Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, it has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres, Romania is the 12th largest country and the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having 20 million inhabitants, its capital and largest city is Bucharest, other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Brașov. The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta; the Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m. Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The new state named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards a market economy; the sovereign state of Romania is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.
It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7%, the highest in the EU at the time. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom, it has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome"; the first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania and Wallachia. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească.
Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer to the principality of Wallachia."The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been in use since 11 December 1861. In English, the name of the country was spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages have switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania, Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния, Japanese ルーマニア.
1859–1862: United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia 1862–1866: Romanian United Principalities or Romania 1866–1881: Romania or Principality of Romania 1881–1947: Kingdom of Romania or Romania 1947–1965: Romanian People's Republic or Romania 1965–December, 1989: Socialist Republic of Romania or Romania December, 1989–present: Romania Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase, radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millenium BC. Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; the first permanent settlements appeared in the Neolithic. Some of them developed into "proto-cities"; the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd m
Flight into Egypt
The flight into Egypt is a story recounted in the Gospel of Matthew and in New Testament apocrypha. Soon after the visit by the Magi, an angel appeared to Joseph in a dream telling him to flee to Egypt with Mary and the infant Jesus since King Herod would seek the child to kill him; the episode is shown in art, as the final episode of the Nativity of Jesus in art, was a common component in cycles of the Life of the Virgin as well as the Life of Christ. Within the narrative tradition, iconic representation of the "Rest on the Flight into Egypt" developed after the 14th century; when the Magi came in search of Jesus, they went to Herod the Great in Jerusalem to ask where to find the newborn "King of the Jews". Herod became paranoid that the child would threaten his throne, sought to kill him. Herod initiated the Massacre of the Innocents in hopes of killing the child, but an angel warned him to take Jesus and his mother into Egypt. Egypt was a logical place to find refuge, as it was outside the dominions of King Herod, but both Egypt and Judea were part of the Roman Empire, linked by a coastal road known as "the way of the sea", making travel between them easy and safe.
After a time, the holy family returned from Egypt. The text states. Herod is believed to have died in 4 BC, while Matthew does not mention how, the Jewish historian Josephus vividly relates a gory death; the land that the holy family return to is identified as Judah, the only place in the entire New Testament where Judah acts as a geographic description of the whole of Judah and Galilee Matthew 2:20, rather than referring to a collection of religious people or the Jewish people in general. It is, however, to Judah that they are described as returning, although upon discovering that Archelaus had become the new king, they went instead to Galilee. Archelaus was such a violent and aggressive king that in the year 6 AD he was deposed by the Romans, in response to complaints from the population. Galilee was ruled by a much calmer king, Herod Antipas, there is historical evidence that Galilee had become a refuge for those fleeing the iron rule of Archelaus. Matthew 2:15 cites Hosea 11:1 as prophetically fulfilled in the return of Joseph and Jesus from Egypt: "... and out of Egypt I called My son".
Matthew's use of Hosea 11:1 has been explained in several ways. A sensus plenior approach states that the text in Hosea contains a meaning intended by God and acknowledged by Matthew, but unknown to Hosea. A typological reading interprets the fulfillment as found in the national history of Israel and the antitypical fulfillment as found in the personal history of Jesus. Matthew's use of typological interpretation may be seen in his use of Isaiah 7:14 and 9:1, Jeremiah 31:15. Another reading of Hosea's prophetic declaration is that it only recounts God summoning of the nation of Israel out of Egypt during the Exodus, referring to Israel as God's son in accordance with Moses' declaration to Pharaoh: "Israel is my first-born son; the Massoretic Text reads my son, whereas the Septuagint reads his children. The Septuagint reading may be explained as having been made to conform to the plurals of Hosea 11:2, they and them; the Gospel of Luke does not recount this story, relating instead that the Holy Family went to the Temple in Jerusalem, home to Nazareth.
