The Byzantine Empire referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic and military force in Europe. Both the terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed.
Under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin. Thus, although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity; the borders of the empire evolved over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I, the empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries; the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 exhausted the empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, when it lost its richest provinces and Syria, to the Arab caliphate. During the Macedonian dynasty, the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia. The empire recovered during the Komnenian restoration, by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence, its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 ended the Byzantine Empire; the last of the imperial Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Trebizond, would be conquered by the Ottomans eight years in the 1461 Siege of Trebizond. The first use of the term "Byzantine" to label the years of the Roman Empire was in 1557, when the German historian Hieronymus Wolf published his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ, a collection of historical sources.
The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts; the publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, in 1680 of Du Cange's Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of "Byzantine" among French authors, such as Montesquieu. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world; the Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the "Roman Empire", the "Empire of the Romans", "Romania", the "Roman Republic", as "Rhōmais". The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and as late as the 19th century Greeks referred to Modern Greek as Romaiika "Romaic." After 1204 when the Byzantine Empire was confined to its purely Greek provinces the term'Hellenes' was used instead. While the Byzantine Empire had a multi-ethnic character during most of its history and preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions, it became identified by its western and northern contemporaries with its predominant Greek element.
The occasional use of the term "Empire of the Greeks" in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum were used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more straightforwardly seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known as Rûm; the name millet-i Rûm, or "Roman nation," was used by the Ottomans through the 20th century to refer to the former subjects of the Byzantine Empire
Wilhelm Kroll was a German classic philologist. Kroll was born in the town of Frankenstein in the Prussian Province of Silesia. Having studied in Breslau, he obtained his Ph. D. in 1891. Afterwards he worked towards his secondary degree at Breslau university, which he obtained in 1894. In 1899 he moved to the University of Greifswald for a chair in classics. Afterwards he went on to Münster in 1906 and returned to Breslau in 1913, where he was offered the chair of his former colleague Franz Skutsch. After having worked as a Breslau professor für more than 20 years Kroll retired in 1935; as his follower he supported the appointment of Hans Drexler, an active Nazi, prohibited from teaching after World War II. Kroll moved to Berlin in 1937, he sought the anonymity of the big city because of his anti-Nazi reputation. He died in 1939 in Berlin, aged 69. Kroll was an internationally renowned classicist, owing to his research and more, his editorial work on a number of important publications, the biggest of, the Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft.
Kroll directed this encyclopedia from 1906 until his death, combining the work of classical scholars from all over Europe and the United States. An editor of the "Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft" Geschichte der klassischen Philologie. 1908. Verb. Aufl. Vereinig. Wissenschaftl. Verl. Berlin und Leipzig 1919 C. Valerius Catullus. 1922. Aufl. Teubner, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-519-24001-7 Studien zum Verständnis der römischen Literatur. Metzler, Stuttgart 1924 Nachdruck Garland, New York und London 1978, ISBN 0-8240-2972-0 Die Kultur der ciceronischen Zeit. 2 Teile. Dieterich, Leipzig 1933 Nachdruck Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1975, ISBN 3-534-01542-8 Rhetorik, 1937 Vettii Valentis Anthologiarum Libri, Guilelmus Kroll, Berlin, 1908. Matheseos Libri VIII, 2 vols. Ed. W. Kroll, F. Skutsch and K. Ziegler, Stuttgart, 1897-1913. Historia Alexandri Magni, ed. W. Kroll, vol. 1. Weidmann, Berlin, 1926. Cicero August Pauly Wilhelm Siegmund Teuffel Vettius Valens Georg Wissowa Udo W. Scholz: Die Breslauer klassische Philologie und die Realenzyklopädie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft.
In: Jahrbuch der Schlesischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Breslau, Bd. 62–64, S. 311–326, esp. S. 320–322. Peter Wirth: Kroll, Wilhelm. In: Neue deutsche Biographie. Vol. 13, p. 73. Wilhelm Kroll in the German National Library catalogue
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi
The Codex Justinianus is one part of the Corpus Juris Civilis, the codification of Roman law ordered early in the 6th century AD by Justinian I, an Eastern Roman emperor in Constantinople. Two other units, the Digest and the Institutes, were created during his reign; the fourth part, the Novellae Constitutiones, was compiled unofficially after his death but is now thought of as part of the Corpus Juris Civilis. Shortly after Justinian became emperor in 527, he decided. There existed three codices of imperial laws and other individual laws, many of which conflicted or were out of date; the Codex Gregorianus and the Codex Hermogenianus were unofficial compilations. The Codex Theodosianus was an official compilation ordered by Theodosius II. In February 528, Justinian promulgated the Constitutio Hac quae necessario, by, created a ten-man commission to review these earlier compilations as well as individual laws, eliminate everything unnecessary or obsolete, make changes as it saw fit, create a single compilation of imperial laws in force.
