bills to federal agencies. In 1972 GSA established the Automated Data and Telecommunications Service, which became the Office of Information Resources Management. In 1973 GSA created the Office of Federal Management Policy. GSA's Office of Acquisition Policy centralized procurement policy in 1978. GSA was responsible for emergency preparedness and stockpiling strategic materials to be used in wartime until these functions were transferred to the newly-created Federal Emergency Management Agency in 1979.
In 1984 GSA introduced the federal government to the use of charge cards, known as the GMA SmartPay system. The National Archives and Records Administration was spun off into an independent agency in 1985; the same year, GSA began to provide governmentwide policy oversight and guidance for federal real property management as a result of an Executive Order signed by President Ronald Reagan. In 2003 the Federal Protective Service was moved to the Department of Homeland Security. In 2005 GSA reorganized to merge the Federal Supply Service and Federal Technology Service business lines into the Federal Acquisition Service. On April 3, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Martha N. Johnson to serve as GSA Administrator. After a nine-month delay, the United States Senate confirmed her nomination on February 4, 2010. On April 2, 2012, Johnson resigned in the wake of a management-deficiency report that detailed improper payments for a 2010 "Western Regions" training conference put on by the Public Buildings Service in Las Vegas.
In July 1991 GSA contractors began the excavation of what is now the Ted Weiss Federal Building in New York City. The planning for that buildin
United States Department of Defense
The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. The department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 826,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, just outside Washington, D. C. the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security". The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a cabinet-level head who reports directly to the President of the United States. Beneath the Department of Defense are three subordinate military departments: the United States Department of the Army, the United States Department of the Navy, the United States Department of the Air Force.
In addition, four national intelligence services are subordinate to the Department of Defense: the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office. Other Defense Agencies include the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Defense Logistics Agency, the Missile Defense Agency, the Defense Health Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Defense Security Service, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, all of which are under the command of the Secretary of Defense. Additionally, the Defense Contract Management Agency provides acquisition insight that matters, by delivering actionable acquisition intelligence from factory floor to the warfighter. Military operations are managed by ten functional Unified combatant commands; the Department of Defense operates several joint services schools, including the Eisenhower School and the National War College. The history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775.
The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775. This coincides with the American holiday Flag Day; the Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, create the United States Marine Corps on 10 November 1775. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to the federal government to defend its citizens: We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Upon the seating of the first Congress on 4 March 1789, legislation to create a military defense force stagnated as they focused on other concerns relevant to setting up the new government. President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military twice during this time.
On the last day of the session, 29 September 1789, Congress created the War Department, historic forerunner of the Department of Defense. The War Department handled naval affairs until Congress created the Navy Department in 1798; the secretaries of each of these departments reported directly to the president as cabinet-level advisors until 1949, when all military departments became subordinate to the Secretary of Defense. After the end of World War II, President Harry Truman proposed creation of a unified department of national defense. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts. Deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. On 26 July 1947, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, which set up a unified military command known as the "National Military Establishment", as well as creating the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Council, National Security Resources Board, United States Air Force and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense; the National Military Establishment was renamed the "Department of Defense" on 10 August 1949 and absorbed the three cabinet-level military departments, in an amendment to the original 1947 law. Under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the ordinary authority of the Military Departments to organize and equip their associated forces; the Act clarified the overall decision-making authority of the Secretary of Defense with respect to these subordinate Military Departments and more defined the operational chain of command over U. S. military forces as running from the president to the Secretary of Defense and to the unified combatant commanders.
Provided in this legislation was a centralized research authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency known as DARPA. The act was written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, was signed into law 6 August 1958; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (1
A password is a word or string of characters used for user authentication to prove identity or access approval to gain access to a resource, to be kept secret from those not allowed access. The use of passwords is known to be ancient. Sentries would challenge those wishing to enter an area or approaching it to supply a password or watchword, would only allow a person or group to pass if they knew the password. In modern times, user names and passwords are used by people during a log in process that controls access to protected computer operating systems, mobile phones, cable TV decoders, automated teller machines, etc. A typical computer user has passwords for many purposes: logging into accounts, retrieving e-mail, accessing applications, networks, web sites, reading the morning newspaper online. Despite the name, there is no need for passwords to be actual words; some passwords are formed from multiple words and may more be called a passphrase. The terms passcode and passkey are sometimes used when the secret information is purely numeric, such as the personal identification number used for ATM access.