Followers of the Jesus Seminar thus conclude that both Luke's and Matthew's birth and infancy accounts are fabrications. A theme of Matthew is likening Jesus to Moses for a Judean audience, the Flight into Egypt illustrates just that theme; the story was much elaborated in the "Infancy Gospels" of the New Testament apocrypha with, for example, palm trees bowing before the infant Jesus, Jesus taming dragons, the beasts of the desert paying him homage, an encounter with the two thieves who would be crucified alongside Jesus. In these tales the family was joined by Salome as Jesus' nurse; these stories of the time in Egypt have been important to the Coptic Church, based in Egypt, throughout Egypt there are a number of churches and shrines marking places where the family stayed. The most important of these is the church of Abu Serghis, which claims to be built on the place the family had its home. One of the most extensive and, in Eastern Christianity, influential accounts of the Flight appears in the seventh-century Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew, in which Mary, tired by the heat of the sun, rested beneath a palm tree.
The infant Jesus miraculously has the palm tree bend down to provide Mary with its fruit, release from its roots a spring to provide her with water. The Qur'ān does not include the tradition of the Flight into Egypt, though sūra XXIII, 50 could conceivably allude to it: “And we made the son of Maryam and his mother a sign. However, its account of the birth of Jesus is similar to the account of the Flight in the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew: Mary gives birth leaning against the trunk of a date-palm, which miraculously provides her with dates and a stream, it is therefore thought. Numerous Muslim writers on the life of Jesus did transmit stories about the Flight into Egypt. Prominent examples include Abū Isḥāḳ al-Thaʿlabī, whose ʿArāʾis al-madjālis fī ḳiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ, an account of the lives of the prophets, reports the Flight, followed by a
Book of hours
The book of hours is a Christian devotional book popular in the Middle Ages. It is the most common type of surviving medieval illuminated manuscript. Like every manuscript, each manuscript book of hours is unique in one way or another, but most contain a similar collection of texts and psalms with appropriate decorations, for Christian devotion. Illumination or decoration is minimal in many examples restricted to decorated capital letters at the start of psalms and other prayers, but books made for wealthy patrons may be lavish, with full-page miniatures. Books of hours were written in Latin, although there are many or written in vernacular European languages Dutch; the English term primer is now reserved for those books written in English. Tens of thousands of books of hours have survived to the present day, in libraries and private collections throughout the world; the typical book of hours is an abbreviated form of the breviary which contained the Divine Office recited in monasteries. It was developed for lay people who wished to incorporate elements of monasticism into their devotional life.
Reciting the hours centered upon the reading of a number of psalms and other prayers. A typical example contains the Calendar of Church feasts, extracts from the Four Gospels, the Mass readings for major feasts, the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the fifteen Psalms of Degrees, the seven Penitential Psalms, a Litany of Saints, an Office for the Dead and the Hours of the Cross. Most 15th-century books of hours have these basic contents; the Marian prayers Obsecro te and O Intemerata were added, as were devotions for use at Mass, meditations on the Passion of Christ, among other optional texts. The book of hours has its ultimate origin in the Psalter, which monks and nuns were required to recite. By the 12th century this had developed into the breviary, with weekly cycles of psalms, hymns and readings which changed with the liturgical season. A selection of texts was produced in much shorter volumes and came to be called a book of hours. Many books of hours were made for women. There is some evidence that they were sometimes given as a wedding present from a husband to his bride.
They were passed down through the family, as recorded in wills. Although the most illuminated books of hours were enormously expensive, a small book with little or no illumination was affordable much more and so during the 15th century; the earliest surviving English example was written for a laywoman living in or near Oxford in about 1240. It is smaller than a modern paperback but illuminated with major initials, but no full-page miniatures. By the 15th century, there are examples of servants owning their own Books of Hours. In a court case from 1500, a pauper woman is accused of stealing a domestic servant's prayerbook; the books included prayers composed for their owners, but more the texts are adapted to their tastes or sex, including the inclusion of their names in prayers. Some include images depicting their owners, some their coats of arms. These, together with the choice of saints commemorated in the calendar and suffrages, are the main clues for the identity of the first owner. Eamon Duffy explains.