The commission was headed by the praetorian prefect, John of Cappadocia and included Tribonian, to head the other Corpus Juris Civilis projects. The commission finished its work in 14 months, the compilation was promulgated in April 529 by the Constitutio Summa. However, this compilation did not eliminate all the conflicts that had arisen over the years in Roman jurisprudence, the constitutions in the Code were to be used alongside the conflicting opinions of ancient jurists. "The citation of the said constitutions of Our Code, with the opinions of the ancient interpreters of the law, will suffice for the disposal of all cases." Justinian attempted to harmonize these conflicting opinions by issuing his "Fifty Decisions" and by passing additional new laws. This meant. Thus, Justinian ordered a new compilation to supersede the first, this Codex was published in 534. No copies of the first edition of the Code have survived. Known as the Codex Repetitae Praelectionis, this second edition of the Code was published on November 16, 534, took effect on December 30.
The Codex consists of twelve books: book 1 concerns ecclesiastical law, sources of law, the duties of higher offices. The Code's structure is based on ancient classifications set out in the edictum perpetuum, as is that of the Digest. In the West, Justinian's Codex was lost, or in many places never present, due to the limited western extent of the Eastern Roman Empire's territories; the Latin version known today was painstakingly restored over many centuries. The only known manuscript that once contained the entire Latin Codex is a Veronese palimpsest of the 6th or 7th century. Within its home in the Eastern Roman Empire, the Code was translated into Greek, which had become the governing language, adapted, in the 9th century as the Basilika, it appears as if the Latin Code was shortened in the Middle Ages into an "Epitome Codex", with inscriptions being dropped and numerous other changes made. Some time in the 8th or 9th century, the last three books of the Code were separated from the others, many other laws in the first nine books, including all of those written in Greek, were dropped.
Complete versions of Justinian's Codex were restored around the end of the 12th century, the humanists of the 16th century added the laws promulgated in Greek. Paul Krüger created the modern, standard version of the Codex in 1877. No English translations were made of the Codex until the 20th century. In 1932, the English translation of the entire Corpus Juris Civilis by Samuel Parsons Scott was published posthumously. Scott used the Kriegel brothers' edition of the CJC rather than that of Theodor Mommsen, Paul Krüger, Rudolf Schöll and Wilhelm Kroll, accepted as the most reliable, his translation was criticized. Reviewing Scott's work, the Roman law scholar W. W. Buckland wrote that Scott "...had at his disposal an adequate latinity and has produced a version written in an English which can be read with pleasure. But much more than, needed, the work cannot be said to satisfy these further requirements." Around the same time that Scott was active, Wyoming Supreme Court Justice Fred H. Blume was translating the Code and Novels, using the standard Mommsen, Krüger, Schöll, Kroll version.
While this was not printed in his lifetime, in 2005 his translation of both the Code and the Novels was published on the Annotated Justinian Code website. A new English translation of the Codex, based on Blume's, was published in October 2016. Tony Honoré, Oxford Classical Dictionary. Edited by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth. 3rd rev. ed. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-19-860641-3. Jolowicz, H. F.. Information on the Justinian Code and its manuscript tradition on the Bibliotheca legum regni Francorum manuscripta website, A database on Carolingian secular law texts
The Dominate or late Roman Empire is the name sometimes given to the "despotic" phase of imperial government, following the earlier period known as the "Principate", in the ancient Roman Empire. This phase is more called the Tetrarchy at least until 313 when the empire was reunited, it may begin with the commencement of the reign of Diocletian in AD 284, following the Third Century Crisis of AD 235–284, to end in the west with the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476, while in the east its end is disputed, as either occurring at the close of the reign of Justinian I or of Heraclius. In form, the Dominate is considered to have been more authoritarian, less collegiate and more bureaucratic than the Principate from which it emerged; the modern term Dominate is derived from the Latin dominus, which translates into English as lord or master. This form of address—traditionally used by slaves to address their masters—was sporadically used in addressing emperors throughout the Principate in the form of excessive flattery when referring to the emperor.