Passwords are short enough to be memorized and typed, although they may be longer and more complex if the user wishes to be more secure. Most organizations specify a password policy that sets requirements for the composition and usage of passwords dictating minimum length, required categories, prohibited elements; some governments have national authentication frameworks that define requirements for user authentication to government services, including requirements for passwords. Passwords or watchwords have been used since ancient times. Polybius describes the system for the distribution of watchwords in the Roman military as follows: The way in which they secure the passing round of the watchword for the night is as follows: from the tenth maniple of each class of infantry and cavalry, the maniple, encamped at the lower end of the street, a man is chosen, relieved from guard duty, he attends every day at sunset at the tent of the tribune, receiving from him the watchword—that is a wooden tablet with the word inscribed on it – takes his leave, on returning to his quarters passes on the watchword and tablet before witnesses to the commander of the next maniple, who in turn passes it to the one next him.
All do the same until it reaches the first maniples, those encamped near the tents of the tribunes. These latter are obliged to deliver the tablet to the tribunes before dark. So that if all those issued are returned, the tribune knows that the watchword has been given to all the maniples, has passed through all on its way back to him. If any one of them is missing, he makes inquiry at once, as he knows by the marks from what quarter the tablet has not returned, whoever is responsible for the stoppage meets with the punishment he merits. Passwords in military use evolved to include not just a password, but a password and a counterpassword. S. 101st Airborne Division used a password—flash—which was presented as a challenge, answered with the correct response—thunder. The challenge and response were changed every three days. American paratroopers famously used a device known as a "cricket" on D-Day in place of a password system as a temporarily unique method of identification. Passwords have been used with computers since the earliest days of computing.
The Compatible Time-Sharing System, an operating system introduced at MIT in 1961, was the first computer system to implement password login. CTSS had a LOGIN command. "After typing PASSWORD, the system turns off the printing mechanism, if possible, so that the user may type in his password with privacy." In the early 1970s, Robert Morris developed a system of storing login passwords in a hashed form as part of the Unix operating system. The system was based on a simulated Hagelin rotor crypto machine, first appeared in 6th Edition Unix in 1974. A version of his algorithm, known as crypt, used a 12-bit salt and invoked a modified form of the DES algorithm 25 times to reduce the risk of pre-computed dictionary attacks; the easier a password is for the owner to remember means it will be easier for an attacker to guess. However, passwords which are difficult to remember may reduce the security of a system because users might need to write down or electronically store the password, users will need frequent password resets and users are more to re-use the same password.
The more stringent requirements for password strength, e.g. "have a mix of uppercase and lowercase letters and digits" or "change it monthly", the greater the degree to which users will subvert the system. Others argue longer passwords provide more security than shorter passwords with a wide variety of characters. In The Memorability and Security of Passwords, Jeff Yan et al. examine the effect of advice given to users about a good choice of password. They found that passwords based on thinking of a phrase and taking the first letter of each word are just as memorable as naively selected passwords, just as hard to crack as randomly generated passwords. Combining two or more unrelated words and altering some of the letters to special characters or numbers is another good method, but a single di
Marine VHF radio
Marine VHF radio refers to the radio frequency range between 156 and 174 MHz, inclusive. The "VHF" signifies the high frequency of the range. In the official language of the International Telecommunication Union the band is called the VHF maritime mobile band. In some countries additional channels are used, such as the L and F channels for leisure and fishing vessels in the Nordic countries. Marine VHF radio equipment is installed on most seagoing small craft, it is used, with different regulation, on rivers and lakes. It is used for a wide variety of purposes, including summoning rescue services and communicating with harbours, locks and marinas. A marine VHF set is a combined transmitter and receiver and only operates on standard, international frequencies known as channels. Channel 16 is the international distress channel. Transmission power ranges between 1 and 25 watts, giving a maximum range of up to about 60 nautical miles between aerials mounted on tall ships and hills, 5 nautical miles between aerials mounted on small boats at sea level.
Frequency modulation is used, with vertical polarization, meaning that antennas have to be vertical in order to have good reception. Modern-day marine VHF radios offer not only basic receive capabilities. Permanently mounted marine VHF radios on seagoing vessels are required to have certification of some level of "Digital Selective Calling" capability, to allow a distress signal to be sent with a single button press. Marine VHF uses "half-duplex" transmission, where communication is over a single radio frequency, only one of the parties can transmit at a time; the transceiver is in receive mode. Some channels, are "full duplex" transmission channels where communication can take place in both directions when the equipment on both ends allow it; each full-duplex channel has two frequency assignments. Duplex channels can be used to place calls over the public telephone network for a fee via a marine operator; when full-duplex is used, the call is similar to one using a mobile landline. When half-duplex is used, voice is only carried one way at a time and the party on the boat must press the transmit button only when speaking.
