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Codec

A codec is a device or computer program which encodes or decodes a digital data stream or signal. Codec is a portmanteau of coder-decoder. A coder encodes a data stream or a signal for transmission or storage in encrypted form, the decoder function reverses the encoding for playback or editing. Codecs are used in videoconferencing, streaming media, video editing applications. In the mid-20th century, a codec was a device that coded analog signals into digital form using pulse-code modulation; the name was applied to software for converting between digital signal formats, including compander functions. An audio codec converts analog audio signals into digital signals for transmission or encodes them for storage. A receiving device converts the digital signals back to analog form using an audio decoder for playback. An example of this are the codecs used in the sound cards of personal computers. A video codec accomplishes the same task for video signals. In addition to encoding a signal, a codec may compress the data to reduce transmission bandwidth or storage space.

Compression codecs are classified into lossy codecs and lossless codecs. Lossless codecs are used for archiving data in a compressed form while retaining all information present in the original stream. If preserving the original quality of the stream is more important than eliminating the correspondingly larger data sizes, lossless codecs are preferred; this is true if the data is to undergo further processing in which case the repeated application of processing on lossy codecs will degrade the quality of the resulting data such that it is no longer identifiable. Using more than one codec or encoding scheme successively can degrade quality significantly; the decreasing cost of storage capacity and network bandwidth has a tendency to reduce the need for lossy codecs for some media. Many popular codecs are lossy, they reduce quality. This type of compression is indistinguishable from the original uncompressed sound or images, depending on the codec and the settings used; the most used lossy data compression technique in digital media is based on the discrete cosine transform, used in compression standards such as JPEG images, H.26x and MPEG video, MP3 and AAC audio.

Smaller data sets ease the strain on expensive storage sub-systems such as non-volatile memory and hard disk, as well as write-once-read-many formats such as CD-ROM, DVD and Blu-ray Disc. Lower data rates reduce cost and improve performance when the data is transmitted. Two principal techniques are used in pulse-code modulation and delta modulation. Codecs are designed to emphasize certain aspects of the media to be encoded. For example, a digital video of a sports event needs to encode motion well but not exact colors, while a video of an art exhibit needs to encode color and surface texture well. Audio codecs for cell phones need to have low latency between source encoding and playback. In contrast, audio codecs for recording or broadcast can use high-latency audio compression techniques to achieve higher fidelity at a lower bit-rate. There are thousands of audio and video codecs, ranging in cost from free to hundreds of dollars or more; this variety of codecs can create obsolescence issues.

The impact is lessened for older formats, for which free or nearly-free codecs have existed for a long time. The older formats are ill-suited to modern applications, such as playback in small portable devices. For example, raw uncompressed PCM audio has long been a standard across multiple platforms, but its transmission over networks is slow and expensive compared with more modern compressed formats, such as Opus and MP3. Many multimedia data streams contain both audio and video, some metadata that permits synchronization of audio and video; each of these three streams may be handled by processes, or hardware. Lower bitrate codecs allow more users, but they have more distortion. Beyond the initial increase in distortion, lower bit rate codecs achieve their lower bit rates by using more complex algorithms that make certain assumptions, such as those about the media and the packet loss rate. Other codecs may not make those same assumptions; when a user with a low bitrate codec talks to a user with another codec, additional distortion is introduced by each transcoding.

Audio Video Interleave is sometimes erroneously described as a codec, but AVI is a container format, while a codec is a software or hardware tool that encodes or decodes audio or video into or from some audio or video format. Audio and video encoded with many codecs might be put into an AVI container, although AVI is not an ISO standard. There are other well-known container formats, such as Ogg, ASF, QuickTime, RealMedia and DivX Media Format. MPEG transport stream, MPEG program stream, MP4, ISO base media file format are examples of container formats that are ISO standardized

HP 3000

The HP 3000 series is a family of minicomputers from Hewlett-Packard. It was designed to be the first minicomputer with full support for time-sharing in the hardware and the operating system, features, limited to mainframes to that point; the first model of the 3000 series was released in 1972, based on a custom silicon on sapphire CISC processor. These were withdrawn from the market in 1973 to address OS stability. After its reintroduction in 1974, it went on to become a reliable and powerful business system, one which won HP business from companies using IBM's mainframes. Hewlett-Packard's initial naming referred to the computer as the System/3000, called it the HP 3000. In the early 1980s, HP began development of a new RISC processor which emerged as the PA-RISC platform; the HP 3000 CPU was reimplemented as an emulator running on PA-RISC and a recompiled version of MPE. Known as the "XL" versions, the earlier CISC models retroactively became the "Classic" series; the two sold in tandem for a short period, but the XL series took over in 1988.