Augustus discouraged the practice, Tiberius in particular is said to have reviled it as sycophancy. Domitian encouraged its use, but none of the emperors used the term in any semi-official capacity until the reign of Aurelian in AD 274, where coins were issued bearing the inscription deus et dominus natus. However, it was only under Diocletian that the term was adopted as part of the emperor's official titulature, forming part of Diocletian's radical reforms that transformed the Principate into the Dominate; the Dominate system of government emerged as a response to the 50 years of chaos, referred to as the Crisis of the Third Century. The stresses and strains of those years exposed the weaknesses in the Roman state under the Principate, saw a gradual movement from the collegiate model of government that existed prior to AD 235 to a more formally autocratic version that begins after AD 285. In broad terms, it saw the gradual exclusion of the senatorial elite from high military commands and the parallel elevation of the equestrian orders, the reorganisation of the armed forces and the creation of mobile field armies, changes in imperial dress and ceremonial displays, a religious policy aiming at religious unity, large scale monetary reforms, the creation of an empire-wide civil bureaucracy.
Although Diocletian is thought of as creator of the Dominate, its origins lie in the innovations of earlier emperors, principally those undertaken by Aurelian some stretching back to the reign of Gallienus. Not all the changes that produced the'Dominate' were completed by the time of Diocletian's abdication in AD 305. Just as the Principate emerged over the period 31 BC through to 14 AD, it is only by AD 337 that the reforms that resulted in the Dominate were complete. In the opinion of the historian John Bagnall Bury, the system of government, "constructed with the most careful attention to details, was a solution of the formidable problem of holding together a huge heterogeneous empire, threatened with dissolution and bankruptcy, an empire, far from being geographically compact and had four long, as well as several smaller, frontiers to defend. To govern a large state by two independent but similar machines, controlled not from one centre but from two foci, without sacrificing its unity was an interesting and new experiment.
These bureaucratic machines worked moderately well, their success might have been extraordinary if the monarchs who directed them had always been men of superior ability. Blots of course and defects there were in the fields of economy and finance; the political creation of the Illyrian Emperors was not unworthy of the genius of Rome." Under the Principate, the position of emperor saw the concentration of various civil and military offices within a single magistracy. Augustus and his successors took great care to disguise the autocratic nature of the office by hiding behind the institutions of the Roman Republic and the fiction that the emperor was the princeps or first citizen, whose authority was granted by the Senate; this role was always filled by a single individual, the date that the Potestas tribunicia was conferred onto that person was the point when imperial authority could be exercised. Over the course of the Principate, it became common for the emperor to nominate an heir, but the caesar did not have access to the powers of the emperor, nor was he delegated any official authority.
It was during the Crisis of the Third Century that the traditional imperial approach of a single imperial magistrate based at Rome became unable to cope with multiple and simultaneous invasions and usurpations that required the emperor to be everywhere at once. Further, it was their absence which caused usurpations to occur in response to a local or provincial crisis that traditionally would have been dealt with by the emperor. Under the Dominate, the burden of the imperial position was shared between colleagues, referred to as the Consortium imperii, it was Diocletian who introduced this form of government, under a system called the Tetrarchy, which consisted of two co-emperors and two subordinate junior emperors, each of whom shared in the imperial power. This original power sharing model lasted from AD 289 through to AD 324, being undone during the Civil wars of the Tetrarchy. With Constantine I’s death in AD 337, the empire was again shared between multiple augusti, l
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables, to the Corpus Juris Civilis ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most used legal system today, the terms are sometimes used synonymously; the historical importance of Roman law is reflected by the continued use of Latin legal terminology in many legal systems influenced by it, including common law. After the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire, the Roman law remained in effect in the Eastern Roman Empire. From the 7th century onward, the legal language in the East was Greek. Roman law denoted the legal system applied in most of Western Europe until the end of the 18th century. In Germany, Roman law practice remained in place longer under the Holy Roman Empire. Roman law thus served as a basis for legal practice throughout Western continental Europe, as well as in most former colonies of these European nations, including Latin America, in Ethiopia.
English and Anglo-American common law were influenced by Roman law, notably in their Latinate legal glossary. Eastern Europe was influenced by the jurisprudence of the Corpus Juris Civilis in countries such as medieval Romania which created a new system, a mixture of Roman and local law. Eastern European law was influenced by the "Farmer's Law" of the medieval Byzantine legal system. Before the Twelve Tables, private law comprised the Roman civil law that applied only to Roman citizens, was bonded to religion; the jurist Sextus Pomponius said, "At the beginning of our city, the people began their first activities without any fixed law, without any fixed rights: all things were ruled despotically, by kings". It is believed that Roman Law is rooted in the Etruscan religion; the first legal text is the Law of the Twelve Tables, dating from the mid-5th century BC. The plebeian tribune, C. Terentilius Arsa, proposed that the law should be written, in order to prevent magistrates from applying the law arbitrarily.