This facility is still available in some areas, though its use has died out with the advent of mobile and satellite phones. Marine VHF radios can receive weather radio broadcasts, where they are available. Sets can be fixed or portable. A fixed set has the advantages of a more reliable power source, higher transmit power, a larger and more effective aerial and a bigger display and buttons. A portable set can be carried on a kayak, or to a lifeboat in an emergency, has its own power source and is waterproof if GMDSS-approved. A few portable VHFs are approved to be used as emergency radios in environments requiring intrinsically safe equipment. Marine radios can be "voice-only" or can include "Digital Selective Calling". Voice-only equipment is the traditional type, which relies on the human voice for calling and communicating. Digital Selective Calling equipment, a part of the Global Maritime Distress Safety System, provides all the functionality of voice-only equipment and, allows several other features: a transmitter can automatically call a receiver equipped with Digital Selective Calling, using a telephone-type number known as a Maritime Mobile Service Identity.
The DSC information is sent on the reserved Channel 70. When the receiver picks up the call, their active channel is automatically switched to the transmitter's channel and normal voice communication can proceed. A distress button, which automatically sends a digital distress signal identifying the calling vessel and the nature of the emergency a connection to a GPS receiver allowing the digital distress message to contain the distressed vessel's positionThe MMSI is used for seagoing vessels and consists of a nine-digit number identifying a VHF set or group of sets; the left hand digits of MMSI indicate the type of station. For example, here are MMSI prefixes of four station types: Ship: 232, 233, 234 or 235 are the United Kingdom – e.g. a UK ship: 232003556 Coastal station: 00 – e.g. Solent Coastguard: 002320011 Group of stations: 0 – e.g. 023207823 Portable DSC equipment: for UK 2359 - e.g. 235900498Here is an external link where you can find different countries' MMSI Numbers http://www.vtexplorer.com/vessel-tracking-mmsi-mid-codes.html For use on the inland waterways within continental Europe, a compulsory Automatic Transmitter Identification System transmission conveys the vessel's identity after each voice transmission.
This is a ten-digit code, either an encoded version of the ship's alphanumeric call sign, or for vessels from outside the region, the ship MMSI prefixed with "9". The requirement to use ATIS in Europe, which VHF channels may be used, are regulated, most by the Basel agreements. Half-duplex channels here are listed with the B frequencies the same; the frequencies and some of their purposes are governed by the ITU. For an authoritative list see; the original allocation of channels consisted of only channels 1 to 28 with 50 kHz spacing between channels, the second frequency for full-duplex operation 4.6 MHz higher. Improvements in radio technology meant that the channel spacing could be reduced to 25 kHz with channels 60 to 88 interspersed between the original channels. Chann
Commercial code (communications)
In telecommunication, a commercial code is a code once used to save on cablegram costs. Telegraph charged per word sent, so companies which sent large volumes of telegrams developed codes to save money on tolls. Elaborate commercial codes which encoded complete phrases into single words were developed and published as codebooks of thousands of phrases and sentences with corresponding codewords. Commercial codes were not intended to keep telegrams private, as codes were published. Many general-purpose codes, such as the Acme Code and the ABC Code, were published and used between the 1870s and the 1950s, before the arrival of transatlantic telephone calls and next-day airmail rendered them obsolete. Numerous special-purpose codes were developed and sold for fields as varied as aviation, car dealerships and cinema, containing words and phrases used in those professions; these codes turned complete phrases into single words. These were not always genuine words; the first telegraphic codes were developed shortly after the advent of the telegraph, spread rapidly: in 1854, one eighth of telegrams transmitted between New York and New Orleans were written in code.
Cable tolls were charged by the word, telegraph companies counted codewords like any other words, so a constructed code could reduce message lengths enormously. Early codes were compilations of phrases and corresponding codewords numbering in the tens of thousands. Codewords were chosen to be pronounceable words to minimize errors by telegraphers, telegrams composed of non-pronounceable words cost more. Regulations of the International Telegraph Union evolved over time. By 1903 regulations were changed to allow any pronounceable word no more than ten letters long. Another aim of the telegraph codes was to reduce the risk of misunderstanding by avoiding having similar words mean similar things. Codes were designed to avoid error by using words which could not be confused by telegraph operators. Telegrapher errors could sometimes cause serious monetary damages, which in one instance resulted in the Supreme Court case Primrose v. Western Union Telephone Company, in which a wool dealer argued that an error by a Western Union telegrapher cost $20,000 due to misread instructions.
The Supreme Court subsequently ruled Western Union was liable only for the cost of the message, $1.15. Examples of commercial codes include the ABC Telegraphic Code, Bentley's Second Phrase Code, Lieber's Standard Telegraphic Code, Slater's Telegraphy Code, Western Union Universal Codebook and Unicode. In codes such as the ABC Code, code words could contain blanks. For example, in the "Freight and tonnage requirements" section, ANTITACTE means "Mozambique, loading at not more than two places, to ____, steamer for about ____ tons general cargo at ____ per ton on the d/w capacity to cargo"; the telegrapher would fill in the three parameters: the destination, the number of tons, the price per ton. The regulations of the International Telegraph Convention distinguished between "code telegrams", which it describes as "those composed of words the context of which has no intelligible meaning", "cipher telegrams", which it describes as "those containing series of groups of figures or letters having a secret meaning or words not to be found in a standard dictionary of the language".
