Codex Regius (New Testament)

Codex Regius designated by siglum Le or 019, ε 56, is a Greek uncial manuscript of the New Testament, dated paleographically to the 8th century. The manuscript is lacunose, it has marginalia. The codex contains 257 thick parchment leaves, with an complete text of the four Gospels; the codex contains five lacunae. The text is written in two columns per 25 lines per page, in large, not round uncial letters, it has breathings, accents added wrongly. It is carelessly written by an ignorant scribe; the letter phi is enormously large, the letter alpha presents the last stage of the uncial script. The text is divided according to the κεφαλαια, whose numbers are given at the margin, their τιτλοι at the top of the pages, it contains the tables of the κεφαλαια before each Gospel. There is another division according to the Ammonian sections, with references to the Eusebian Canons at the margin, it contains lectionary markings at the margin. It was badly written by the scribe, more Egyptian than Greek, with a tendency for writing Coptic rather than Greek.

It has two endings to the Gospel of Mark. OmissionsMatthew 12:47 omitted. Mark 7: 16, it contains Luke 22:43-44 omitted by other Alexandrian witnesses. Matthew 20:23 και το βαπτισμα ο εγω βαπτιζομαι βαπτισθησεσθε, as in codices Sinaiticus, B, D, Z, Θ, 085, f1, f13, it, syrs, c, copsa. Luke 9:55b-56a — καὶ εἶπεν, Οὑκ οἴδατε οἵου πνεύματος ἑστε ὐμεῖς. Omission is supported by the manuscripts: P 75, Sinaiticus, B, f1, 700, vg, copsa, bo, arm geo. AdditionsIn Matthew 10:12 it reads λεγοντες ειρηνη τω οικω τουτω instead of αυτην; the reading is used by manuscripts: Sinaiticus*,2, Washingtonianus, Koridethi, f 1 1010, it vgcl. In Matt. 27:49 codex contains added text: ἄλλος δὲ λαβὼν λόγχην ἒνυξεν αὐτοῦ τὴν πλευράν, καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ὖδορ καὶ αἳμα. This reading was derived from John 19:34 and occurs in other manuscripts of the Alexandrian text-type. In John 20:31 it reads ζωην αιωνιον along with א C D Ψ 0100 f13 it vgmss h copsa, copbo; the Greek text of this codex is representative of the Alexandrian text-type in its late stadium.

It contains a large number of Byzantine readings in the Gospel of Matthew. Aland placed it in Category II. According to Wisse, who examined Luke 1, it is the fourth-best manuscript of the Gospels, inferior only to P75, Codex Vaticanus, Codex Sinaiticus. It is much closer to Vaticanus than to Sinaiticus. In some cases it supports Sinaiticus and Vaticanus against all of the rest of manuscripts. In Matt 23:38 word ερημος omitted like in B and ℓ 184. In Matt 19:29 instead εκατονπλασιονα it has πολλαπλασιονα like in codices B and 1010. In Matthew 19:16 it reads διδασκαλε along with manuscripts: א, B, D, f1, 892txt, 1010, 1365, ℓ 5, ita, d, e, ff1, eth, Origen, Hilary. In Luke 4:17 it has textual variant καὶ ἀνοίξας τὸ βιβλίον together with the manuscripts A, B, W, Ξ, 33, 892, 1195, 1241, ℓ 547, syrs, h, copsa, bo, against variant καὶ ἀναπτύξας τὸ βιβλίον supported by א, Dc, K, Δ, Θ, Π, Ψ, f1, f13, 28, 565, 700, 1009, 1010 and many other manuscripts. In Luke 14:5 it reads ὄνος ἢ βοῦς for υἱὸς ἢ βοῦς, it was written in Egypt.

The text of the codex was cited by Robert Estienne as η' in his Editio Regia. It was loosely collated by Wettstein. Griesbach set a high value on the codex, it was with errors. The codex is located now in Paris. List of New Testament uncials Textual criticism Constantin von Tischendorf, Monumenta sacra inedita, pp. 15–24, 57-399. Henri Omont, Fac-similés des plus anciens manuscrits grecs de la Bibliothèque nationale du IVe et XIIIe siecle. Codex Regius L: at the Encyclopedia of Textual Criticism Agreement L/019 with B/03, D/05, Θ/038 and majority in the Gospel of Matthew Grec 62: Codex Regius online at the Bibliothèque nationale de France


Aviation or air transport are the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. Aircraft includes fixed-wing and rotary-wing types, morphable wings, wing-less lifting bodies, as well as lighter-than-air craft such as hot air balloons and airships. Aviation began in the 18th century with the development of the hot air balloon, an apparatus capable of atmospheric displacement through buoyancy; some of the most significant advancements in aviation technology came with the controlled gliding flying of Otto Lilienthal in 1896. Since that time, aviation has been technologically revolutionized by the introduction of the jet which permitted a major form of transport throughout the world; the word aviation was coined by the French writer and former naval officer Gabriel La Landelle in 1863. He derived the term from the verb avier, itself derived from the Latin word avis and the suffix -ation. There are early legends of human flight such as the stories of Icarus in Greek myth and Shah Kay Kāvus in Persian myth, the flying automaton of Archytas of Tarentum.