He claims that the "personal character of these books was signaled by the inclusion of prayers specially composed or adapted for their owners." Furthermore, he states that "as many as half the surviving manuscript Books of Hours have annotations, marginalia or additions of some sort. Such additions might amount to no more than the insertion of some regional or personal patron saint in the standardized calendar, but they include devotional material added by the owner." Owners could write in specific dates important to them, notes on the months where things happened that they wished to remember, the images found within these books would be personalized to the owners- such as localized saints and local festivities. By at least the 15th century, the Netherlands and Paris workshops were producing books of hours for stock or distribution, rather than waiting for individual commissions; these were sometimes with spaces left for the addition of personalized elements such as local feasts or heraldry.
The style and layout for traditional books of hours became standardized around the middle of the thirteenth century. The new style can be seen in the books produced by the Oxford illuminator William de Brailes who ran a commercial workshop, his books included various aspects of the Church's breviary and other liturgical aspects for use by the laity. "He incorporated a perpetual calendar, prayers to the Virgin Mary, the Stations of the Cross, prayers to the Holy Spirit, Penitential psalms, prayers for the dead, suffrages to the Saints. The book’s goal was to help his devout patroness to structure her daily spiritual life in accordance with the eight canonical hours, Matins to Compline, observed by all devout members of the Church; the text, augmented by rubrication, gilding and beautiful illuminations, sought to inspire meditation on the mysteries of faith, the sacrifice made by Christ for man, the horrors of hell, to highlight devotion to the Virgin Mary whose popularity was at a zenith during the 13th century."
This arrangement was maintained over the years as many aristocrats commissioned the production of their own books. By the end of the 15th century, the advent of printing made books more affordable and much of the emerging middle
Alba Iulia is the seat of Alba County in the west-central part of Romania. Located on the Mureș River in the historical region of Transylvania, it has a population of 63,536. Since the High Middle Ages, the city has been the seat of Transylvania's Roman Catholic diocese. Between 1541 and 1690 it was the capital of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom and the latter Principality of Transylvania. At one point it was a center of Eastern Orthodox Metropolitan of Transylvania with suffragan to Vad diocese. Alba Iulia is important for Romanians and Transylvanian Saxons. In December 2018, Alba Iulia was declared Capital of the Great Union of Romania; the city administers four villages: Micești, Oarda and Pâclișa. During the Roman period the settlement was called Apulum; when the settlement – upon Roman ruins – became the seat of a dukedom in the 10th century, the population may have been Slavic. The early Slavic name of the settlement was Bălgrad; the old Romanian name of the town was Bălgrad, originated from Slavic.
The Hungarian name Gyulafehérvár is a translation of the earlier Slavic form, meaning "white castle of the Gyula" or "white city of Julius". Its prefix "Iulia" refers to Gyula, a mid-tenth-century Hungarian warlord, baptized in Constantinople. Among Ruthenians, the city was known as Bilhorod; the city's Latin name in the 10th century was Civitatem Albam in Ereel. The first part of the name "Alba" denotes the ruins of the Roman fort Apulum. In the Middle Ages, different names occurred as Frank episcopus Belleggradienesis in 1071, Albae Civitatis in 1134, Belegrada in 1153, Albensis Ultrasilvanus in 1177, eccl. Micahelis in 1199, Albe Transilvane in 1200, Albe Transsilvane in 1201, castrum Albens in 1206, canonicis Albensibus in 1213, Albensis eccl. Transsylvane in 1219, B. Michaelis arch. Transsilv. in 1231, Alba... Civitas in 1242, Alba sedes eptus in 1245, Alba Jula in 1291, Feyrvar in 1572, Feyérvár in 1574, Weissenburg in 1576, Belugrad in 1579, Gyula Feyervár in 1619, Gyula Fehérvár in 1690, Karlsburg in 1715.