Identical machines running HP-UX instead of MPE XL were known as the HP 9000. HP renamed the computer the HP e3000 to emphasize the system's compatibility with internet and web uses. HP announced the systems would be designated to be at end-of-life at HP in 2006, but extended that several times to 2010; the systems are no longer built or supported by the manufacturer, although independent companies support the systems. Early 3000 models had large cabinets with front panels, while models were made that fit into desks using only terminal consoles for diagnostics, with bootstrap routines in ROM. By 1984 HP introduced the HP3000 Series 37, the first model which ran in offices without special cooling or flooring requirements. Models ranged from a system sometimes used by a single user, to models that supported over 2,000 users; the HP 3000 was one of the last proprietary minicomputer systems whose manufacture was curtailed by its vendor, outlasting the PDP-11-descended Digital Equipment Corporation VAX, acquired by Compaq and ultimately by Hewlett-Packard.

After 30 years, a five-year phase-out period for the now-named HP e3000 series servers was announced in November 2001. HP extended this phase-out period twice. No more new e3000s are being sold by HP, although used systems continue to be sold for upgrades on a third-party reseller market. Support from HP to customers for the HP 3000 continued through Dec. 31, 2010. Many third party firms continue to support the system for customers throughout the world; some customers continue to use the HP 3000 in companies worldwide in manufacturing and e-commerce industries, while others have migrated to business server systems made by HP and others. For those unable or unwilling to migrate, a homesteading strategy emerged after HP's announcement of the end of system sales. In 2012, the Stromasys company released a product doing full HP3000 hardware emulation on x86-64 servers running Red Hat Linux or CentOS; that product operates as a virtualized instance of the HP 3000 server hardware. Starting in 2003, HP began a plan to sell a license for the 3000's operating system which can let 3000 customers run their software on this Stromasys product, known as the HPA/3000.

The key development that led to the tremendous success of the HP 3000 was the bundling of the HP-developed network database management system called IMAGE, reputedly inspired by the TOTAL DBMS developed by Cincom Systems, Inc. IMAGE was an award-winning database anointed by Datamation within two years of the database's introduction, it was the first database management system included with a business-class minicomputer. By bundling IMAGE with the server, HP created an ecosystem of applications and development utilities that could rely upon IMAGE as a data repository in any HP 3000. Code and data reside in separate variable-length segments, which are 32,768 "halfwords"; the operating system, known as MPE, loads code segments from program files and segmented Library files as needed, up to 256 segments in one process. There could be as much as 64KB of memory in a code segment, but calling a routine was based on segment number and routine number within a segment, so a program could theoretically have about 32,385 routines.

With 8 bits to specify segment, 16 bits within a segment a program could have have a 24 bit address or 16MB. This was compared to most 16 bit computers like the PDP-11 or IBM System/34 that had 64KB of address space for code and data; the bigger limitation was the data segment and stack segment, which were 64KB. Shared library routines did not permit cross-process global data since each process had its own data segment; some procedures worked around this by requiring the caller to pass in an array from their own stack or data segment to hold all state information, similar to modern object oriented languages where methods are applied to objects passed in allocated by the caller. A process could use multiple extra data segments of up to 64KB each. While the Classic architecture imposed a limit of 65,535 extra data segments system-wide, other limitations would restrict that to a somewhat smaller limit. Systems programming was done in SPL, an ALGOL-like language, but allowing inline assembler, other direct access to the instruction set.

The standard terminals for the HP 3000 were the HP 2640 series, which supported block mode data entry from forms, as well as character mode. By the 1980s the computer had gained the ability to use both PCs and Macs a

Dō (armour)

Dō or dou is one of the major components of Japanese armour worn by the samurai class and foot soldiers of feudal Japan. The predecessor of the samurai cuirass, or dō, was manufactured in Japan as early as the 4th century.tankō, worn by foot soldiers and keikō, worn by horsemen were both pre-samurai types of early Japanese cuirass constructed from iron plates connected by leather thongs. During the Heian period the Japanese cuirass evolved into the more familiar style of armour worn by the samurai known as the dō. Japanese armour makers started to use hardened leather along with iron in their armour construction and lacquer was used to weather proof the armor parts. By the end of the Heian period the Japanese cuirass had arrived at the shape recognized as being distinctly samurai. Leather and or iron scales were used to construct samurai armours, with leather and silk lace used to connect the individual scales which these cuirasses were now being made from. In the 16th century Japan began trading with Europe during what would become known as the Nanban trade.

Samurai acquired European cuirasses which they modified and combined with domestic armour as it provided better protection from the newly introduced matchlock muskets known as Tanegashima. The introduction of the tanegashima by the Portuguese in 1543 along with a change in battle tactics caused the Japanese armour makers to change the design of the dō from the centuries-old lamellar armours to plate armour constructed from iron and steel plates, this type of armour was called tosei gusoku. Bullet resistant dō were developed, this type of armour was called tameshi gusoku allowing samurai to continue wearing their armour despite the increasing use of firearms; the warfare of the Sengoku period required large quantities of armour to be produced for the ever-growing armies of foot soldiers. Simple munition quality dō were massed produced including tatami dō; the victory of Tokugawa Ieyasu at the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, his subsequent rise as shōgun in 1603, marked the end of the Sengoku period.