After eight years of political struggle, the plebeian social class convinced the patricians to send a delegation to Athens, to copy the Laws of Solon. In 451 BC, according to the traditional story, ten Roman citizens were chosen to record the laws. While they were performing this task, they were given supreme political power, whereas the power of the magistrates was restricted. In 450 BC, the decemviri produced the laws on ten tablets, but these laws were regarded as unsatisfactory by the plebeians. A second decemvirate is said to have added two further tablets in 449 BC; the new Law of the Twelve Tables was approved by the people's assembly. Modern scholars tend to challenge the accuracy of Roman historians, they do not believe that a second decemvirate took place. The decemvirate of 451 is believed to have included the most controversial points of customary law, to have assumed the leading functions in Rome. Furthermore, the question on the Greek influence found in the early Roman Law is still much discussed.
Many scholars consider it unlikely that the patricians sent an official delegation to Greece, as the Roman historians believed. Instead, those scholars suggest, the Romans acquired Greek legislations from the Greek cities of Magna Graecia, the main portal between the Roman and Greek worlds; the original text of the Twelve Tables has not been preserved. The tablets were destroyed when Rome was conquered and burned by the Gauls in 387 BC; the fragments which did survive show. It did not provide a complete and coherent system of all applicable rules or give legal solutions for all possible cases. Rather, the tables contained specific provisions designed to change the then-existing customary law. Although the provisions pertain to all areas of law, the largest part is dedicated to private law and civil procedure. Many laws include Lex Canuleia, Leges Licinae Sextiae, Lex Ogulnia, Lex Hortensia. Another important statute from the Republican era is the Lex Aquilia of 286 BC, which may be regarded as the root of modern tort law.
However, Rome's most important contribution to European legal culture was not the enactment of well-drafted statutes, but the emergence of a class of professional jurists and of a legal science. This was achieved in a gradual process of applying the scientific methods of Greek philosophy to the subject of law, a subject which the Greeks themselves never treated as a science. Traditionally, the origins of Roman legal science are connected to Gnaeus Flavius. Flavius is said to have published around the year 300 BC the formularies containing the words which had to be spoken in court to begin a legal action. Before the time of Flavius, these formularies are said to have been secret and known only to the priests, their publication made it possible for non-priests to explore the mea
Félix Gaffiot was a French philologist and teacher. He was the author of the renowned 1934 work Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, referred to as the Gaffiot. Félix Gaffiot was born in the Loue valley, he was the son of a town clerk. Fatherless by the age of thirteen, he was able to attend secondary school in Pontarlier thanks to a municipal scholarship. Having attained a Bachelor of Science and Letters, he was reluctant to prepare for the entrance examination to the École Polytechnique, undertook an arts degree, he obtained his first teaching position at Pont-à-Mousson, all the while preparing for the agrégation. He taught for twelve years in the Massif Central at Le Puy-en-Velay and Clermont-Ferrand, he studied the rules of Latin grammar, which he considered "absolute and conventional". These led in 1906 to his doctoral thesis on Latin-language acquisition. Gaffiot developed his pedagogical theories in his 1910 work Méthode de langue latine, his work was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I in 1914 and his subsequent mobilisation as an auxiliary medical officer in the Forest of Argonne.
Thereafter, Gaffiot focused on his studies at a school of the fine arts. Following disputes with his colleagues, Gaffiot left the Sorbonne in 1927 though he was about to be granted tenure, he was subsequently appointed Dean of the Faculty of Letters on 19 July 1933. He retired from the University in October 1937. Gaffiot died in November 1937 — less than a month after the official date of his retirement — following a car crash on 31 October near Mouchard, he left a legacy as a exacting humanistic teacher. There is a college in Quingey, named for him. In 1923, the publisher Hachette entrusted Félix Gaffiot with the task of compiling a Latin–French dictionary, soon eponymised Le Gaffiot. After writing thousands of index cards, Gaffiot at last saw his work appear in 1934; the dictionary stands out on account of its illustrations and the clearness of its typography and, since it first appeared, has been reprinted, in both complete and abridged editions. A new, modernised edition of the complete dictionary being published in November 2000.
Félix Gaffiot, latiniste et épicurien at Vousnousils.fr