Under the influence of the Hungarian Gyulafehérvár, the town's Latin name became Alba Julia or Alba Yulia. Its modern name Alba Iulia is an adoption of the town's medieval Latin name, it started to spread in Romanian common speech in the 18th century. The modern name has been used since the town became part of Romania; the sixteenth-century German name was Weyssenburg. The Saxons renamed the town to Karlsburg in honor of Charles VI. In Yiddish and Hebrew Karlsburg was prevalent. Alba Carolina was a medieval Latin form of its name; the modern city is located near the site of the important Dacian political and social centre of Apulon, mentioned by the ancient Greek geographer Ptolemy and believed by some archaeologists to be the Dacian fortifications on top of Piatra Craivii. After Dacia became a province of the Roman Empire, the capital of Dacia Apulensis was established here, the city was known as Apulum. Apulum was the seat of the XIII Gemina Legion. Apulum is the largest castrum located in Romania.
The Gesta Hungarorum mentions a Hungarian regent named Jula or Geula—the maternal grandfather of Stephen I of Hungary and lord of Transylvania—who built the capital of his dukedom there during the 10th century. Geula was baptized in the Byzantine Empire and built around 950 in Alba Iulia the first church of Transylvania; the ruins of a church were discovered in 2011. According to Ioan Aurel Pop and other historians, here lived Hierotheos the first bishop of Transylvania, who accompanied Geula back to Hungary after Geula had been baptized in Constantinople around 950. After Stephen I adopted Catholicism, the establishment of the Catholic Transylvanian bishopric, recent archaeological discoveries suggest that the first cathedral was built in the 11th century or before; the present Catholic cathedral was built in the 13th century. In 1442, John Hunyadi, Voivode of Transylvania, used the citadel to prepare for a major battle against the Ottoman Turks; the cathedral was enlarged during his reign and he was entombed there after his death.
In 1541 - after the partition of the Kingdom of Hungary - Alba Iulia became the capital of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom and after the Principality of Transylvania and remained so until 1690. The Treaty of Weissenburg was signed in the town in 1551. During the reign of Prince Gábor Bethlen, the city reached a high point in its cultural history with the establishment of an academy; the former Turkish equivalent was "Erdel Belgradı" where Erdel was added to prevent confusion with Belgrat and Arnavut Belgradı. In November 29, 1599, Michael the Brave, Voivode of Wallachia, entered Alba Iulia following his victory in the Battle of Şelimbăr and became Voivode of Transylvania. In 1600 he gained control of Moldavia, uniting the principalities of Wallachia and Transylvania under his rule, which lasted for a year and a half until he was murdered in 1601, by General Giorgio Basta's agents. Alba Iulia became part of the Habsburg Monarchy in 1690; the fortress Alba Carolina, designed by architect Giovanni Morando Visconti, was built between 1716 and 1735, at th
Uncial is a majuscule script used from the 4th to 8th centuries AD by Latin and Greek scribes. Uncial letters were used to write Greek and Gothic. Early uncial script is to have developed from late Old Roman cursive. Early forms are characterized by broad single stroke letters using simple round forms taking advantage of the new parchment and vellum surfaces, as opposed to the angular, multiple stroke letters, which are more suited for rougher surfaces, such as papyrus. In the oldest examples of uncial, such as the fragment of De bellis macedonicis in the British Library, of the late 1st-early 2nd century, all of the letters are disconnected from one another, word separation is not used. Word separation, however, is characteristic of uncial usage; as the script evolved over the centuries, the characters became more complex. Around AD 600, flourishes and exaggerations of the basic strokes began to appear in more manuscripts. Ascenders and descenders were the first major alterations, followed by twists of the tool in the basic stroke and overlapping.