By this time samurai continued to use both plate and lamellar cuirasses as a symbol of their status, but traditional armours were no longer necessary. During the Edo period and concealed armour became popular as there was still a need for personal protection. Civil strife, assassinations, peasant revolts required the use of tatami dō as well as kusari katabira and armoured sleeves as well as other types of armour which could be worn under ordinary clothing. Edo period samurai were in charge of internal security and would wear various types of kusari gusoku and shin and arm protection as well as forehead protectors. Traditional armor continued to be worn and used in Japan until the end of the samurai era in the 1860s, with the last use of samurai armour happening in 1877 during the Satsuma Rebellion; the type of dō that came with a matched suit of armour defined the name for that particular suit of armour, for example, a suit of armour that came with a hotoke dō would be called a hotoke dō gusoku.

True kozane dō are of lamellar construction using individual scales known as kozane, they were used before the introduction of firearms in Japanese warfare. Hon kozane Hon iyozane False kozane dou in the form of kiritsuke hon iyozane or kiritsuke hon kozane mimic the construction of lamellar armour but instead of being made from true individual scales kiritsuke kozane are constructed with long lames of armour lashed together and are a form of laminar armour. Kiritsuke hon kozane Kiritsuke hon iyozane Tosei dou, were made from iron plates instead of individual scales. Tosei-gusoku became prominent starting in the 1500s due to the advent of fire arms, new fighting tactics and the need for additional protection. Tatami dō were made from small square or rectangular armour plates or hexagon armour plates that were connected to each other by chain armour and sewn to a cloth backing, tatami dō could be made from kusari. Tatami dou were lightweight, convenient for transportation, were manufactured inexpensively and in great numbers for the ashigaru light infantry.

Tatami dou were worn by all samurai classes from the highest class to the lowest class. The higher class samurai wore elaborate tatami dou while the lower class samurai and retainers wore plainer, simpler designs Karuta tatami dō, small square or rectangular iron or leather plates linked together by chainmail. Kikko tatami dō, small hexagon iron or leather plates sewn to a cloth backing, the kikko armour can be connected to each other by chain armour or by threads. Kusari tatami dō, Japanese chainmail, consisting of links of iron formed in a wide variety of sizes and shapes, connected to each other in various patterns. Japanese armour Anthony Bryant's web site

Sunyer, Count of Barcelona

Sunyer was count of Barcelona and Ausona from 911 to 947. He was the son of Wilfred the Hairy and younger brother of the previous count of Barcelona, Wilfred II Borrel, he worked jointly with his brother in the government of the counties held by their father after his death in 897. He did not reign independently until his brother's death in 911. However, on the death of his uncle, Count Radulf I of Besalú, in 913 or 920, a conflict emerged between Sunyer and his brother Count Miró II of Cerdanya over the succession of the County of Besalú. In exchange for the total renunciation of all claims on the County of Barcelona, Sunyer gave up his claim on Besalú. Sunyer was married by 917, appears with wife Richilda, speculated to have been a daughter of the Count of Rouergue based on the introduction of novel names into the family, they had four sons and a daughter: Ermengol, Miró, Borrell and Wifred. Ermengol, the eldest, governed the county of Osona during his father's lifetime, he died on 21 August between 939 and 943 in a battle near Baltarga against the Hungarians.

Sunyer made important efforts with domestic politics, protected the church and strengthened its institutions by giving it more land and income. He continued to encourage the repopulation of the county of Ausona, he abandoned the defensive stance adopted by his predecessors and took up the fight against the Moorish states to the south. Battles were fought at Tarragona. At the same time he managed to retain diplomatic relations with Córdoba, which had lost control of its northern provinces. In 912, Muhammad al-Tawil, the Wāli of Huesca and Lleida and destroyed the Barcelonian army under Sunyer in the Tàrrega valley; however Sunyer's counterattack in 914 pushed them back and resulted in the death of al-Tawil. He subsequently repopulated the county of Penedès, the scene of many conflicts between the Frankish and Muslim empires, as far as Olèrdola. From 936 to 937 he led an expedition against the Muslims; as a result of this successful campaign many of the enemy forces were killed, including the Qadi of Valencia.