Somewhat more credible claims of short-distance human flights appear, such as the winged flights of Abbas ibn Firnas, Eilmer of Malmesbury, the hot-air Passarola of Bartholomeu Lourenço de Gusmão. The modern age of aviation began with the first untethered human lighter-than-air flight on November 21, 1783, of a hot air balloon designed by the Montgolfier brothers; the practicality of balloons was limited. It was recognized that a steerable, or dirigible, balloon was required. Jean-Pierre Blanchard flew the first human-powered dirigible in 1784 and crossed the English Channel in one in 1785. Rigid airships became the first aircraft to transport passengers and cargo over great distances; the best known aircraft of this type were manufactured by the German Zeppelin company. The most successful Zeppelin was the Graf Zeppelin, it flew over one million miles, including an around-the-world flight in August 1929. However, the dominance of the Zeppelins over the airplanes of that period, which had a range of only a few hundred miles, was diminishing as airplane design advanced.

The "Golden Age" of the airships ended on May 6, 1937 when the Hindenburg caught fire, killing 36 people. The cause of the Hindenburg accident was blamed on the use of hydrogen instead of helium as the lift gas. An internal investigation by the manufacturer revealed that the coating used in the material covering the frame was flammable and allowed static electricity to build up in the airship. Changes to the coating formulation reduced the risk of further Hindenburg type accidents. Although there have been periodic initiatives to revive their use, airships have seen only niche application since that time. In 1799, Sir George Cayley set forth the concept of the modern airplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift and control. Early dirigible developments included machine-powered propulsion, rigid frames and improved speed and maneuverability There are many competing claims for the earliest powered, heavier-than-air flight; the first recorded powered flight was carried out by Clément Ader on October 9, 1890 in his bat-winged self-propelled fixed-wing aircraft, the Ader Éole.

It was the first manned, heavier-than-air flight of a significant distance but insignificant altitude from level ground. Seven years on 14 October 1897, Ader's Avion III was tested without success in front of two officials from the French War ministry; the report on the trials was not publicized until 1910. In November 1906, Ader claimed to have made a successful flight on 14 October 1897, achieving an "uninterrupted flight" of around 300 metres. Although believed at the time, these claims were discredited; the Wright brothers made the first successful powered and sustained airplane flight on December 17, 1903, a feat made possible by their invention of three-axis control. Only a decade at the start of World War I, heavier-than-air powered aircraft had become practical for reconnaissance, artillery spotting, attacks against ground positions. Aircraft began to transport people and cargo as designs grew more reliable; the Wright brothers took aloft the first passenger, Charles Furnas, one of their mechanics, on May 14, 1908.

During the 1920s and 1930s great progress was made in the field of aviation, including the first transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown in 1919, Charles Lindbergh's solo transatlantic flight in 1927, Charles Kingsford Smith's transpacific flight the following year. One of the most successful designs of this period was the Douglas DC-3, which became the first airliner to be profitable carrying passengers starting the modern era of passenger airline service. By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, there were numerous qualified pilots available; the war brought many innovations to aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fueled rockets. After World War II in North America, there was a boom in general aviation, both private and commercial, as thousands of pilots were released from military service and many inexpensive war-surplus transport and training aircraft became available. Manufacturers such as Cessna and Beechcraft expanded production to provide light aircraft for the new middle-class market.


Ted Taylor (singer)

Theodore Taylor was an American R&B and soul singer. Taylor was born in Okmulgee and moved to California in 1952, he became a member of the Mighty Clouds of Joy gospel group, before joining the Santa Monica Soul Seekers as a tenor singer. In 1955, the Soul Seekers approached Maxwell Davis at Modern Records for a recording deal, he persuaded them to concentrate on secular R&B music; the same group recorded as both The Cadets on Modern and The Jacks on the subsidiary RPM label. Taylor sang lead vocals on The Cadets' "Do You Wanna Rock" and "I Cry" and on The Jacks' "Away" and "My Darling." He did not appear on The Cadets' biggest hit, "Stranded In The Jungle" in 1955. Taylor left the group, recorded two singles on Melatone Records in 1957 with the Bob Reed orchestra on which he was credited for contractual reasons as "Ivory Lucky". Over the next seven years, he recorded singles for a succession of labels including Ebb, Top Rank International, Warwick, Gold Eagle and Apt, he was influenced by such singers as Clyde McPhatter and Jackie Wilson.

At Duke, he made the first recording of the ballad "Be Ever Wonderful" in 1959. Although he had several regional hits, released an album, Ted Taylor Sings, on Warwick in 1963, he did not achieve national commercial success until his 1965 recording on Okeh Records of "Stay Away From My Baby" reached number 14 on the Billboard R&B chart and number 99 on the pop chart, his only national pop chart entry, he released three albums on Okeh, Be Ever Wonderful, Blues & Soul and Ted Taylor's Greatest Hits. After further singles on Okeh, Epic and Jewel, Taylor signed for the Ronn label in 1967, he remained on the label for seven years, had several further R&B chart hits including "It's Too Late", "Something Strange is Going On in My House", "How's Your Love Life Baby". He issued several albums, including You Can Dig It! and Taylor Made on Ronn. His final chart hit, "Steal Away", was issued on the Alarm label of Shreveport, Louisiana in 1976, he continued to record on his own SPG labels until his death. Taylor died in a car crash in Lake Charles, Louisiana in 1987, aged 53.

Ted Taylor Sings Be Ever So Wonderful Blues and Soul Greatest Hits Shades of Blue You Can Dig It! Taylor Made The Super Taylors Ted Taylor Keeping My Head Above Water Keep Walking On Be Ever So Wonderful Taylor Made For You Somebody’s Always Trying