By the time the more compact minuscule scripts arose circa AD 800, some of the evolved uncial styles formed the basis for these simplified, smaller scripts. Uncial was still used for copies of the Bible, tapering off until around the 10th century. There are over 500 surviving copies of uncial script, by far the largest number prior to the Carolingian Renaissance. In general, there are some common features of uncial script: ⟨f⟩, ⟨i⟩, ⟨p⟩, ⟨s⟩, ⟨t⟩ are narrow. ⟨m⟩, ⟨n⟩ and ⟨u⟩ are broad. ⟨e⟩ is formed with a curved stroke, its arm does not connect with the top curve. ⟨l⟩ has a small base, not extending to the right to connect with the next letter. ⟨r⟩ has a long, curved shoulder ⟨ꞃ⟩ connecting with the next letter. ⟨s⟩ resembles the "long s" ⟨ſ⟩. In uncial scripts, the letters are sometimes drawn haphazardly. Due to its widespread use, in Byzantine, Italian, Spanish, "insular" centres, there were many different styles in use: African uncial is more angular than other forms of uncial. In particular, the bow of the letter ⟨a⟩ is sharp and pointed.
Byzantine uncial has two unique features: "b-d uncial" uses forms of ⟨b⟩ and ⟨d⟩, which are closer to half-uncial, was in use in the 4th and 5th centuries. Italian uncial has round letters with flatter tops, with a sharp bow, an horizontal rather than vertical stem in ⟨d⟩, forked finials. Insular uncial has definite word separation, accent marks over stressed syllables because Irish scribes did not speak a language descended from Latin, they use Insular scribal abbreviations not found in other uncial forms, use wedge-shaped finials, connect a subscript "pendant ⟨i⟩" with ⟨m⟩ or ⟨h⟩, decorate the script with animals and dots. French uncial uses thin descenders, an ⟨x⟩ with lines that cross higher than the middle, a ⟨d⟩ with a curled stem, there are many decorations of fish and birds. Cyrillic manuscript developed from Greek uncial in the late ninth century, was used to write the Old Church Slavonic liturgical language; the earlier form was called ustav, developed into semi-ustav script. There is some doubt about the original meaning of the word.
Uncial itself comes from St. Jerome's preface to the Book of Job, where it is found in the form uncialibus, but it is possible that this is a misreading of inicialibus, Jerome may have been referring to the larger initial letters found at the beginning of paragraphs. Habeant qui volunt veteres libros, vel in membranis purpureis auro argentoque descriptos, vel uncialibus ut vulgo aiunt litteris onera magis exarata quam codices. "Let those who so desire have old books, or books written in gold and silver on purple parchment, or burdens written in uncial letters, as they are popularly called."In classical Latin uncialis could mean both "inch-high" and "weighing an ounce", it is possible that Jerome was punning on this. The term uncial in the sense of describing this script was first used by Jean Mabillon in the early 18th century. Thereafter his definition was refined by Scipione Maffei, who used to refer to this script as distinct from Roman square capitals; the offi
County of Flanders
The County of Flanders was a historic territory in the Low Countries. From 862 onwards the Counts of Flanders were one of the original twelve peers of the Kingdom of France. For centuries their estates around the cities of Ghent and Ypres formed one of the most affluent regions in Europe. Up to 1477, the area under French suzerainty was located west of the Scheldt River and was called "Royal Flanders". Aside from this the Counts of Flanders from the 11th century on held land east of the river as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire, an area called "Imperial Flanders". Part of the Burgundian Netherlands from 1384, the county was removed from French to Imperial control after the Peace of Madrid in 1526 and the Peace of Ladies in 1529. In 1795 the remaining territory within the Austrian Netherlands was incorporated by the French First Republic and passed to the newly established United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815; the former County of Flanders, except for French Flanders, is the only part of the medieval French kingdom, not part of modern-day France.