The Moors temporarily abandoned Tarragona. This gain was short-lived however, as Abd ar-Rahman III sent envoys and a fleet to Barcelona in 940, forcing Sunyer into a subservient alliance and to abandon a marriage pact he had reached with king García Sánchez I of Pamplona, to marry Sunyer's daughter. In 947 Sunyer retired to monastic life and ceded the government of his realms to his sons: Borrell II and Miró I, he died in the Monastery of La Grassa in 950

Les Saintes Passage

Les Saintes Passage is a strait in the Caribbean. It separates the archipelago of Îles des Saintes, from Basse-Terre Island. To ensure control of Les Saintes Passage French built Fort Napoléon des Saintes. In April 1782, it was the place - as well as the waters separating Guadeloupe from Dominica - of a major naval battle, the Battle of the Saintes, having given the victory to the British Navy, commanded by George Rodney, over the French Royal Navy under the orders of Count of Grasse as part of the US Revolutionary War. Les Saintes Passage is located in an area of high seismicity related to the subduction zone between the Caribbean Plate and the North American Plate, it is therefore the epicenter of earthquake that strike the south of Guadeloupe and the archipelago of Saintes on November 21st, 2004 with significant magnitude of 6.3 on the Richter scale.. Frequented by the maritime shuttles which provide the transport between the port of Trois-Rivières and those of Basse-Terre and Terre-de-Haut, the canal is the place of passage of small vessels bound for the port of Basse-Terre as well as those of cabotage towards the port of Pointe-à-Pitre.

In addition, every four years the Saintes Canal is the obligatory passage point for competitors of the Route du Rhum who must leave it in their rear by touring Guadeloupe to reach the arrival in the port. From Pointe-à-Pitre; the passage at the Pointe du Vieux-Fort lighthouse could have been decisive for the final victory in the 2018 race during which Francis Joyon passing closer to the tip of Vieux-Fort managed to double François Gabart for the final tack and the final sprint, won by only seven minutes

Turkey at the 2018 Winter Paralympics

Turkey sent a competitor to the 2018 Winter Paralympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea. Their sole competitor was alpine skier Mehmet Çekiç. Turkey made an effort to qualify in other sports, including wheelchair curling, but proved unable to win spots in the Games for those. Turkey is a recent competitor as nations go, making its first Winter Paralympics appearance at the 2014 Games. In December 2017, the National Paralympic Committee of Turkey announced that one person would go to Pyeongchang. Alpine skier Mehmet Çekiç was the person selected; the National Paralympic Committee provided Çekiç with all the resources. This was done with assistance from Turkey's national ski federation; the country wanted to send more people to South Korea for the Games. People had problems with qualifications for the Games; the President of the National Paralympic Committee of Turkey said they wanted to send more people to the 2022 Winter Paralympics. They would work hard to make that happen. Financial problems and being responsibility for 18 sports made securing more positions for Pyeongchang difficult.

The table below contains the list of members of people. Turkey tried to go to the 2018 Winter Paralympics in wheelchair curling. Turkey Physically Disabled Sports Federation Wheelchair Curling was created a year before the ability to get the right to go by winning the Wheelchair Curling World Championships B Tournament; the team had many problems, did not do well. They did; the team was coached by Gökçe Ulugay. It included wheelchair curlers Züleyha Bingöl, Kenan Coşkun, Serpil Arslan, Mesut Güle and Turan Akalın; the competition was the first international tournament. Skiers from Turkey tried to get the right to go to Pyeongchang. Like wheelchair curlers in Turkey, the skiers had many challenges, they were not able to get the right to compete. The first event on the para-alpine program is the downhill, it starts on 10 March, running from 9:30 AM to 1:30 PM. The second event on the program is Super-G. All skiers will race between 1:00 PM on 11 March; the super combined takes place on 13 March. The Super-G part of the event is in the morning.

The slalom part is in the afternoon. The slalom event conclude on 15 March. Women and men both race during the same sessions in the morning; the afternoon sessions start with the women doing their second run. The men go; the last para-alpine skiing race of the 2018 Games is the giant slalom. It takes place on 17–18 March. Men and women both race at the same time in the morning sessions. Women race first with the men racing a half hour after they end. Turkey went to the 2014 Winter Paralympics, it was the first time. The Winter Sports division of the National Paralympic Committee was created in 2012; this was two years before the start of the 2014 Winter Paralympics. Esat Hilmi Bayindir earned the right to go; because of a process to help countries that are underrepresented at the Paralympics, Mehmet Çekiç was invited to participate. This process is called Bipartite Invitation. Esat Hilmi Bayindir was in a traffic accident; because of this, he has a disability. At the time of the 2014 Winter Paralympics, the skier was living in the United States.

He started skiing in 1982. Mehmet Çekiç started skiing in France in 2011. In 2013, Çekiç went to alpine skiing competition in Italy; because of a traffic accident in 2009, he has a disability. After the 2014 Winter Paralympics, Turkey hoped; the only authorized ticket seller in Turkey for the Paralympic Games was Setur