Cipher telegrams were subject to higher tolls. Codes such as the ABC Telegraphic Code, included both numbers and code words so the user could choose between the two. Example code words: From the ABC Telegraphic Code: PAROMELLA — in leaving the dock struck the pier, damaging the stern ARIMASPEN — Phaeton with 6 B. H. P. Two cylinder motor to seat four passengers speed — miles per hour HAUBARER — Charterers will allow the option of carrying horses for ship's benefit From the ABC Telegraphic Code: ENBET — Captain is insane From Bentley's Complete Phrase Code: OYFIN — has not been reinsured AZKHE — clean bill of health ATGAM — have they authorised? From the telegraphic cipher code specially adapted to the cotton trade: DRESS — the supply from India will be less than expected INSANE — at what price, free on board and freight, can you offer us cotton for shipment by steamer sailing this week? PUNCHER — we anticipate rate of interest will be reduced by Bank of England From Unicode: DIONYSIA — Amputation is considered necessary ANNOSUS — Confined yesterday, both dead, Mother not expected to live COGNOSCO — Dining out this evening, send my dress clothes here Brevity code Australian railway telegraphic codes Great Western Railway telegraphic codes Telegraph code Telegraphese Kahn, David.
The Codebreakers: The Story of Secret Writing. New York: Macmillan
Communication is the act of conveying meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules. The main steps inherent to all communication are: The formation of communicative motivation or reason. Message composition. Message encoding. Transmission of the encoded message as a sequence of signals using a specific channel or medium. Noise sources such as natural forces and in some cases human activity begin influencing the quality of signals propagating from the sender to one or more receivers. Reception of signals and reassembling of the encoded message from a sequence of received signals. Decoding of the reassembled encoded message. Interpretation and making sense of the presumed original message; the scientific study of communication can be divided into: Information theory which studies the quantification and communication of information in general. The channel of communication can be visual, auditory and haptic, electromagnetic, or biochemical.
Human communication is unique for its extensive use of abstract language. Development of civilization has been linked with progress in telecommunication. Nonverbal communication describes the processes of conveying a type of information in the form of non-linguistic representations. Examples of nonverbal communication include haptic communication, chronemic communication, body language, facial expressions, eye contact, how one dresses. Nonverbal communication relates to the intent of a message. Examples of intent are voluntary, intentional movements like shaking a hand or winking, as well as involuntary, such as sweating. Speech contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, e.g. rhythm, intonation and stress. It establishes trust. Written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, the spatial arrangement of words and the use of emoticons to convey emotion. Nonverbal communication demonstrates one of Paul Wazlawick's laws: you cannot not communicate. Once proximity has formed awareness, living creatures begin interpreting.
Some of the functions of nonverbal communication in humans are to complement and illustrate, to reinforce and emphasize, to replace and substitute, to control and regulate, to contradict the denovative message. Nonverbal cues are relied on to express communication and to interpret others' communication and can replace or substitute verbal messages. However, non-verbal communication is ambiguous; when verbal messages contradict non-verbal messages, observation of non-verbal behaviour is relied on to judge another's attitudes and feelings, rather than assuming the truth of the verbal message alone. There are several reasons as to why non-verbal communication plays a vital role in communication: "Non-verbal communication is omnipresent." They are included in every single communication act. To have total communication, all non-verbal channels such as the body, voice, touch, distance and other environmental forces must be engaged during face-to-face interaction. Written communication can have non-verbal attributes.
E-mails and web chats allow an individual's the option to change text font colours, stationary and capitalization in order to capture non-verbal cues into a verbal medium. "Non-verbal behaviours are multifunctional." Many different non-verbal channels are engaged at the same time in communication acts and allow the chance for simultaneous messages to be sent and received. "Non-verbal behaviours may form a universal language system." Smiling, pointing and glaring are non-verbal behaviours that are used and understood by people regardless of nationality. Such non-verbal signals allow the most basic form of communication when verbal communication is not effective due to language barriers. Verbal communication is the written conveyance of a message. Human language can be defined as a system of symbols and the grammars by which the symbols are manipulated; the word "language" refers to common properties of languages. Language learning occurs most intensively during human childhood. Most of the thousands of human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them.
Languages tend to share certain properties. There is no defined line between a dialect. Constructed languages such as Esperanto, programming languages, various mathematical formalism is not restricted to the properties shared by human languages; as mentioned, language can be characterized as symbolic. Charles Ogden and I. A Richards developed The Triangle of Meaning model to explain the symbol, the referent, the meaning; the properties of language are governed by rules. Language follows phonological rules, syntactic rules, semantic rules, pragmatic rules; the meanings that are attached to words can be otherwise known as denotative.