Flanders and Flemish are derived from the Frisian *flāndra and *flāmisk, the roots of which are Germanic *flaumaz meaning "overflow, flooding". The coastal area of Flanders was flooded twice per day from the 3rd century to the 8th century by the North Sea at the time when the coast was visited by Frisian traders and largely inhabited by Frisians; the Flemish people are first mentioned in the biography of the Vita sancti Eligii. This work was written before 684, but only known since 725; this work mentions the "Flanderenses", who lived in "Flandris." The geography of the historic County of Flanders only overlaps with present-day region of Flanders in Belgium, though there it extends beyond West Flanders and East Flanders. Some of the historic county is now part of France and the Netherlands; the land covered by the county is spread out over: Belgium: two of the five Flemish provinces: West-Flanders and East-Flanders part of the Flemish province of Antwerp: the land of Bornem part of the Walloon province of Hainaut: Tournaisis and the region around Moeskroen France: French Flanders the French westcorner: the region around Dunkirk and Bailleul, an area where Flemish used to be the main language Walloon Flanders, where the Picard language related to French, was spoken.
Artois: removed from Flanders in 1191 and created as independent county in 1237 Netherlands: Zeelandic Flanders, a region between Belgium and the Western Scheldt in the southern part of the modern province of Zeeland, which from 1581 formed part of the Generality Lands under control of the Dutch Republic. The arms of the County of Flanders were created by Philip of Alsace, count of Flanders from 1168 to 1191. In the story about the Battle of the Golden Spurs, the arms and its corresponding battlecry Vlaendr'n den leeuw plays a crucial role in the forming of a Flemish consciousness, popularised in recent times by the book De Leeuw van Vlaanderen by Hendrik Conscience; as a result, the arms of the county live on as arms of the Flemish Community. It is said that Philip of Alsace brought the lion flag with him from the Holy Land, where in 1177 he conquered it from a Saracen knight, but this is a myth; the simple fact that the lion appeared on his personal seal since 1163, when he had not yet set one step in the Levant, disproves it.
In reality Philip was following a West-European trend. In the same period lions appeared in the arms of Brabant, Holland and other territories, it is curious that the lion as a heraldic symbol was used in border territories and neighbouring countries of the Holy Roman Empire. It was in all likelihood a way of showing independence from the emperor, who used an eagle in his personal arms. In Europe the lion had been a well-known figure since Roman times, through works such as the fables of Aesop; the future county of Flanders had been inhabited since prehistory. During the Iron Age the Kemmelberg formed an important Celtic settlement. During the times of Julius Caesar, the inhabitants were part of the Belgae, a collective name for all Celtic and Germanic tribes in the north of Gallia. For Flanders in specific these were the Morini, the Nervii and the Atrebates. Julius Caesar conquered the area around 54 BC and the population was romanised from the 1st to the 3rd century; the Roman road that connected Cologne with Boulogne-sur-Mer was used as a defense perimeter.
In the south the Gallo-Romanic population was able to maintain itself, while the north became a no-mans land that suffered from regular floods from the North Sea. In the coastal and Scheldt areas Saxon tribes appeared. For the Romans, Saxon was a general term, included Angles, Saxons and Erules; the coastal defense around Boulogne and Oudenburg, the Litus Saxonicum, remained functional until about 420. These forts were manned by Saxon soldiers. From their base land Toxandria the Salian Franks further expanded into the Roman empire; the first incursion into the lands of the Atrebates was turned away in 448 at Vicus Helena. But after the murder of the Roman general Flavius Aëtius in 454 and Roman emperor Valentinianus III in 455, the Salic Franks encounterd hardly any resistance. From Duisburg, king Chlodio conquered Cambrai and Tournai, he reached the Somme. After his death two Salic kingdoms
Vellum is prepared animal skin or "membrane" used as a material for writing on. The term is derived from the Latin word vitulinum meaning "made from calf", leading to Old French velin for "calfskin". Parchment is another term for this material category. If vellum is distinguished, it is by vellum being made from calf skin, as opposed to that from other animals, or otherwise being of higher quality. Vellum is prepared as a surface for writing to produce single pages, codices or books. Modern scholars and custodians use only the safe, if confusing, term "membrane". Depending on factors such as the method of preparation it may be hard to determine the animal species involved without using a laboratory, the term avoids the need to distinguish between vellum and parchment. Vellum is smooth and durable, although there are great variations depending on preparation and the quality of the skin; the manufacture involves the cleaning, stretching on a frame, scraping of the skin with a crescent-shaped knife.
To create tension, scraping is alternated with drying. A final finish may be achieved by abrading the surface with pumice, treating with a preparation of lime or chalk to make it accept writing or printing ink. Modern "paper vellum" is made of synthetic plant material, is called such for its usage and quality similarities. Paper vellum is used for a variety of purposes including tracing, technical drawings and blueprints. In Europe, from Roman times, the term "vellum" was used for the best quality of prepared skin, regardless of the animal from which the hide was obtained, calf and goat all being used. Although the term derives from the French for "calf", animal vellum can include hide from any other mammal; the best quality, "uterine vellum", was said to be made from the skins of stillborn or unborn animals, although the term was applied to fine quality skins made from young animals. There has long been, much blurring of the boundaries between these terms. In 1519, William Horman could write in his Vulgaria: "That stouffe that we wrytte upon, is made of beestis skynnes, is somtyme called parchement, somtyme velem, somtyme abortyve, somtyme membraan."
Writing in 1936, Lee Ustick explained that: To-day the distinction, among collectors of manuscripts, is that vellum is a refined form of skin, parchment a cruder form thick, less polished than vellum, but with no distinction between skin of calf, or sheep, or of goat. French sources, closer to the original etymology, tend to define velin as from calf only, while the British Standards Institution defines parchment as made from the split skin of several species, vellum from the unsplit skin. In the usage of modern practitioners of the artistic crafts of writing, illuminating and bookbinding, "vellum" is reserved for calfskin, while any other skin is called "parchment". Vellum is a translucent material produced from the skin split, of a young animal; the skin is washed with water and lime, but not together. It is soaked in lime for several days to soften and remove the hair. Once clear, the two sides of the skin are distinct: the side facing inside the animal and the hair side; the "inside body side" of the skin is the lighter and more refined of the two.
The hair follicles may be visible on the outer side, together with any scarring made while the animal was alive. The membrane can show the pattern of the animal's vein network called the "veining" of the sheet. Any remaining hair is removed and the skin is dried by attaching it to a frame; the skin is attached at points around the circumference with cords. The maker uses a crescent shaped knife, to clean off any remaining hairs. Once the skin is dry, it is cleaned and processed into sheets; the number of sheets extracted from the piece of skin depends on the size of the skin and the given dimensions requested by the order. For example, the average calfskin can provide three and half medium sheets of writing material; this can be doubled when it is folded into two conjoint leaves known as a bifolium. Historians have found evidence of manuscripts where the scribe wrote down the medieval instructions now followed by modern membrane makers; the membrane is rubbed with a round, flat object to ensure that the ink would adhere well.
Once the vellum is prepared, traditionally a quire is formed of a group of several sheets. Raymond Clemens and Timothy Graham point out, in their Introduction to Manuscript Studies, that "the quire was the scribe's basic writing unit throughout the Middle Ages". Guidelines are made on the membrane, they note "'pricking' is the process of making holes in a sheet of parchment in preparation of its ruling. The lines were made by ruling between the prick marks... The process of entering ruled lines on the page to serve as a guide for entering text. Most manuscripts were ruled with horizontal lines that served as the baselines on which the text was entered and with vertical bounding lines that marked the boundaries of the columns". Most of the finer sort of medieval manuscripts, whether illuminated or not, were written on vellum; some Gandharan Buddhist texts were written on vellum, all Sifrei Torah are written on kosher klaf or vellum. A quarter of the 180 copy edition of Johannes Gutenberg's